It could be a very important deterrent in this process. But if they stay there, and the tax ends up being fully passed on to consumers on into the future, I think it will be interesting to see if that actually helps with these benefits. Maybe this is the kind of thing that we should have been doing with cigarettes all along, really emphasizing how much the cost is increasing because of these taxes.
Knowledge Wharton: How much interest in this research topic is there from the medical community? Lockwood: I think the medical research community has a big part to play in this. Although this is mostly a theory paper, it identifies the key parameters or estimates that will govern what that optimal tax is. A lot of that research can beneficially come from the medical community.
Things like, how much more does medical care cost when people consume more sugar versus less? How much do people seem to be taking those costs into account when they are making their consumption decisions? Those are exactly the kinds of things that people are studying right now.
And as I said, we have some initial estimates. But I think this is an exciting time both for economists and medical researchers because we will have better estimates of this shortly. We want to understand the economic impact of our behaviors right now, whether they are positive or negative.
Lockwood: Exactly. This area of behavioral economics allows for what many of us feel: That there are a lot of things going on. Knowledge Wharton: Starting to put these theories together, what potentially is the impact on the lower incomes in Philadelphia and Chicago and San Francisco, compared with where we will be going in the next five to 10 years? Lockwood: I think a lot of it comes back to these empirical estimates of trying to see what the effects of these taxes actually are.
People still consume the same amount. They get diabetes at the same rate. The only thing that happens is, they waste more gas driving across the bridge. That would be a downside of this kind of policy. Another question along these lines is how much people substitute other kinds of drinks or how their consumption behavior changes. Maybe there are some unintended health consequences of diet soda, too. But the estimates now suggest that those are miniscule relative to the negative consequences of sugar consumption.
Having a better sense of whether people just keep consuming their sugary soda because diet also went up [in price], or whether they instead switched to bottled water or something, will have an impact on whether other cities then think about imposing taxes across the board on diet beverages, too.
Similarly, there will be a benefit for other cities in understanding how to make the case for these policies to their constituents. Sometimes, governments have had compelling financial reasons to tax particular goods. In practice, these served as a consumption tax on colonists living in America and threatened to ruin their rum industry.
Not long after, parliament also introduced heavy levies on tea. The colonists were not best pleased. These are seen as a double win—useful sources of revenue that also improve public health. Economists think it is not as easy as that. Governments hope that just as taxes on alcohol and tobacco both generate revenue and reduce smoking and drinking, so sugar taxes will help curb obesity. Hungary, which has the highest rate of obesity in Europe, imposed a tax on food with high levels of sugar and salt in France did the same for sugary drinks in Sin taxes do change behaviour.
Alcohol and tobacco are addictive, so demand for them is not as responsive to price changes as, say, the demand for airline tickets to fly abroad. But it is still more responsive than for many common household goods. Data on the efficacy of sugar taxes are scantier, but the available evidence shows that they, too, lower consumption. In March Berkeley, California, put a tax of one cent per ounce 28 grams on sugary drinks.
It was a similar story in Mexico, which in January slapped a nationwide tax of 1 peso then 8 cents a litre on sugar-sweetened beverages. Sales fell by 5. In both places, sales of bottled water rose after the fizzy-drinks tax came in. Nevertheless, as policy instruments, sin taxes are extremely blunt. People who only occasionally drink or smoke do their bodies little harm, yet are taxed no differently from heavy smokers and drinkers.
A study published last year by the Institute for Fiscal Studies IFS , a think-tank, found that Britons who bought only a few drinks a week were far more sensitive to price fluctuations than heavy drinkers. The IFS suggests that it might make more sense to place higher levies on the tipples more in favour with heavy drinkers, such as spirits.
It is fairly easy to blame particular diseases on tobacco and alcohol. In Mexico the data show that the tax did lead poorer households to buy fewer sugar-sweetened drinks. But it had little impact on how much the rich consumed. John Cawley, an economist at Cornell University, points out that one flaw with many existing sugar taxes is that they are too local in scope. After Berkeley introduced its tax, sales of sugary drinks rose by 6.
Denmark, which instituted a tax on fat-laden foods in , ran into similar problems. The government got rid of the tax a year later when it discovered that many shoppers were buying butter in neighbouring Germany and Sweden. Moreover, the impact on public health is unclear. Consumers might simply get their sugar from other sources.
Shu Wen Ng, an economist at UNC who studied the taxes in both Berkeley and Mexico, says that one reason for hope is that many people form their dietary habits when they are young. And fizzy drinks are disproportionally drunk by teenagers, who are more sensitive to price changes. Jonathan Gruber, an economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, points out that taxing foods like sugar and fat is in a different category from taxing tobacco and alcohol, because people need food to live. It presents public-health problems only when people eat too much.
The point of sin taxes is to make unhealthy goods more expensive on a relative basis, not to make the poor poorer. So a further concern is that they affect low-income households most. The poor spend a higher share of their income on consumption. Sin taxes are especially regressive, since poorer people are more likely to smoke and tend to drink more alcohol and sugary drinks.
In theory, the sin taxes could be offset by earmarking any revenue from them for direct cash transfers or for social programmes aimed at reducing poverty. Philadelphia, for example, has earmarked the revenue from its sugar tax for schools, parks and libraries. Debate about sin taxes often tends to blur two distinct purposes. One is to deter people from behaviour that does them harm. Some examples can be fairly clear-cut. When a driver buys fuel for his car, for example, society as a whole has to suffer the consequences of the higher levels of pollution.
Banning fossil fuels is impractical, so economists recommend taxing carbon-dioxide emissions instead. Similar ideas underpin taxes on plastic bags to combat the growing problem of ocean pollution. In the British government passed a law forcing big retailers to charge 5p 6. Cotton tote bags, for instance, have to be used times to rank as greener than plastic alternatives. Advocates of taxes on vices such as smoking and obesity argue that they also impose negative externalities on the public, since governments have to spend more to take care of sick people.
However, policy papers tend to overstate the economic costs of activities like smoking because they rarely account for what would happen without them. Although unhealthy people tend to cost governments more money while they are alive, this is at least partially offset by the morbid fact that they tend to die earlier, and so draw less from services like pensions.
Different vices have different economic costs since they harm people in different ways. Save for the exceptionally overweight, most obese people do not die much earlier. But they do tend to require more medical attention than their healthier peers, often spanning the course of several decades. So obesity does impose net costs on taxpayers. The externalities from alcohol are less clear.
