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Inflammatory bowel diseases: time of diagnosis, environmental factors, clinical course, and management — a follow-up study in a private inflammatory bowel disease center — Medical school teaching on interprofessional relationships between primary and social care to enhance communication and integration of care — a pilot study. Drug-use patterns and severe adverse events with disease-modifying drugs in patients with multiple sclerosis: a cohort study based on German claims data.

Mixed micelles loaded with the 5-benzylidenethiazolidine-2,4-dione derivative SKLB for efficient treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Novel role of NLRP3-inflammasome in regulation of lipogenesis in fasting-induced hepatic steatosis. Efficacy and safety of delafloxacin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Use of lidocaine to prevent postoperative coughing after partial laryngectomy: comparison of three delivery methods. The negative and detrimental effects of high fructose on the liver, with special reference to metabolic disorders. Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine , A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of collaborative practice between community pharmacist and general practitioner on asthma management.

Synthesis, comparative docking, and pharmacological activity of naproxen amino acid derivatives as possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. A brief review of cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine. Sustained delivery of a camptothecin prodrug — CZ48 by nanosuspensions with improved pharmacokinetics and enhanced anticancer activity. Ultrasound-sensitizing nanoparticle complex for overcoming the blood-brain barrier: an effective drug delivery system. High prevalence of genetic determined familial hypercholesterolemia in premature coronary artery disease.

Distinguishing truly recalcitrant prurigo nodularis from poor treatment adherence: a response to treatment-resistant prurigo nodularis [Response to letter]. The evaluation of the synergistic antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of AamAP1-Lysine with conventional antibiotics against representative resistant strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Next-generation-sequencing technology used for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis in renal cyst fluid: a case report. A novel preoperative plasma indicator to predict prognoses for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after radical esophagectomy: fibrinogen-to-lymphocyte ratio. Trastuzumab treatment after progression in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer following relapse of trastuzumab-based regimens: a meta-analysis. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of tramadol and O -desmethyltramadol with genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6.

Prolonged retention of liposomes in the pleural cavity of normal mice and high tumor distribution in mice with malignant pleural effusion, after intrapleural injection. CPX a nanoscale liposomal co-formulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine with unique biodistribution and tumor cell uptake properties. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine , Vascular Health and Risk Management , Pharmacist-led medication non-adherence intervention: reducing the economic burden placed on the Australian health care system. A nurse-based intervention for improving medication adherence in cardiovascular patients: an evaluation of a randomized controlled trial.

Evaluating the efficacy of short duration Mitomycin C in safe surgery system trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery. Efficacy of a recombinant single-chain fragment variable region, VasSF, as a new drug for vasculitis [Corrigendum]. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis [Corrigendum]. New horizons for the treatment of severe, eosinophilic asthma: benralizumab, a novel precision biologic.

Biologics: Targets and Therapy , Research and Reviews in Parkinsonism , Vascular cognitive impairment: pathophysiological mechanisms, insights into structural basis, and perspectives in specific treatments. Synthesis and preliminary characterization of polyurethane nanoparticles with ginger extract as a possible cardiovascular protector.

Patterns of drug treatment in patients with osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain in Japan: a retrospective database study. Metabolic profile and structure—activity relationship of resveratrol and its analogs in human bladder cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor-1, metabolic abnormalities, and pathological complete remission rate in HER2-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy.

Slow speed resistance exercise training in children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews , Artificial microenvironment of in vitro glioblastoma cell cultures changes profile of miRNAs related to tumor drug resistance. Bioequivalence of paclitaxel protein-bound particles in patients with breast cancer: determining total and unbound paclitaxel in plasma by rapid equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry.

Modified methods of nanoparticles synthesis in pH-sensitive nano-carriers production for doxorubicin delivery on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Current insights of inspiratory muscle training on the cardiovascular system: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Integrated Blood Pressure Control , Self-medication of antibiotics: investigating practice among university students at the Malaysian National Defence University. Cardiac dysautonomia in depression — heart rate variability biofeedback as a potential add-on therapy.

Astragalus alters gut-microbiota composition in type 2 diabetes mice: clues to its pharmacology. The effect of midazolam administration for the prevention of emergence agitation in pediatric patients with extreme fear and non-cooperation undergoing dental treatment under sevoflurane anesthesia, a double-blind, randomized study. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients: a pilot study. A nano-sized blending system comprising identical triblock copolymers with different hydrophobicity for fabrication of an anticancer drug nanovehicle with high stability and solubilizing capacity.

