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Another specific example of a modification of the logic method involves multiplication of one, two or three digit multipliers and one or two digit multiplicands. For example, in the problem 93x25, the first factor 93 is set in the billions place, the second factor 25 in the millions place, and the answer in the thousands and hundreds places. Instead of working from the outside in, the entire multiplicand is multiplied by the first digit of the multiplier; then the entire multiplicand is multiplied by the second digit of the multiplier. Some of these are included here: Familiarity with the abacus should be started at an early age as the child begins working on number concepts; in the elementary grades it can be used to support the learning and understanding of operations and calculations, as well as the use of fractions and decimals.

It can easily be used in conjunction with the braillewriter; by middle school, students should be proficient at using the abacus, making less writing with the braillewriter necessary. Guidelines for combining the use of these two tools are presented in the Calculation Tools and Aids section. It is important that the student develop a positive attitude about using his or her abacus.

One teacher told her student that he won it, making him feel special and eager to use it. Providing simple but relevant tasks in which the student uses the abacus would also be helpful in motivating the student. Teams can be selected in a variety of ways. Individuals can compete against individuals in a predetermined order that could rotate. Scores or winning teams can be determined in a variety of ways. Each student should have his or her own abacus in this or similar games.

Since blind students cannot see the gestalt of where their beads are placed on the abacus, it is extremely important to teach them place-keeping habits. This will be especially critical when they are dealing with problems involving multiplication, division, decimals, fractions, and any problems involving zeros. Two abaci, placed either one above the other or side by side joined by a coupler, can be used effectively to record and sum partial products or answers on one while working additional steps of the problem on the other. Some addition and subtraction can be carried out directly on the Cranmer abacus, that is, appropriate beads can be moved without having to make any exchanges.

However, this is not always the case.

Fler böcker av Takashi Kojima

Instead, the five bead must be set and the four previously set beads must be cleared. The logic method would have the student verbalize this process. The secret method would offer steps for moving beads in a specific manner to arrive at the right answer. A list of these secrets for addition and subtraction is presented below.

Davidow, M.

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The abacus made easy. Kojima, T. The Japanese abacus: its use and theory. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc. Livingston, R. Use of the Cranmer abacus, 2nd edition. Available at the following site: www. Millaway, S.

Abacus basic competency. Project Math Access. The Abacus The abacus, in particular the Cranmer abacus, is certainly one of the most effective calculation tools for blind children, for both low and high achievers, when used either alone or in conjunction with other devices.

Developing skill in the use of the abacus Skill in the use of the abacus depends on several factors.

The Japanese Abacus

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