Only a minority of drinkers are serious alcoholics, which limits the direct health-care costs from drinking. Excessive drinking, however, does cause significant crime. Alcohol is also heavily linked to domestic violence. Smoking, in contrast, probably saves taxpayers money. In a study published in Kip Viscusi, an economist at Vanderbilt University who has served as an expert witness on behalf of tobacco companies, estimated that even if tobacco were untaxed, Americans could still expect to save the government an average of 32 cents for every pack of cigarettes they smoke.
The Institute of Economic Affairs, a free-market think-tank, has produced a series of reports on the net fiscal costs of drinking, smoking and obesity to the British government see chart 2. The best argument for sin taxes, however, is still the behavioural one.
Economic models assume that people know what they are doing. Flesh-and-blood humans struggle with self-control. Most smokers are well aware of the health risks, but many still find it hard to quit. Tax policy can help. Mr Gruber argues that, once you allow for even a sliver of irrationality in human decision-making, the case for taxing addictive substances becomes clear.
The fizzy-drinks industry is fighting back. In America, heart disease is linked to one in four deaths, and smoking to one in five. Sin taxes can make people healthier. But since most of the damage smokers, drinkers and the obese do is to themselves, rather than to others, governments need to think carefully about how much they want to interfere. Moreover, any cost-benefit analysis on the social impact of these vices needs to take into account that people do find them enjoyable. There is more to life than living longer. And are they fair?
The Economist Aug 10th In recent years, some lawmakers have turned their cross-hairs to a different vice: sugar. Obesity is on the rise all across the world. Several countries, along with a handful of American cities, have introduced taxes on sugary drinks in recent years. Their governments hope that these levies will both raise revenues and reduce how much sugar people consume. But do sin taxes even work? Policymakers are right to think that sin taxes lead to lower consumption. In practical terms, this means that sales of tobacco and alcohol are more responsive overall to price changes than say, sales of many common household goods, such as coffee.
Similarly, while it is still too early to determine whether these taxes will have any effect on obesity, studies have shown that they have at the very least reduced sales in Mexico, and the cities of Berkeley and Philadelphia. But if there is a problem with sin taxes, it is not that they are ineffective.
Rather, it is that they are inefficient. Sin taxes are blunt policy instruments. People who only have the occasional drink are not taking on any great health risks, yet they are taxed no differently than serious alcoholics. A similar logic applies for sugar taxes. Tobacco presents a slightly different problem. Nicotine is highly addictive, meaning that there are relatively few people who smoke cigarettes only occasionally.
When a driver buys fuel for his car, both he and the petrol station benefit. Yet cars emit carbon dioxide in their wake, which suggests that it would be only fair for drivers to pay taxes to offset the environmental damage they cause. Some policymakers argue that people who engage in unhealthy habits also impose negative externalities, since they tend to present taxpayers with bigger medical bills.
In practice, however, these costs tend to be overstated. While obese people probably do present net costs to governments, smokers tend to die earlier, meaning that they probably save governments money since they draw less from state pensions. But they should be aware that the bulk of the damage that smokers, drinkers and the obese do is to themselves, and not to others. Tabac : 7e hausse en 18 mois.
Fini les promos Nutella! La loi EGAlim entre en vigueur. Un pas de plus vers le rattrapage salarial des femmes. Demande unique de retraite en ligne. Augmentation du minimum-vieillesse.
- Medicina popolare e fitoterapia:le erbe curative (Italian Edition)!
- de Feu Et de Glace - L'Hysterie (Tome 2) (French, Paperback)!
- Les problématiques dépressives et leurs aménagements : approche clinique et projective - Persée?
- Casting des films doublés!
- Better Dating Through Engineering: A System for Finding Lasting Love Over 45.
- Museum of the History of justice, crime and punishment.
- Tempest in the White City: A Prelude to Fair Play.
De la monnaie virtuelle chez les buralistes. Fini le glyphosate. Les autocars polluants au garage. Nouvelle formation post-permis. Coup de pouce pour les policiers. Une vaste supercherie? Elle avait alors officiellement ans et jours. Un incroyable tour de passe-passe. Elle se tenait assise sans aucun soutien. You are currently browsing the jcdurbant blog archives for janvier The United States had been in active combat in Vietnam for two years and tens of thousands of people had been killed, including some 10, American troops.
The political establishment — from left to right — backed the war, and more than , American service members were in Vietnam, their lives on the line. They knew that if he told the whole truth about the unjust and disastrous war he would be falsely labeled a Communist, suffer retaliation and severe backlash, alienate supporters and threaten the fragile progress of the civil rights movement. And it cost him. But it set an example of what is required of us if we are to honor our deepest values in times of crisis, even when silence would better serve our personal interests or the communities and causes we hold most dear.
I have not been alone. Until very recently, the entire Congress has remained mostly silent on the human rights nightmare that has unfolded in the occupied territories. Many civil rights activists and organizations have remained silent as well, not because they lack concern or sympathy for the Palestinian people, but because they fear loss of funding from foundations, and false charges of anti-Semitism. They worry, as I once did, that their important social justice work will be compromised or discredited by smear campaigns.
Similarly, many students are fearful of expressing support for Palestinian rights because of the McCarthyite tactics of secret organizations like Canary Mission, which blacklists those who publicly dare to support boycotts against Israel, jeopardizing their employment prospects and future careers. We must cry out at the treatment of Palestinians at checkpoints, the routine searches of their homes and restrictions on their movements, and the severely limited access to decent housing, schools, food, hospitals and water that many of them face. Barber II … declared in a riveting speech last year that we cannot talk about justice without addressing the displacement of native peoples, the systemic racism of colonialism and the injustice of government repression.
Think about the white teacher in the inner city school. Wesley Morris NYT. A version of this article appears in print on Jan. Keli Goff. Histrory extra. July 2, Q: Did you enjoy the film? WordPress: J'aime chargement…. Martin Luther King Day: Attention, un faux peut en cacher un autre! Quand des gens critiquent les sionistes ils veulent parler des Juifs. Martin Luther King Je ne sais pas ce qui va arriver maintenant.
Comme tout le monde, je voudrais vivre longtemps. Mais je veux vous faire savoir, ce soir, que notre peuple atteindra la Terre promise. Je suis heureux, ce soir. Je ne crains aucun homme. Mes yeux ont vu la gloire de la venue du Seigneur. There are three possible answers to the question of progress in the area of race relations. First, that is the attitude of extreme optimism. The extreme optimist would contend that we have made marvelous strides in the area of race relations.
He would point proudly to the gains that have been made in the area of civil rights over the last few decades. And from this, the extreme optimist would conclude that the problem is just about solved now and that we can sit down comfortably by the wayside and wait on the coming of the inevitable. The second attitude that can be taken is that of extreme pessimism. The extreme pessimist would contend that we have made only minor strides in the area of race relations.