A theory-driven qualitative study exploring issues relating to adherence to topical glaucoma medications. Integration of PEG into a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system improves drug loading capacity and nasal mucosa permeability and prolongs the survival of rats with malignant brain tumors. Himalayan honey loaded iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and study of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Increased risk of day and 1-year infection-related mortality and complications in haploidentical stem cell transplantation.

Journal of Blood Medicine , The efficacy and safety of ceftaroline in the treatment of acute bacterial infection in pediatric patients — a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Successful management of Mycobacterium abscessus complex lung disease in an otherwise healthy infant. Quick synthesis of a novel combinatorial delivery system of siRNA and doxorubicin for a synergistic anticancer effect. Profile of pembrolizumab in the treatment of patients with unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

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Identification and validation of an individualized autophagy-clinical prognostic index in bladder cancer patients. Elevated nuclear YBX1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis. Efficacy and tolerability of a biomineral formulation for treatment of onychoschizia: a randomized trial. Corneal subbasal nerve plexus changes in patients with episodic migraine: an in vivo confocal microscopy study. A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the originator follitropin alpha compared to the biosimilars for assisted reproduction in Germany.

NLRP3 inflammasome-activating arginine-based liposomes promote antigen presentations in dendritic cells. Pharmacokinetics of fixed-dose combination of atorvastatin and metformin compared with individual tablets. Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications , Open Access Journal of Contraception , Formulation and evaluation of simvastatin polymeric nanoparticles loaded in hydrogel for optimum wound healing purpose. Extending the application of a magnetic PEG three-part drug release device on a graphene substrate for the removal of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and cancerous and pathologic cells.

Antimicrobial susceptibility among S treptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected globally between and as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial TEST. Genetic variation in metronidazole metabolism and oxidative stress pathways in clinical Giardia lamblia assemblage A and B isolates. Antiretroviral drug resistance mutations among patients failing first-line treatment in Hanoi, Vietnam. Biotemplate of egg white albumen for synthesized iron oxide quantum dots nanoparticles QDNPs and investigation of antibacterial effect against pathogenic microbial strains.

Fabrication and characterization of a titanium dioxide TiO2 nanoparticles reinforced bio-nanocomposite containing Miswak Salvadora persica L. Divergence in perceptions of diabetes control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with basal insulin and health care professionals: results from the US Perceptions of Control POC-US study.

Health care professionals dealing with hemophilia: insights from the international qualitative study of the HERO initiative. Protective effects of five compounds from Livistona chinensis R. Fabrication of cRGD-modified reduction-sensitive nanocapsule via Pickering emulsion route to facilitate tumor-targeted delivery. Research on central sensitization of endometriosis-associated pain: a systematic review of the literature.

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains simultaneously isolated from humans, animals, food, and the environment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medical Devices: Evidence and Research , Spotlight on anifrolumab and its potential for the treatment of moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence to date. Chronic stress increases susceptibility to food addiction by increasing the levels of DR2 and MOR in the nucleus accumbens. The relationship between frailty syndrome and quality of life in older patients following acute coronary syndrome. Investigation of the prevalence of genes conferring resistance to carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn patients.

Antibiotic resistance and heavy metal tolerance plasmids: the antimicrobial bulletproof properties of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from poultry. Emergence of multidrug resistance and extensive drug resistance among enterococcal clinical isolates in Egypt. A novel LARCassigner3 classification predicts outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a retrospective training and validation analysis.

An evaluation of the effectiveness of acupuncture with seven acupoint-penetrating needles on cervical spondylosis. Glibenclamide alleviates inflammation in oleic acid model of acute lung injury through NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. The safety and serious adverse events of approved ALK inhibitors in malignancies: a meta-analysis. Evaluation of discriminative capacity of two formulas of CKD-EPI to predict complications after the first episode of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease , Hybrid curcumin—phospholipid complex-near-infrared dye oral drug delivery system to inhibit lung metastasis of breast cancer. The relationship between psychological states and health perception in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. Fabrication of KR peptide-containing hyaluronic acid immobilized fibrous eggshell membrane effectively kills multi-drug-resistant bacteria, promotes angiogenesis and accelerates re-epithelialization. Effects of sub-inhibitory concentrations of meropenem and tigecycline on the expression of genes regulating pili, efflux pumps and virulence factors involved in biofilm formation by Acinetobacter baumannii.

Evaluation of macular pigment optical density following femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Cationic polymer modified PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating Alhagi honey polysaccharides as a vaccine delivery system for ovalbumin to improve immune responses. Exploring the gaps between education and pharmacy practice on antimicrobial stewardship: a qualitative study among pharmacists in Qatar.

Evaluation of efflux pump activity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from poultry wet markets in India. Dabigatran must be used carefully: literature review and recommendations for management of adverse events. In silico and in vitro studies of lupeol and iso-orientin as potential antidiabetic agents in a rat model. Impact of assessment of bone status before corrective surgery of lumbar spine in patients over 50 years old. The impact of increased post-progression survival on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in oncology.

Safety evaluation and cardiovascular effect of additional use of spironolactone in hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis. Effects of transection of cervical sympathetic trunk on cognitive function of traumatic brain injury rats. Nature and Science of Sleep , Effectiveness of pregabalin for treatment of chronic cervical radiculopathy with upper limb radiating pain: an 8-week, multicenter prospective observational study in Japanese primary care settings. Efficacy and safety of bromfenac 0.

Development and validation of a nomogram to predict liver metastasis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a large cohort study. Drug-free mannosylated liposomes inhibit tumor growth by promoting the polarization of tumor-associated macrophages. Improved indoor lighting improved healthy aging at home — an intervention study in year-old Norwegians. Evaluating tofacitinib citrate in the treatment of moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis: design, development and positioning of therapy.

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Single-dose Ag85B-ESAT-6 loaded—poly lactic- co -glycolic acid nanoparticles confer protective immunity against tuberculosis. Role of nurses and nurse practitioners in the recognition, diagnosis, and management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: a narrative review. Monoclonal antibody therapy of solid tumors: clinical limitations and novel strategies to enhance treatment efficacy. Enhanced transdermal permeability and drug deposition of rheumatoid arthritis via sinomenine hydrochloride-loaded antioxidant surface transethosome. Metabonomics reveals peripheral and central short-chain fatty acid and amino acid dysfunction in a naturally occurring depressive model of macaques.

Phospholipid complex based nanoemulsion system for oral insulin delivery: preparation, in vitro, and in vivo evaluations. Total knee arthroplasty associated with tibial tubercle and simultaneous femoral and tibial osteotomies for severe extra-articular deformity: a case report. Clinical Optometry , The modern perspective for long-acting injectables antipsychotics in the patient-centered care of schizophrenia. A new predictor is comparable to the updated nomogram in predicting the intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer but outperforms nomogram in reducing the overtreatment for the low-risk Pca.

A new biosensor detection system to overcome the Debye screening effect: dialysis-silicon nanowire field effect transistor. Fruit and vegetable contamination with medically important helminths and protozoans in Tarcha town, Dawuro zone, South West Ethiopia.

The effect of spinal cord stimulation on pain medication reduction in intractable spine and limb pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Antibacterial and osteogenesis performances of LLloaded titania nanopores in vitro and in vivo. Synthesis of a vanadyl IV folate complex for the treatment of diabetes: spectroscopic, structural, and biological characterization. The impact of short message services and personal consultation by pharmacy students on medication adherence and blood pressure control: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

Crossover safety study of aprepitant: 2-min injection vs min infusion in cancer patients receiving emetogenic chemotherapy. Multiphoton microscopy in the diagnostic assessment of pediatric solid tissue in comparison to conventional histopathology: results of the first international online interobserver trial.

Highly sensitive electron paramagnetic resonance nanoradicals for quantitative intracellular tumor oxymetric images. Validity of the GOLD classification in the prediction of mortality and respiratory hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Survival associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among SEER-Medicare beneficiaries with non-small-cell lung cancer. Baseline platelet counts and derived inflammatory biomarkers: prognostic relevance in metastatic melanoma patients receiving Endostar plus dacarbazine and cisplatin.

Topical loperamide for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain: a case report and literature review. Evaluating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus subtypes in childhood cancer survivors: a systematic review protocol. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , The association between United States Medical Licensing Examination scores and clinical performance in medical students. The efficacy and safety of apatinib in metastatic alveolar soft part sarcoma: a case series of six patients in one institution.

Core Evidence , Circulatory pattern of cytokines, adipokines and bone markers in postmenopausal women with low BMD. Comparison of clinical effects of two latanoprost 0. Best cut-off point of the cervical facet joint area as a new morphological measurement tool to predict cervical foraminal stenosis. Pulmonary delivery of transferrin receptors targeting peptide surface-functionalized liposomes augments the chemotherapeutic effect of quercetin in lung cancer therapy.

Clinical effectiveness of quercetin supplementation in the management of weight loss: a pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Frequency of nonaspirin NSAID-relevant coexisting medical conditions in the primary-care setting: a retrospective database review. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , Guillain—Barre syndrome as the first manifestation of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report. Depressive symptoms in pregnant women with high trait and state anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum.