He would argue that the deep rumblings of discontent from the South, the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan and the birth of white citizens councils and the presence of Federal troops in Little Rock, Arkansas are all indicative of the fact that we have retrogressed rather than progressed, that we have created many more problems than we have solved. At times, he would get a little intellectual in his analysis and in his pessimistic conclusions. He may for instance turn to the realms of theology and seek to argue that hovering over every man is the tragic taint of original sin and he would misuse this doctrine to argue that at bottom human nature cannot be changed.
He may even move to the realms of psychology and seek to show the determinative effects of certain habit structures and attitudes once they have been molded. And from all of this he would conclude that there can be no progress in the area of race relations. Now what is interesting to notice is that the extreme optimist and the extreme pessimist agree on at least one point. They would both argue that we must sit down and do nothing in the area of race relations. But there is a third position that can be taken, namely the realistic position.
The realist in this area seeks to combine the truths of two opposites while avoiding the extremes of both. So he would agree with the optimist that we have come a long, long way. But he would seek to balance that by agreeing with the pessimist that we have a long, long way to go. And it is this realistic position that I would like to use as a basis for our thinking together this evening. We have come a long, long way but realism impels us to admit that we have a long, long way to go.
Martin Luther King I think that the situation with the Negro people in this country is analogous to what happened with the Israelites in Egypt. They too had to wait for a leader, and I think all of us will agree that they have found this leader in Dr. Martin Luther King. This blockade may lead to a major conflagration. Let us recall that Israel is a new nation whose people are still recovering from the horror and decimation of the European holocaust. Th is was the ad they got me to sign with Bennett, etc. I felt after seeing it, it was a little unbalanced and it is pro-Israel.
Times as you know was agree d with by a lot of people in the Jewish community. But there was those in the negro community [who] have been disappointed. SNCC for one has been very critical. The problem was that the N. Times played it up as a total endorsement of Israel. Well, what do you think? I would hope that all of the nations, and particularly the Soviet Union and the United States, and I would say France and Great Britain, these four powers can really determine how that situation is going. I think the Israelis will have to have access to the Gulf of Aqaba.
I mean the very survival of Israel may well depend on access to not only the Suez Canal, but the Gulf and the Strait of Tiran. These things are very important. But I think for the ultimate peace and security of the situation it will probably be necessary for Israel to give up this conquered territory because to hold on to it will only exacerbate the tensions and deepen the bitterness of the Arabs. I just think that this would be a great mistake.
Martin Luther King It is with the deepest regret that I cancel my proposed pilgrimage to the Holy Land for this year, but the constant turmoil in the Middle East makes it extremely difficult to conduct a religious pilgrimage free of both political overtones and the fear of danger to the participants. Actually, I am aware that the danger is almost non-existent, but to the ordinary citizen who seldom goes abroad, the daily headlines of border clashes and propaganda statements produces a fear of danger which is insurmountable on the American scene.
Martin Luther King Letter to Mordechai Ben-Ami, the president of the Israeli airline El Al That a man like Martin Luther King could stand so openly with Israel, despite his own private qualms and criticism by younger, more radical, black Americans who had discovered the plight of the Palestinians, indicated the degree to which Zionism was embraced by the American mainstream. One of the ways [King] reciprocated Jewish American support for desegregation in the United States was by turning a blind eye to the plight of the Palestinians.
Ussama Makdisi Israel does many bad things but it does not get reprimanded. The world is talking about freedom of speech, but whenever we say anything against Israel and the Jews, it is considered antisemitism. It is my right to criticize Israel for its policy regarding the Palestinians and say they do many bad things. Rashida Tlaib On April 4, , exactly one year before his assassination, the Rev. There are many, many sides. Since the invasion of five Arab armies at the declaration of the State of Israel in May , the Palestinians have made up a small number of the combatants facing the country.
American G. Qatari cash and backed by Iran. In this tightly cropped frame, Israelis are stronger, more prosperous and more numerous. The fears affecting big decisions, like what to do about the military occupation in the West Bank, seem unwarranted if Israel is indeed the far more powerful party. And if the regional context were peace, as it was in Northern Ireland, for example, a power vacuum could indeed be filled by calm. But anyone using a wider lens sees that the actual context here is a complex, multifaceted war, or a set of linked wars, devastating this part of the world.
The fault lines have little to do with Israel. If our small sub-war were somehow resolved, or even if Israel vanished tonight, the Middle East would remain the same volatile place it is now. Misunderstanding the predicament of Israelis and Palestinians as a problem that can be solved by an agreement between them means missing modest steps that might help people here.
Could Israel, as some centrist strategists here recently suggested, freeze and shrink most civilian settlements while leaving the military in place for now? How can the greatest number of Palestinians be freed from friction with Israelis without creating a power vacuum that will bring the regional war to our doorstep? Abandoning the pleasures of the simple story for the confusing realities of the bigger picture is emotionally unsatisfying. An observer is denied a clear villain or an ideal solution. And that, in turn, might lead to some tangible improvements in a world that could use fewer illusions and wiser leaders.
Matti Friedman In the past ten years, … we have seen an emerging new, new anti-Semitism. It is likely to become far more pernicious than both the old-right and new-left versions, because it is not just an insidiously progressive phenomenon. There is the same conspiratorial idea that the Jews covertly and underhandedly exert inordinate control over Americans perhaps now as grasping sports-franchise owners or greedy hip-hop record executives. But the new, new anti-Semitism has added a number of subtler twists, namely that Jews are part of the old guard whose anachronistic standards of privilege block the emerging new constituency of woke Muslims, blacks, Latinos, and feminists.
Within the Democratic party, such animus is manifested by young woke politicians facing an old white hierarchy. Likewise, the generic invective against Trump — perhaps the most pro-Israel and pro-Jewish president of the modern era — as an anti-Semite and racist provides additional cover. Hating the supposedly Jew-hating Trump implies that you are not a Jew-hater yourself.
The music executive and franchise owner is the new Pawnbroker, and his demonization is often cast as no big deal at best and at worst as a sort of legitimate cry of the heart from the oppressed. Note that marquee black leaders — from Keith Ellison to Barack Obama to the grandees of the Congressional Black Caucus — have all had smiling photo-ops with the anti-Semite Louis Farrakhan, a contemporary black version of Richard Spencer or the s David Duke.