Profile of lenvatinib in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: design, development, potential place in therapy and network meta-analysis of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in all Phase III trials. Association study of the excitatory amino acid transporter 2 EAAT2 and glycine transporter 1 GlyT1 gene polymorphism with schizophrenia in a Polish population. Time-dependent degradation of carbon nanotubes correlates with decreased reactive oxygen species generation in macrophages.

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Delivering amoxicillin at the infection site — a rational design through lipid nanoparticles. Targeted lipid nanoparticle delivery of calcitriol to human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro and in vivo: investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of calcitriol. Comparative study of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation among Gram-positive uropathogens isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Treating advanced breast cancer with metronomic chemotherapy: what is known, what is new and what is the future?

Local and systemic delivery of mRNA encoding survivin-T34A by lipoplex for efficient colon cancer gene therapy. Evaluation of in vivo antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and in vitro antioxidant activities of hydromethanolic root extract of Datura stramonium L. Plumbagin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by downregulating the expression of SIVA. Safety and sedative effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine in mandibular third molar surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The role of visfatin in cancer proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, drug resistance and clinical prognosis.

Outcomes of treatment with sirolimus for non-infectious uveitis: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Pan-drug-resistant and biofilm-producing strain of Burkholderia pseudomallei : first report of melioidosis from a diabetic patient in Yogyakarta, Indonesia [Letter]. Anti-tumor efficacy of folate modified PLGA-based nanoparticles for the co-delivery of drugs in ovarian cancer. Candida isolates causing refractory or recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis in 11 hospitals in China. The influence of non-breathing-related sleep fragmentation on cognitive function in patients with cerebral small vessel disease.

A high absolute lymphocyte count predicts a poor prognosis in HER positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab. Comparison of the short-term outcomes after low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation coblation in the Gasserian ganglion for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. The beneficial effects of metformin on cancer prevention and therapy: a comprehensive review of recent advances.

Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses after successful curative therapy: a case report and literature review. Achieving comprehensive remission or low disease activity in rheumatoid patients and its impact on workability — Saudi Rheumatoid Arthritis Registry. Determining the needs of ophthalmic trainees entering into specialist training and how they can be met. In vitro comparative quality assessment of different brands of norfloxacin tablets available in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

Cost-effectiveness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide FeNO measurement in predicting response to omalizumab in asthma. HTA and innovative treatments evaluation: the case of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Evaluation of treatment options for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the obese patient. Early detection of prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen testing: an empirical evaluation among general practitioners and urologists.

Analytical approaches and estimands to take account of missing patient-reported data in longitudinal studies. Cervical plexus as anatomical target for the treatment of postoperative cervical neuropathic pain. Moving on from CUSP to CUP: empowering multidisciplinary teams and integrating them in the management structure of hospital organization. Oncolytic viro-chemotherapy exhibits antitumor effect in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells and mouse xenografts. Novel nomograms individually predict the survival of patients with soft tissue sarcomas after surgery. Classifying patients with lumbar disc herniation and exploring the most effective risk factors for this disease.

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Needle-shaped amphoteric calix[4]arene as a magnetic nanocarrier for simultaneous delivery of anticancer drugs to the breast cancer cells. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation is associated with reduced levels of inflammation in glioma patients. Progressive reduction in skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is associated with a worsening of the hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Importance of the formulation in the skin delivery of topical diclofenac: not all topical diclofenac formulations are the same.

Overexpression of the phospholipase A2 group V gene in glioma tumors is associated with poor patient prognosis. EGFP-EGF1-conjugated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles, a new diagnostic tool and drug carrier for atherosclerosis. Functionalized docetaxel-loaded lipid-based-nanosuspensions to enhance antitumor efficacy in vivo. Para-aminosalicylic acid increases the susceptibility to isoniazid in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Once-monthly galcanezumab for the prevention of migraine in adults: an evidence-based descriptive review and potential place in therapy.

A meta-analysis of levetiracetam for randomized placebo-controlled trials in patients with refractory epilepsy. Whole transcriptome sequencing identifies crucial genes associated with colon cancer and elucidation of their possible mechanisms of action. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor acts as a tumor suppressor in a syngeneic MC38 colon carcinoma tumor model.

Emodin enhances antitumor effect of paclitaxel on human non-small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Enzyme-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles for tumor cells and mitochondria multistage-targeted drug delivery. Botulinum toxin Botox A for reducing the appearance of facial wrinkles: a literature review of clinical use and pharmacological aspect.