Similarly, Ilhan Omar D. Sarsour defended Omar with the usual anti-Israel talking points, in her now obsessive fashion. Predictably, her targets were old-style Jewish Democrats. These examples from contemporary popular culture, sports, politics, music, and progressive activism could be easily multiplied. In our illiterate and historically ignorant era, the new, new hip anti-Semitism becomes a more challenging menace than that posed by prior buffoons in bedsheets or the clownish demagogues of the s such as the once-rotund Al Sharpton in sweatpants.
And how weird that a growing trademark of the new path-breaking identity politics is the old stereotypical dislike of Jews and hatred of Israel. The pilgrimage was rumored to be in the works from that time, and King received letters of encouragement and invitations from the prime ministers of Israel and Jordan, and from the Israeli and Jordanian mayors of divided Jerusalem.
On May 16, , King publicly announced the plan at a news conference, reported by the New York Times the following day. The pilgrimage would take place in November, and King insisted that it would have no political significance whatsoever. King, who knew the situation on the ground, thought he could strike just the right balance between Israel and Jordan. The Six-Day War threw a wrench into the plan. King had been to the Arab world, had a full grasp of the positions of the sides, and was wary of the possible pitfalls of favoring one over the other.
He struck a delicate balance, speaking out or staying silent after careful assessments made in consultation with advisers who had their ears to the ground—Levison and Wachtel both non-Zionists in the Jewish community, and Andrew Young, whom King dispatched to the Middle East as his emissary. King understood moral complexity, he knew that millions waited upon his words, and he sought to resolve conflict, not accentuate it. The pursuit of an elusive balance marked his approach to the Arab-Israeli conflict while he lived. There is no obvious reason to presume he would have acted differently, had he lived longer.
Martin Peretz. Martin Kramer Attention: un faux peut en cacher un autre! Corroborated Little more than five months after the Cambridge dinner, King lay dead, felled by an assassin in Memphis. Voir aussi:. This message was true in his time and is true today. And that figure does not include the cash they are raking in for public speaking. Beyonce and Jay-Z. Bidisha The Guardian 18 Jun Here are a few key moments to look out for: Mona Lisa. Cady Lang. June 19, Leur public, ceux qui les entendent et les suivent, est celui de Le Pen, pour appeler les choses par leur nom. Or vous vous basez pour cela sur tout ce qui dans la Bible parle de Terre promise.
Alors foutez-nous la paix avec la parole de Terre promise! Raymond Barre On en comptait 3. Nous sommes satisfaits de la reconnaissance de cette erreur par la radio. Nous tous sommes ses meurtriers! Mais comment avons-nous fait cela? Comment avons-nous pu vider la mer? Dieu est mort! Gil Bailie The gospel revelation gradually destroys the ability to sacralize and valorize violence of any kind, even for Americans in pursuit of the good.
Auden, Just over 50 years ago, the poet W. Auden achieved what all writers envy: making a prophecy that would come true. It is embedded in a long work called For the Time Being, where Herod muses about the distasteful task of massacring the Innocents. Instead of Rational Law, objective truths perceptible to any who will undergo the necessary intellectual discipline, Knowledge will degenerate into a riot of subjective visions.
Whole cosmogonies will be created out of some forgotten personal resentment, complete epics written in private languages, the daubs of schoolchildren ranked above the greatest masterpieces. Idealism will be replaced by Materialism. Life after death will be an eternal dinner party where all the guests are 20 years old. Justice will be replaced by Pity as the cardinal human virtue, and all fear of retribution will vanish.
The New Aristocracy will consist exclusively of hermits, bums and permanent invalids. The Rough Diamond, the Consumptive Whore, the bandit who is good to his mother, the epileptic girl who has a way with animals will be the heroes and heroines of the New Age, when the general, the statesman, and the philosopher have become the butt of every farce and satire.
The range of victims available 10 years ago — blacks, Chicanos, Indians, women, homosexuals — has now expanded to include every permutation of the halt, the blind and the short, or, to put it correctly, the vertically challenged. On either side of the divide between Euro and native, historians stand ready with tarbrush and gold leaf, and instead of the wicked old stereotypes, we have a whole outfit of equally misleading new ones.
Our predecessors made a hero of Christopher Columbus. Robert Hughes Nous sommes avec ceux qui tuent. Chers djihadistes, nous triompherons de vous. Nous vaincrons parce que nous sommes les plus morts. Trump criticized the fence as too modest during the campaign. Mass immigration has destroyed hopes of a borderless society Building a wall makes Donald Trump the rule, not the exception, among world leaders Tim Marshall. What kind of a president would build a wall to keep out families dreaming of a better life? Failure to patrol the border, he says, encourages tens of thousands to cross it illegally — with heartbreaking results.
His opponents think he is guilty, and that his wall is a symbol of America closing in on itself…. A perceptive new book unravels the consequences of this pessimistic mood Kapil Komireddi. Laura Cole Geographical.
- The One and Only (Six Steps Trilogy 3)!
- Trône de fer en caoutchouc;
- Le società miste pubblico-privato e le operazioni di project financing (Enti locali) (Italian Edition)?
- 30 recettes express (French Edition)!
- Your Household Budget - Juggling Finances on the Home Front;
- Jubilee: The Day Everyone was Free!
- English to French vocabulary list from Freedict?
But the area is still struggling to cope with mass migration as well as climate change. However he has delivered a readable primer to many of the biggest problems facing the world. So, what happened? Again, numbers. The wall would make illegal crossings almost impossible, saving lives. We should redefine the entire morality of multifaceted illegal immigration. Our ruling Mulvaney said that Obama, Schumer and Clinton voted for a border wall in We rate it Half True.
Wikipedia Les salles de sport sont de s biens de club. James M. An edited transcript of the conversation follows. Knowledge Wharton: What did you find in your research? Clunky sin tax Data on the efficacy of sugar taxes are scantier, but the available evidence shows that they, too, lower consumption. Double negatives Debate about sin taxes often tends to blur two distinct purposes. Les salles de sport sont de s biens de club. En revanche, les tarifs sont hors concours. Les salles low-cost ne de man de nt aucun engagement contractuel.
Elles attirent de nouveaux a de ptes, mais aspirent aussi les clients de s clubs du ventre mou sensibles au prix. Et pourquoi pas toucher un lectorat de plus en plus vaste. Les concepteurs de ce site et leurs lecteurs sont bien entendu les bienvenus sur mon blog. Chris-Tian Vidal. Parler est humain. Dire est indispensable. Et la vigilance est un devoir. Une amie lui obtient de faux papiers pour passer en zone libre ou il est pris en charge par sa tante.