Risk factors associated with physical and mental distress in people who report a COPD diagnosis: latent class analysis of behavioral risk factor surveillance system data. A quantified risk-scoring system including the visceral fat area for peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. Nanocarriers and nonviral methods for delivering antiangiogenic factors for glioblastoma therapy: the story so far. Targeted delivery of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using multifunctional ultrasound nanobubbles for visual and enhanced photothermal therapy [Corrigendum]. A smartphone-assisted pressure-measuring-based diagnosis system for acute myocardial infarction diagnosis.

Natamycin solid lipid nanoparticles — sustained ocular delivery system of higher corneal penetration against deep fungal keratitis: preparation and optimization. Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety , Clinical efficacy and survival analysis of apatinib combined with docetaxel in advanced esophageal cancer. Influence of abutment material on the shade of dental implant restorations in the esthetic zone: a single case report.

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Integrating promotive, preventive, and curative health care services at hospitals and health centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Cognitive function, depression, and anxiety in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with and without adjuvant treatment. Analysis of HAM-D scores and working ability in an observational study of Japanese patients with major depressive disorder and painful physical symptoms treated with duloxetine or SSRI monotherapy. ATP-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles as controlled release system for extracellular drugs in cancer applications.

Digital archivists are starting to figure out how to handle the vast volumes of data at risk. Just as importantly, they are working to establish best practices for ethical collecting. Is anything on the web fair game for capture? Is it right to ignore robots. For undergraduates, a course on born-digital archives can provide a critical window into understanding modern archival practices, as well as their own responsibilities as media producers and consumers.


How do born-digital objects and records change the way we approach teaching? There is an abundance of literature on teaching with archival material and digital technologies. Creating a seminar on born-digital archives required adapting these graduate-level models to an undergraduate audience unfamiliar with the professional and methodological practices of archivists and historians. Because our course explored new territory, it was essential to find readings that exposed students to the rich scholarly conversation around archival principles without weighing them down with jargon.

Several texts met these criteria and were instrumental in shaping the course. Not only is Owens well respected in the digital preservation world, his writing is engaging and approachable for undergraduates. These outcomes emphasize the ability to assess information technologies and practice design thinking. From writing an annotated bibliography to creating metadata for their web archive, students moved from savvy information consumers to thoughtful information producers. This course [7] took place during a twelve-week term in the winter of We met for ninety minutes twice a week and divided the week into discussion and lab days.

Starting with this framing gave students an opportunity to share personal information and ultimately created a strong sense of community within the class. After an introduction to the unit and its operations, students formed small groups and selected from a small pool of manuscript collections. For the second assignment, students unpacked each collection to learn about its creator, context, and provenance.

The hands-on experience with archival sources readied them to consider individual archival principles like original order and respect des fonds the idea that archival records should be grouped by creator. We even discussed the role and resources of the Special Collections and Archives department within our institutional context.

After week seven, we devoted each week to discussing one aspect of the records management lifecycle—appraisal, acquisition, arrangement and description, access, and outreach. Students worked toward their final project through a series of assignments: an annotated bibliography of existing born-digital collections and scholarly articles on a potential topic, a proposal for their born-digital collection, a process log, a short presentation, and a final reflection.

Their final project was conducted through an educational partnership with Archive-It, a web archiving service. For a fee, we received 15GB of space in an Archive-It account and a live training session from an Archive-It staff member. Students selected ten websites on a topic of their choosing, from NFL protests to cryptocurrency. The process log was the primary graded product to ensure that platform difficulties did not unevenly affect students. Throughout the course, we held a series of lab days to learn the technical skills necessary for the web archiving project. Lab days were relaxed and instructions were available on the course website so students could work at their own pace.

Grouping students by operating system helped with peer-to-peer problem solving when technical errors occurred. We modified images and audio by opening the files in a text editor and scrambling the content to demonstrate the fragility of digital files.

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All of the labs contributed to improving computer and web literacies. Despite their reputation as digital natives, most of the first-year students did not know much about how the web worked. Working with HTML or the command line was an exciting look behind the curtain. Not only did the labs improve specific skills, they helped students become comfortable learning and troubleshooting digital tools. Students successfully achieved the goals of this course.

The projects and lab activities were essential in bringing archival principles to life. The opportunity to work with manuscript collections was a highlight for many students and let them experience the realities of archival work. By using the Archive-It platform, students created something that would live beyond them and the bounds of the course. Working with their own topic was both exciting and challenging.