En vain. Il vit entre Paris et Boston. Cependant, J. Il y a des jarretelles sur les gambas et du cuir noir sous le chou-fleur. Je me suis battue pour avoir une vie correct et ne pas ressembler aux gens de ma famille! J ai des angoisses, des peurs, des cauchemars….. Quand je regarde autour de moi, Oh! Etre ton fils me procure la joie, Que Dieu puisse allonger ton age! De larges passages de "Peter Mayr Strasse" sont sur le blog dionisos Sylvain Lambert apporte un nouveau souffle chez Edilivre en nous offrant une histoire sur la formidable incertitude de la vie.
En attendant, rendez-vous sur:. Synopsis du Roman : Nous sommes en mars Et vous, que feriez-vous? Email : eho editions-heloisedormesson. Toujours aucun paiement. Et bien entendu dans toutes les bonnes librairies. Je suis un Marchand du Temple! Bonne lecture. Made with by Graphene Themes. Toggle search form. Nous vous remercions de votre attention. Ce serait super si vous proposiez un lien vers son blog dans vos pages. Mon blog en lien, je ne sais si vous le connaissez. Emma's behaviour throughout the novel directly contravenes the money-making ethos of Lheureux and Homais.
What is particularly notable about Emma is her prodigality. She spares no thought for expense and consumers beyond her means. Cependant ces cadeaux l'humiliaient. Emma's attitude, for all its triviality, may be viewed as constituting a serious critique of her society. Reality, as represented by self-seeking and materialist characters like Homais and Lheureux, is somehow inferior to the imaginative world created by Emma as a virtual and substitute reality.
Here is Diana Knight on this point: If Emma is unsatisfied with her life and with reality, it is reality which is blamed, not Emma, however unintelligent she may be. Written into her story is the suggestion that although her hopes and dreams almost inevitably wither into lies and disappointments, this is only marginally Emma's fault, for there is something fundamentally wrong with the reality which cannot meet her needs. In other words, despite her silliness, her metaphysical unease is taken seriously.
Knight: p. Je parle ici pour ceux qui ont pu le lire. Clothes are important in signifying who we are and our status in the world. It is, after all, through clothes that we signify our gender in society. There are a number of descriptions of Emma's dresses throughout the novel which stress this point. This sense of restriction is accentuated when she marries Charles and loses even more of her freedom. The dress is burdensome like her new social status as a married woman. When she and Charles move to Yonville l'Abbaye there is an interesting scene Folio p.
This corresponds to the way in which she will attempt to free herself from the restraints of her position and open herself up to a new range of sensual experiences. Despite the images of confinement and constriction that accompany description of Emma's clothes, there is also in some scenes the suggestion of rebellion. In one scene Folio p. Emma is expressing herself through a dress which cannot contain or restrict her exhuberance. In another scene Emma is wearing a yellow dress whose movement evokes a stirring of energy within her Folio p. Moreover, there are a number of descriptions of Emma's clothes that suggest an assumption of male dress codes and a rejection of her socially circumscribed gender identity.
There are also Emma's riding trousers Folio p. This network of suggestion is an integral part within the triadic pattern that structures Madame Bovary. Flaubert did not adopt a crude aproach to description. Todorov eds. Referential and symbolic elements coexist without cancelling one another out. Every detail in Madame Bovary must earn its keep. There is no free passage and symbolic and realistic elements exist in a state of coexistence.
The objects and gestures which form the novel's symbolic infrastructure have no intrinsic meaning in their own. It is only through repetition that objects and gestures accumulate meaning and this meaning is largely determined by their position within a network of interrelated imagery related to both aspiration, sensuality and eroticism and degradation, decay and death. The first to appear is a small chocolate Cupid on a swing found on Emma and Charles's wedding cake Folio p.
This particular Cupid is a sickly image of conjugal bliss whose saccharine constitution suggests the falsity of their marriage. There is a second Cupid in Part II of the novel in Guillaumin's garden in Yonville- l'Abbaye with its finger pressed close to its lips in a gesture calling for silence and discretion. This prefigures Emma's later adulteries. Moreover, since Guillaumin is a notary and the wealthiest man of the community, the Cupid's has been read as suggesting Emma's future financial as well as sexual entanglements. This is a second-hand, kitsch and derivative cupid smirking at the adulterous lovers as they consummate their desire.
There is one more Cupid in the novel however, that has been haunting Emma in the last few months of her liaisons: the blind beggar. It is highly significant that the blind man makes his first appearance after Emma first commits adultery and his last when Emma is on her deathbed. On both occasions he is heard singing a sexist ditty about country girls working in the fields whose skirts are raised by the wind. This is significant as the traditional symbol of passion is Cupid who, too, is blind.
This is why it is possible to see the blind beggar as the novel's fourth and final Cupid figure albeit a deformed and grotesque one. This parody of passion anticipates the degradation towards which Emma's dreams will fatally lead her. On the one hand, references to dust have a clearly referential function: they signify the realities of nineteenth-century life in which roads and pavements were not coated in tarmac or concreted over. On the other hand however, references to dust have a clear thematic function as they serve to underline Emma's suffocation and oppression in the small provincial world she inhabits.
One early important reference to dust occurs on page 60 Folio when Emma surveys her dusty new home in Tostes. Everything about this home seems to be covered in dust, the especially the bookshelves Folio p. On other occasions in the novel dust is associated with Emma's fantasies of a life of elegance and passion.
When she buys things to decorate her home in Tostes Folio pp. Dust imagery is related to Emma's fantasy life in a negative way to however. Dust here is clearly related to the ultimate defeat of dreams. Images of dust underline the theme of organic degeneration, decay and deterioration: things fall apart, hope turns to disillusionment and dreams turn to dust. What Flaubert appears to be doing is setting up a network of suggestion involving dust imagery that connects Emma's dreams to her ultimate death. Obliquely, he seems to be making the point that Emma's fantasy life nourished by her adolescent reading and the reality of her death are in fact related.
Her reading is partly responsible for her death. Although at no point does Flaubert make explicit the link between fantasy and destruction but he does suggest it on a textual level, on the level of symbolism. To quote D. Shukis: The dust in these episodes [books and opera] Shukis: p. Free indirect discourse is, as it name suggests, similar to direct discourse. Direct discourse is a direct quotation of a monologue or a dialogue as in the following examples from Madame Bovary: - Cherchez-vous quelque chose?
Jamais elle n'avait eu les yeux si grands, si noirs, ni d'une telle profondeur. N'avait-elle pas assez souffert! Mais elle triomphait maintenant, et l'amour, si longtemps contenu, jaillissait tout entier avec des bouillonments joyeux. The most important feature of free indirect discourse according to many critics is way it combines two voices: the voice of the narrator and that of a character.
In the above extract, we, as readers, gain privileged access to Emma's subjective life - thoughts, dreams, memories, desires etc. Free indirect discourse then, facilitates a multifaceted presentation of character, allowing the possibility of both ironic and empathetic attitudes. The events, characters, scenes and the like of any given novel are presented through someone's viewpoint.
However, this is not always the case and the narrator can verbalize or describe the impressions and viewpoint of one or more of the characters of the story he is narrating. Narration and focalization are two separate activities then and just as one can speak of a novel having a narrator, one can also speak of it having a focaliser or focalisers. A focaliser is the character through whose subjectivity, viewpoint, conceptualization of world events in the novel are presented. The focaliser provides the key perspective or angle of vision of the narrative.
Let's take a quick look at the opening passage of James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming down along the road and this moocow that was coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named baby tuckoo His father told him that story: his father looked at him through a glass: he had a hairy face. When you wet the bed, first it is warm then it gets cold. Events in this scene are clearly presented via the subjectivity of a very small child. The sensory impressions and the simplicity of cognitive connections made all suggest this.
However, a very small child does not have the linguistic sophistication to verbalise these impressions. The focaliser of the above passage then, is a young child but the narrator is someone else. What this allows Flaubert to do is to integrate description with characterization. We, as readers, see events and individuals as they are seen by the characters of the novel. We are only presented with circumstances as they are perceived by the characters, as they impinge upon their subjectivity and, as such, we enter their world more fully.
Sherrington claims that: The subjectivity of the witnessing character is of prime importance: the description constitutes a significant part of what Flaubert is telling us about his characters. We should be interested less in the thing described than in the way it is seen. Description is a means of conveying a state of mind or a trait of character. Sherrington: p. However, in the second extract, when Emma is bitterly regretting her marriage to Charles, the garden becomes a place of decay, dereliction and disease. Because the two descriptions of the garden are focalized through Emma's perception they may be interpreted as indicative of her psychological development.
The garden has not really changed but Emma has and so has her way of looking at the world. People too, appear not as they really are but how other characters see them or want them to be. Characters can even see themselves differently. Sometimes her eyes are black - as in the description above - but on other occasions they are blue and on one occasion they are brown. These differences can be explained when one considers the question of focalisation.
Different men see Emma differently at different points in her life and their highly subjective perceptions of her change in time. But exactly what colour were Emma's eyes? This is an impossible question to answer as there is no authoritative source of knowledge to which one might turn, no onmiscient narrator to provide the definitive answer just a number of focalisers with different ways of seeing. One important consequence of this mode of presentation is to suggest what R.
Flaubert appears to be suggesting that there are no stable truths, just different ways of looking at the world. This is one of Flaubert's innovations in the novel and one of the ways in which he both challenged the niaive mimetic pretensions of Realists like Duranty and Champfleury. The narrator's pithy and magesterial didacticisms lay claim to capturing the whole of a human reality in a verbal formula.
What he says aspires to scientific knowledge of human nature. They feature strongly in the sentimental and romantic fictions Emma reads see Folio pp. They are also clearly related to the themes of escape, sexuality but also, crucially, to danger. Horses figure strongly in Emma's adulterous liasons with other men. I mentionned earlier that horses are also symbolic of danger. This scene is clearly prophetic, anticipating the disaster Charles is embarking upon. All of these conditions are symptomatic of hysteria.
In the work of Sigmund Freud, hysteria is the expression of a failure to find a stable identity. This is how Stephen Heath relates its importance to Madame Bovary: Emma is brought up against her social environment and so against her situation as a woman Again, it is not a question of feminism, of which Emma has no awareness and for which Flaubert has no sympathy; rather, hysteria emerges as central to the novel inasmuch as it articulates, however inarticulately, an opposition to the society, that society against which Emma revolts and for which Flaubert has no sympathy either Heath: , pp.
Heath: , p. There are about instances of italics in Madame Bovary, often used for the titles of books Paul et Virginie , newspapers and periodicals Sylphe des Salons, Le Fanal de Rouen , the name of an Opera Lucie de Lamermoor , a play Le Gamin de Paris , an Anglicism cold cream , Italianisms, Latinisms, regional expressions the famous cheminots and phonetic renderings the Charbovari of the uproarious school room scene. These utterances are italicised to assert the narrator's distance from them. The narrator will use italics whenever he wishes to be exempted from the responsibility of a particular utterance.
The ubiquity of italicized utterances after Emma's death corroborates the insidious ascent of empty rhetoric. Language is lethal in Madame Bovary, infecting everyone and threatening to engulf every instance of genuine human emotion. Sincerity, in the novel and in Flaubert's writings in general, appears to be inversely proportional to eloquence. Within Madame Bovary special sympathies lie with those whose refuse or who are unable to use language fluently.
Charles's wordless grief at Emma's death; Emma's father's grief; Justin's bitter tears at Emma's grave are all accorded a respect not accorded to the speechifyers of the novel. Lheureux's sales patter, Homais's journalism and incessant self-publicity are instances of this. Charles, for example, has no control over language. At school he is a hopeless stutterer and in later life can only pass his medical exams by learning the answers by heart.
She reads a lot, can understand difficult parts of the catechism at school and an compose elegant letters to Charles's clients. Moreover, she understands and is able to adapt to different social conventions quickly as shown at the ball at La Vaubyessard where she fits in whilst Charles spends five hours watching the guests play a game of cards whose rules he cannot understand. Emma's disillusionment with Charles is linguistic as much as it is anything else. She becomes particularly disgusted at him when, one day, he is unable to explain a horse riding term that she finds in a book Folio p.
Rodolphe in particular, has a particularly astute understanding of the strategic value of words. Two different uses - or abuses - of language with ultimately the same deceptive function, two intances of rhetorical manipulation. She remains silent and immobile while the rest of the crowd absorb the platitudes of the speeches being made to the background of mooing cows.
Knight, Flaubert's Characters: The Language of Illusion Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, The Poverty of Language in Madame Bovary An exploration of the poverty of language as an effective means of expression and communication is another way in which language is developed as a theme in Madame Bovary. Although the narrator in Madame Bovary tends not to make broad generalizing statements outlining the text's thematic concerns - unlike the Balzacian narrator - there is however one important generalization relating to the theme of language It is a source of division - Homais and Bournisien, for example, are often seen arguing over religion Folio pp.