It created a strong level of investment, but required explicit training in generating an appropriate research agenda. Overall, most students easily met the first two learning objectives of learning archival principles and thinking critically about their own digital footprint. Student performance was uneven regarding the more analytical objectives, such as analyzing existing born-digital archives and creating their own collection.

Project-based assignments were new to these first-year students, as was the emphasis on process over product. Student evaluations were positive, with most citing the value of learning about an underrepresented field and gaining a new perspective. However, from the instructor perspective, the best method of assessment would be to track the information literacy practices of the students throughout their college career.

As the digital humanities curriculum initiative transitions into a digital culture and information minor, hopefully this type of assessment will be possible. A course centered on archival research, whatever form it may take, is an ideal vehicle for teaching a range of scholarly practices and content areas. It is important for current students to be able to assess and understand the digital content they consume and produce every day. A course on born-digital archives opens the possibilities beyond specific manuscript collections or institutional records to anything on the web.

Students held a range of opinions on the trustworthiness of the government and private institutions as preservers of the cultural record, but they all recognized the value in taking ownership of your data and preventing gaps and biases in collections. Their reflections consistently mentioned the importance of community-created and -controlled archives. Hopefully this case study inspires other instructors to make use of born-digital archives in their teaching. Tracking down the Washington Post article in a subscription-based newspaper database indicates that the quote was attributed to Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive, though no context or evidence is given.

Archive-It works with a variety of partners, including K schools.

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Ashenfelder, Mike. November 8, Association of College and Research Libraries. London: UCL Press. Bryn Mawr College. Digital Humanities. LaFrance, Adrienne. Lepore, Jill. Notopoulos, Katie. July 7, Owens, Trevor. The Theory and Craft of Digital Preservation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Rumsey, Abby Smith. Shaw, Zed A. Accessed November 25, There, she teaches in the Digital Culture and Information minor and coordinates Digital Humanities initiatives.

Her research focuses on digital pedagogy, scholarly text encoding, and metadata. As archival and special collections resources become increasingly available in digital environments, our need to understand these documents in the context of their original material forms remains.

As a result, techniques for teaching primary source literacy are a topic of rich discussion in special collections, archives, and library institutions, especially as information professionals consider ways to expand both research and readership. By enumerating the practices that informed and constituted the Seminar, I suggest that we might consider conversation, experience, and experimentation as fundamental values in special collections pedagogy. As we envision the digital futures of books, manuscripts, and archives, there is no substitute for historicization: books and manuscripts are technologies too, and foregrounding this perspective allows us to contextualize our work with digital facsimiles, metadata, and resources.

This conversation far predates our current moment of digital profusion; in Orality and Literacy , Walter J. To corroborate this: when we explore the implications of our material history, our work increasingly, though not exclusively, occurs within or alongside digital context. We write about rare and archival materials in digital spaces, create digital repositories of items, and use digital methods to analyze documents, from transcription services to x-ray spectroscopy.

Yet handling, working with, and conceptualizing primary source materials are skills that can be gained through a combination of experience and instruction. Forms of digital access to these items do not circumvent the need for these skills, but only expand their value. These guidelines, which consolidate decades of work among information professionals in these organizations, attest to the growing importance of quantifying and understanding the ways in which we teach within special collections, archives, and libraries.

These resources are often extensive, such as Using Primary Sources: Hands-On Instructional Exercises Bahde, Smedberg, and Taormina , a text designed to share both activities and types of learning goals across a range of collections and populations vii. As embodied by Past or Portal? However, particularly in fields with a strong theoretical component, or in programs that require teaching, graduate students are also often primed for conversations not just on resources or skill development but also on special collections pedagogy itself.

In particular, scholars and archivists have different stakes in their definitions of what constitutes an archive or special collection, and how these sites signify critically, conceptually, and literally. By speaking across these disciplinary boundaries, we can more equitably offer credit and share responsibilities for making the material traces of history visible and accessible to those who need them. And given the critical possibilities of this interaction, special collections pedagogy stands to benefit from a model in which knowledge of primary source work is not just transmitted, but actively co-created with a highly proficient and critically engaged population.

Many of these discrepancies may have practical and professional purpose; for instance, security considerations require material to be distributed according to certain protocols, and standards for metadata and cataloging are often in place to facilitate physical access and storage of materials.

In addition, many misperceptions about the figure of librarian or archivist as all-knowing or gatekeeping conceal the fact that staff often work with little resources, within hierarchies of supervision, and in light of their own interests or challenges regarding the material in their care. However, the presence of these limitations offers us critical possibility, and likewise opportunity to re-examine their usefulness as policies.

Together, these theories suggest that rather than a pedagogical model that views student knowledge, particularly at the graduate level, as deficient and in need of augmentation, teaching models within special collections might collaboratively cover the technical basics expressed by Yakel and Torres —such as negotiating discovery systems, reading a finding aid, or mastering a research statement in the reference interview—while also allowing students and facilitators to build and develop collective knowledge that addresses both practical and conceptual considerations for primary source work in a digital era.

In doing so, we can reframe teaching and outreach as acts of equity and access, expanding the historically narrow range of who feels empowered to conduct primary source work. This project entailed numerous group meetings to discuss institutional partnerships, pedagogy, and student research, and culminated in two two-hour long seminars each semester, each hosting under twenty students, faculty, and staff that had been selected by application.

While many aspects of this project used digital platforms—for promotion of the event, for applications, for communicating with participants, for locating relevant materials, and for follow-up communication with participants who elected to write blog posts about the experience—the core of this program was conversational, in-person, and interactive with materials.

Not as a preliminary to digital work, but as an essential interlocutor for it, the Seminar focused on cultivating the in-person conversations, relationships, and experiences that prepare participants for confident and critical engagement with primary source materials.

The Collaborative Research Seminar on Archives and Special Collections began as a project in the spring of to engage graduate students, faculty, and staff in academic and cultural institutions with primary source research methods, and to increase dialogue between the Graduate Center, CUNY, and the New York Public Library.

I wanted to consider a structure to share my experiences as a library specialist with my academic colleagues and also to create a platform for my Library colleagues to share their expertise, ideas, and sentiments about their work.

Issue Fourteen

Together, the committee negotiated pedagogical structure, the application process, and decisions that ultimately contributed to the collaborative nature of the program. As Marcus C. This publishing initiative, under the editorship of Ammiel Alcalay and consulting editorship of Kate Tarlow Morgan, in conjunction with staff from the Center for the Humanities, connects doctoral students and guest editors with projects that explore the archives of under-published and underrepresented authors of the twentieth century, as well as lesser or unknown aspects of well-known authors.

The results are published annually and draw on a variety of authors from Langston Hughes to William S. This method encourages a different practice of engaging with archival materials, by fostering personal relationships with heirs and literary estates, former colleagues, and other archivists, editors, and scholars to generate new insights and interest in the subject. This program, which came to City College in as a pre-baccalaureate program, sought to provide additional instruction and educational support to students from a more diverse range of communities, and to increase the percentage of African-American and Puerto Rican students at City College Rich et al.

It is not simply to turn out 15 people who can pass the English proficiency examination, although we hope that that will inevitably result. Rich et al , As with the Seminar, we might think beyond activities designed to produce proficiencies like Rich, while acknowledging that these are essential , but look ahead to the outcome of fostering the unique type of primary source researcher our students want to and need to be.

As with any conversation on pedagogy, theoretical robustness depends on good implementation: this starts with understanding both learning goals and student needs. To learn more about self-reported student needs and interests, as well as manage enrollment numbers, the Seminar began its pilot year with an application process. Both the Graduate Center, CUNY, and the New York Public Library are considering how to contribute the resources necessary to continue, given that students, faculty, and staff from primarily the Graduate Center, CUNY applied over the course of the pilot year in two application cycles.

The volume of applicants attests to the need for this type of programming, and while the demand for the Seminar far exceeded our instructional capacity at the time, I connected with all applicants to provide additional resources and support for their work. Given that most case studies for special collections pedagogy focus on class-specific visits that have a set subject or topic, the Collaborative Research Seminar explores a teaching model that challenges us to give voice to interdisciplinary archival experiences. The second iteration involved 19 participants from 59 applicants, as an experiment to determine scalability of the pedagogical model.

Most of the participants were graduate students, with one or two faculty members at each Seminar; the committee decided to prioritize graduate student applications and work towards a different model to specifically address the different needs of faculty. All participants from both sessions were given the opportunity to publish a blog, funded by the Center for the Humanities, about their experience and the items they examined at the New York Public Library, and to join the working group Primary Source, also through the Center for the Humanities.

Each Seminar consisted of two sessions—held for two hours in the evening, two weeks apart. The first session was hosted by the Graduate Center Library and oriented participants towards specific questions and concerns in archival work. I worked with staff from the New York Public Library to curate objects from the second session in response to conversations and feedback from the first session, either around an area of research interest or a theme in archival work. Each session concluded with a short exit survey that participants completed on paper, containing basic response questions, including hopes for future sessions or information that was helpful or still being digested.