Homais's letter to M. Interestingly, Charles and Emma's father are also able to communicate without recourse to language. Despite the derivative and second-hand nature of their exchange there is an element of genuine communication taking place. The conversation is described as Real emotion and moments of understanding are to be found in silence not amongst the busy noise of speech. References to food in Madame Bovary are, in part, related to the theme of Emma's hunger for experience, a hunger verging on gluttonly that ends with her death, fittingly, by stuffing arsenic powder in her mouth.
Meals in Madame Bovary often work thematically to underline the unappetizing and stale nature of provincial life. At Tostes, an unappealing onion soup is a regular item on the menu Folio p. Shortly after her move to Yonville-l'Abbaye, Emma is seen musing on the disappointments in her life so far Charles, only recently bereaved, has come to visit Emma's father. Emma frissonna de toute sa peau en sentant ce froid dans sa bouche. Le sucre en poudre lui parut plus blanc et plus fin qu'ailleurs. She has desires than can never be fulfilled. Her death is an grim echo of her hunger and thirst for experience The status and identity of the narrator in Madame Bovary is problematic.
Several narrators recount Madame Bovary whose voices take over from one another so unobtrusively that we scarcely notice the shift of perspective and retain the impression that there is but one narrator. Before we discuss the identity of the narrator in Madame Bovary let's look at the different kinds of narrators available.
L'Orient-Le Jour vous offre 5 articles
This is, of course, the third person omniscient narrator which one finds predominant in Madame Bovary. The first six pages of Madame Bovary present us with the fourth type of narrator as defined by Genette. The very first pages of the novel reiterate the ambivalent status of narratorial authority.
The denizen of the narrated world does not speak of himself but of another, of others, of all the others in fact, except himself. He is present, yet we do not see him; he is simply a point of reference, vision and a memory transmitting what he saw and learned at a certain moment. His identity is mysterious not only because of his reserve concerning his own person but because he speaks in the first person plural, which indicates that he is not one but several characters.
The intra diegetic narrator refers to himself only seven times. In addition to giving the impression that the story he is telling is true, so fulfilling the mimetic thrust which realist writers aim at, the haziness surrounding his grammatical form facilitates his replacement by another the extra diegetic hetero diegetic narrator the first type. He vanishes and his disappearance is not even noticed because he was very nearly invisible anyway. The plural narrator appears once more to recapitulate and then the omniscient narrator takes over for good.
In quantitative terms the omniscient narrator has the principal responsibility in Madame Bovary and his attributes are omnipresence, omnipotence and omniscience. He moves about freely in time and space and the cardinal tactical decisions that determine the narrative strategy of Madame Bovary fall on his shoulders: he decides which facts are communicated to the reader a which are hidden from him and for how long, the temporal plane on which an episode, description or theme is situated, and at what moment in the narrative is transferred to one or another of the characters, or to their thoughts, feelings, movements, or to the natural setting and the things around them.
The majority of the material narrated in the third person singular is recounted by an absence that speaks, a glacial, meticulous observer who does not allow himself to be seen. If no author before Flaubert had ever worked out such effective techniques for concealing the narrator's existence, his unshakeable ideas on the subject of impassibility and objectivity were happily not applied as though they were dogma. There are countless instances in Madame Bovary when the omniscient narrator ceases to be invisible; absence becomes presence.
Emma's sexuality, however, as some of the above extracts illustrate, is often self-destructive. This is how Tony Tanner reads this network of symbolism: I would suggest that just as the pricking of the fingers carries latent hints of self- piercing, so this sucking of the fingers adumbrates an appetitive drive that will only finally be satisfied by devouring the self Emma's terminating act is precisely once again to put her fingers to her mouth; this time, of course, arrying poison - but the morphology of the gesture is the same.
And the ouncturing of Emma's skin is continued after her death by no less an agent than M. Tanner: p. On a number of occasions Emma is seen dreaming of another life in the metropolis: Elle s'acheta un plan de Paris, et du bout de son doigt, sur la carte, elle faisait des courses dans la capitale. It is, perhaps, this last category that is most important. Paris is a place which promises sexual gratification, a place of erotic fulfillment.
Although Paris exerts a special influence over Emma it is typical of her experience that she never reaches it. Rouen is, in Madame Bovary a parodic Paris, a sorry substitute for a dream that Emma is forever denied. Emma's downfall can be viewed as mainly due to her being a woman in a society in which women's roles were both limited and clearly circumscribed and in which any transgression was severely punished. One might argue that the central conflict in Madame Bovary is that of a woman who tries to shrug off the reductive definitions of woman conceived by patriarchy.
Emma, of course, is not a particularly self-conscious character and does not conceptualize her dilemma in these terms. However, she does actively resist the position she is alloted in life and seeks a problematic fulfillment through adultery, an act which unsettles the stable categories of wife and mother. Let's briefly consider the position of women in nineteenth-century France. Women in nineteenth-century France were denied most of the freedoms women enjoy today.
viaLibri ~ Rare Books from - Page 14
Under the terms and conditions of the Napoleonic Code Civil women were regarded as perpetual minors. Fathers and husbands were the time-honored guardians of women. The Code Civil had transformed marriage from an essentially religious sacrement to a legal contract in which authority was henceforth invested in the husband. There was no provision for secondary education until and what education was available to women was little more than ideological indoctrination since they were taught to become virtuous wives and mothers.
The moral, intellectual and physical inferiority of women was inculcated in women from birth. Women could play no active role in public life and were excluded from adopting professional responsabilities which would give them economic independance. Woman's place was in the home as wife and mother and, although we see working women in Madame Bovary, their work is usually related to the domestic sphere as wetnurses, servants, laundresses and the like.
Women had no positive role, only a passive one restricted to the confines of home and garden. Women were seen as possessions, as decorations to men's social standing and success. In his correspondance he produced an unorthodox and questionning view of women: La femme est un produit de l'homme.
Flaubert is doing something really quite radical for his age: he locates a fundamental problem for women, namely, that their identity has been defined by men. Men have provided models of feminine behaviour convenient to their own interests. Flaubert problematizes the whole question of male and female roles and shows social and cultural conditionning to be a major factor in gender behaviour.
The education and upbringing Emma receives offers her no scope to realize her potential. She attends convent school during which time her head is filled with a series of erroneous fictional models. At convent Emma assimilates the view that passion and joy may be found in marriage. This belief is at variance with her later experience. Charles can't swim, ride or shoot. Worst of all his conversation is boring. Whilst he finds some filfillment in his job Emma languishes at home, trapped like her greyhound running around in circles Folio p.
Un homme, au moins, est libre; il peut parcourir les passions et les pays, traverser les obstacles, mordre aux bonheurs les plus lointains. Elle accoucha un dimanche, vers six heures, au soleil levant. We see Emma refusing her identity as woman and adopting men's behaviour, dress codes and freedoms.
Je crois que l'avenir de l'Art est dans ces voies. A text in which the real is not so much transposed as transfigured. Flaubert thus heralds a new conception of fiction and of how fictions are related. Flaubert aim was not simply to transpose reality but to transfigure it. The suject-matter is banal but Flaubert imposes onto mediocrity a dazzling architecture. The characteristic tension of the novel is between a tightly orchestrated structure and the banal meandering subject-matter. This may be defined as the condition by which we delude ourselves as to what we are and as to life's potential.
This scene was clearly meant as a representation of Emma's projection onto the world around her of an illusory model of reality.
Emma cannot see the world as it truly is - and, indeed, she cannot see herself as she truly is - because she is constantly imposing onto herself and her surroundings the criteria of Romantic literature. This is a popular reading of the text: Flaubert has written a novel about the dangers of reading Romantic novels, a fiction about the dangers of Romantic fiction. Emma is essentially someone corrupted by what she has read, she is the inheritor of a second-hand set of attitudes and poses. It may be worth citing Enid Starkie in greater detail: [Flaubert] He knew, from the effects on himself, its deliquescing nature, how it prevented any clear thinking, any clear and objective view of the self, and how it led to senseless dreaming which impeded all action.
Starkie: p. It encourages expectations that have no reasonable hope of ever being realized. Marriage, motherhood, adultery all fall short of Emma's expectations and she seems constantly doomed to disillusionment. The flat Norman landscape that surrounds her is at odds with the exotic lands of Romantic fiction, Swiss chalets, the Scottish highlands etc.
Un homme Although Starkie and other critics have taken the view that Emma's over- exposure to Romantic literature is largely responsible for her faulty perception of the world, this is not entirely accurate. Much of the responsibility for Emma's outlook lies with her convent school education. Not long after her mother's death her father withdraws her from the convent but it is too late as Emma's sensibility has already been formed. She believes that she may find the passion she has read so much of in her later marriage to Charles but this proves to be a disappointment.
Emma has allowed an unreal world of love and adventure to impose itself upon her consciousness and with which the real world cannot compete. Her suicide may be read as a negative value judgement on a life not worth living.
II – Le califat de l’EI raconté par les Syriens
This however, raises an interesting question: are Emma's expectations of life too high or is life fundamentally deficient? It is now perhaps time to consider another interpretation of Madame Bovary. Images of enclosure and entrapment are abundant from the very outset of Emma's marriage.
Indeed, marriage is a kind of prison to Emma. Perhaps the most potent image constriction and containment is the wooden contraption Charles makes to cure Hippolyte's club foot and which makes his leg turn gangrenous. These images of constriction are clearly related to the reading of Emma's story as that of a women trapped by alienating and restrictive ideals of femininity. Emma is constantly seen dreaming of escape to an idealized ailleurs Folio p.
But it is also - for windows can be closed and exist only where space is, as it were, restricted - a symbol of frustration, enclosure and asphyxia. Brombert: , p. Alors le souvenir des Bertaux lui arriva. As Stephen Heath claims: The window is the frame of Emma's dissatisfaction what, in fact, can she ever see from hers? Heath: , pp. Part I deals with Charles' early life, his first wife and his marriage to Emma and, in the Folio edition is only around 80 pages long.
This section lasts around pages. This final section takes up around pages. As well as being of uneven length, the three parts don't actually appear to correspond to distinct phases in Emma's life. The structure of Madame Bovary signifies that we are in the presence of a text which differs radically from those produced by Balzac or Stendhal. It is a text whose deliberate slowness and obvious lack of drama assert its difference from all those novels which went before it and which makes greater demands on the part of the reader.
Flaubert refuses to shape his material to the expectations of a typical nineteenth-century reader. Meanings are not signposted, they are not on the surface but must be sought elsewhere. Looking closer at the organization of Madame Bovary it becomes possible to argue that the uneven tripartite structure of Madame Bovary actually disguises the text's pyramidal structure. The novel is composed, as it were, of nine structural blocks which form a sort of triangle or pyramid. This pyramidal structure which forms the main architecture of the text is exloited in a number of ways.
What Flaubert does primarily with his pyramid is to set up a system of oppositions and parallels between scenes and characters on the two sloping planes of the pyramid. He constructs a network of suggestion and symbolism which ultimately reveals Emma's gradual undoing. Each structural block gives a new focus to the novel. By constructing this pyramid Flaubert creates a carefully orchestrated symmetrical structure in which the second half - that is to say structural blocks numbers 6, 7, 8 and 9 - echo or repeat in a degraded and debased form the episodes which take place in the first half - that is to say in structural blocks 1, 2, 3 and 4.
The second half then is a muddy reflection of the first half, an ironical, cynical, retrospective commentary of the early aspirations of Emma and Charles. Victor Brombert, when writing of Flaubert's ironic contrasts makes the claim that: [T]hese planned juxtapositions do They emphasize the basic theme of incompatibility.
Their implicit tensions stress a fundamental state of divorce at all levels of experience. Brombert, p. Sherrington, Three Novels by Flaubert: A Study of Techniques Oxford: Clarendon Press, The Virilization of Emma Emma's appropriation of male dress codes is, I would argue, a rejection of her status as a woman and is linked to what has been called Emma's virilization, or Emma's masculinization. We often see Emma behaving in a what would be considered, by the standards of the nineteenth century at least, a manly way.
Emma doesn't behave like women are supposed to behave. This is a point that Baudelaire noted in his review of Madame Bovary Baudelaire: p. Whereas dull, plodding Charles finds satisfaction in his job as a medical officer riding from village to village, intelligent, imaginative Emma languishes in the confines of domesticity and continually dreams of travel. When Emma rebels against her lot through her adulterous liaisons she often adopts a more active role. Water is an integral part of the world Emma inhabits rivers, ponds, the dampness of domestic interiors etc.
This is made explicit in Part 2 of the novel when Emma begins her adulterous liaison with Rodolphe However, there is a key scene which takes place during Emma's excursion to Banneville when Emma's muses on her dissatisfaction with Charles Folio pp. There are references to water in the scene in the garden that takes place on the eve of their planned elopement Folio p. On these five occasions Emma is seen near or next to water with men who are not her husband and illustrate Emma's immersion into the world of erotic experience, an abandonment to shifting currents of desire.
Beneath the calm and limpid surface of these descriptions however, there lurks an undertow of danger.