To accommodate the variety of skill levels in the Seminar, participants also received a sheet on how to handle special collections material, as well as a hand-out on other Graduate Center and New York Public Library collections and resources available to them as their research progresses. In the Spring Seminar, with a cohort of 12 students, Alycia Sellie and I led the initial session of the first Seminar with an open-ended discussion on archival work.

Topics discussed included challenges with finding relevant resources, negotiating expectations in reading rooms, and collaborating with archival staff. Participants wrote suggestions for second session on notecards and submitted them before leaving. After a debriefing meeting that included feedback from the Seminar committee, I worked with Thomas Lannon and Jessica Pigza to lead the second session.

Items were arranged by their designated theme on a table, where participants were invited to rotate either solo or with colleagues to examine the materials. After rotating through stations, participants reconvened for a large group discussion about materials they encountered. The session ended with completion of feedback forms, and an invitation for participants to stay involved by writing a blog post or joining the working group for Primary Source at the Center for the Humanities. The Fall Seminar operated on a similar principle, although with a slightly larger cohort of 19 participants.

In advance of the first session, the Collaborative Research Seminar committee distributed a list of readings to participants to assist in framing their Seminar experience, including introductions to the field of archives as well as accounts of specific experiences with primary source work Appendix A. To accommodate a larger cohort of students, the first session drew on the rotating station model of the second session of the first Seminar.

The relatively high ratio of facilitators to participants allowed for a variety of pedagogical approaches within each station—from small activities to open discussion—as well as offered participants an opportunity to meet and connect with librarians at the Graduate Center and the New York Public Library. Schwarzman Building. After rotating through a few stations, either collaboratively or solo, participants convened for a larger follow-up discussion. The session ended with completion of feedback forms, and an invitation for participants to stay involved by writing a blog post or joining Primary Source at the Center for the Humanities.

For both of the second sessions of the Seminar, material selection was an especially important component. We sought to not only choose generative items that spoke to multiple research possibilities, but to create a pedagogical framework in which participants could encounter these items with as little predetermination as possible. This was accomplished in part by mitigating expectations: in the application phase of the program, we asked participants to submit research interests, but reinforced that the Seminar was not a reference consultation and they were likely to encounter materials that did not speak to their current research topics.

This openness was also facilitated by the manner in which participants were invited to encounter the materials themselves in the second session—by roaming from table to table, alone or among colleagues, for suggested ten-minute intervals. Curated stations in the reading room had minimal didactics, generally only including a small slip that indicated whether or not items could be photographed for online distribution as on social media networks, such as Twitter.

For some archival materials, we would supply the finding aid or the catalog record as an additional object on the table in its own right, to facilitate the iterative practice of negotiating the physical object alongside its metadata. We ended the second session with a framing discussion, that allowed us as a group to consider the possibilities and limitations of such an interdisciplinary openness to materials, and what types of encounters encourage increased comfort and skill with primary source work. These items, which range from rare books to periodicals, archival material to unique manuscript items, offered participants a variety of archival encounters to experience and discuss.

This type of close attention was modeled in multiple ways across a single collection. Here, we encouraged participants to think of the different digital and paper materialities of these items and how they might serve varying forms of research. For instance, sometimes a searchable database of digitized items is far more expedient than searching individual items, depending on the research question. Fig 5. Ocean depth within core areas.

XLSX Click here for additional data file. S2 Dataset Incubation foraging trip metrics according to individual and colony. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the field crews whose dedicated efforts ensured success of this project. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. References 1. J Biogeogr 40 : — J Avian Biol 45 : — J Field Ornithol 85 : — J Ornithol : — Overlap in nonbreeding distributions of Atlantic and Indian Ocean thin-billed prions.

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MSc thesis, Dalhousie University, Halifax. Polar Biol 25 : — Mem Sears Found Mar Res 1 — Rev Fish Biol Fish 21 : — Pepin P Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations.

EU4 You Should Core Everything for Colonies

Deep-Sea Res I 75 : — Living Bird 13 : — Huin N Foraging distribution of the black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophris , breeding in the Falkland Islands. Aquatic Conserv : Mar Freshw Ecosyst 12 : 89— Prog Oceanogr : 1— A multicolony approach in a generalist seabird. Ecol Evol 6 : — Science : 68— Mar Ecol Prog Ser : 21— Ecohealth 5 : — Sci Total Environ — : — Mar Ornithol 34 : — Fraser GS, Racine V An evaluation of oil spill responses for offshore oil production projects in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada: Implications for seabird conservation.

Mar Poll Bull : 36—45, J Environ Manag : 34— J Environ Manag — New York, NY, Springer. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.