In preliminary studies we found that CD1 strain of mice Charles River Laboratories instinctively swim against a current in our swimming apparatus, a behaviour that was found to be absent in other strains. Training then continued for 6 weeks. In the first 3—4 sessions, electric stimulation 0. Male mice were randomly assigned to exercised or sedentary groups at 6 weeks of age.
No mice were excluded from the study based on inability to train. Mice treated with etanercept Enbrel were injected subcutaneously daily at 2.
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The identity of the groups exercised versus sedentary was concealed to the investigators. Maximal O 2 consumption was determined using the swimming apparatus with two simultaneous pumps generating current on opposite ends. Mice were anaesthetized using 1. Mice were placed on a heating pad and body temperature was maintained between The left ventricular long axis view was used for measurement of chamber size and wall diameter. Data analysis was performed using the VisualSonics data analysis suite. Surface ECG measurements were conducted on mice anaesthetized using a 1.
Body temperature was maintained at To record heart rates from unanaesthetized, unrestrained animals, radiofrequency emitting ECG units Data Sciences International were implanted in the intraperitoneal cavity and the electrodes placed in lead II arrangement subdermally. After 1 week of recovery, mice were exercised according to the standard regimen and heart rate HR was recorded weekly over a h period. Data were analysed using Ponemah Physiology Platform software. Minimum anaesthesia deepness was strictly monitored and maintained at equivalent levels between sedentary and exercised mice using the toe pinch-pedal reflex.
Frequency bands of 0—0. The absolute power from the frequency domain plot was used for analysis. The his bundle signal was used for consistent positioning of the catheter see Supplementary Fig. Appropriate leads were used to deliver programmed stimulation to either the right atria or right ventricle.
All stimulations were delivered at a voltage magnitude of 1. Our protocols for arrhythmia were based on previously published protocols using burst pacing with intervals less than atrial effective refractory in both exercise and sedentary mice Supplementary Table 4. If arrhythmia events were not induced, 20 trains applied every 1. Heparinized mice were anaesthetized using isoflurane and killed via cervical dislocation. The heart was pinned to a Sylgard coated petri dish with insect pins to reveal the dorsal atrioventricular connective tissue.
The pericardium and any other residual lung and connective tissue were carefully excised from the heart. A small lining of adipose tissue guided incisions along the atrioventricular connective tissue until complete separation of the atria from the ventricles was achieved.
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Atria were then pinned so as to reveal the mitral and tricuspid valves. The atria were then turned to reveal the pulmonary veins, and residual lung tissue was removed. The flow rate, volume and temperature of the solution was kept constant throughout and in-between the experiments.
The pH of the bath solution in the perfusion vessels was monitored to ensure that the pH was between 7. Activation maps were generated to calculate conduction velocity. To induce atrial arrhythmias, the same stimulation protocols that were used in vivo using intracardiac catheter were applied. Images were acquired using ImagePro Plus software Mediacy and analysed using ImageJ or Scroll custom software 68 , which was modified to perform phase analyses. Intracellular recordings of atrial myocytes in tissue, not isolated were acquired by placing the microelectrodes into the left atrial appendage.
ClampFit software Axon was used for analysis. Left atrial myocytes were obtained from 6-week exercised and age-matched sedentary CD-1, male 14 weeks old mice. Mice were anaesthetized with 2. After perfusing the heart with collagenase 1. Two different concentrations of carbachol CCh, Sigma were delivered to cells through 0. C is the amplitude of the steady-state, non-inactivating component.
All data analysis was performed using ClampFit software Axon. For quantitative measurement of macrophage infiltration, antibodies against mouse Mac-3 , BD Pharminogen, Cat. Images were acquired using Metamorph software Molecular Devices , and data analysis was performed using ImageJ software. Mast cells were stained for using Toludine Blue at the appropriate PH. Mast cells were identified by metachromatic granules, counted and normalized to total tissue area. For quantitative measurement of connexin staining, heart sections were stained against connexin 40 Abcam ab, dilution and 43 Abcam ab, dilution.
Alexa Fluor conjugated secondary antibody Life technologies, dilution was used for connexin detection. Atria and ventricles were isolated and frozen in liquid nitrogen.
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U: 10, criteria: 3. Two hours after the final session atria and ventricles dissected and quickly rinsed in cold PBS were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. How to cite this article: Aschar-Sobbi, R. Nattel, S. New ideas about atrial fibrillation 50 years on. Nature , — Thompson, P.
Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology Subcommittee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Subcommittee on Physical Activity. Circulation , — Grimsmo, J. High prevalence of atrial fibrillation in long-term endurance cross-country skiers: echocardiographic findings and possible predictors-a years follow-up study. Mont, L. Endurance sport practice as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter.
Europace 11 , 11—17 Myrstad, M. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation among elderly Norwegian men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice. Sports 24 , e—e Andersen, K. Risk of arrhythmias in 52 long-distance cross-country skiers: a cohort study. Heart J.
Determinants of Left Atrial Volume in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation promotion by endurance exercise: demonstration and mechanistic exploration in an animal model. Schotten, U. The role of atrial dilatation in the domestication of atrial fibrillation. Li, D. Promotion of atrial fibrillation by heart failure in dogs: atrial remodeling of a different sort. Circulation , 87—95 Engelmann, M. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation. Dixon, E.
Neural regulation of heart rate variability in endurance athletes and sedentary controls. Pelliccia, A. Prevalence and clinical significance of left atrial remodeling in competitive athletes. Weight, L. Strenuous exercise: analogous to the acute-phase response? Bernecker, C. Sports 23 , — Reeves, J. Operation Everest II: Cardiac filling pressures during cycle exercise at sea level.
Matthews, N. Tumour-necrosis factor from the rabbit. Production by monocytes. Cancer 38 , — Sun, M. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates cardiac remodeling and ventricular dysfunction after pressure overload state. Kapadia, S. Hemodynamic regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium. Saba, S. Esteve-Lanao, J. Impact of training intensity distribution on performance in endurance athletes. Strength Cond. Pluim, B. The athlete's heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function.
Everett, T. Structural atrial remodeling alters the substrate and spatiotemporal organization of atrial fibrillation: a comparison in canine models of structural and electrical atrial remodeling. Pathophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation: a translational appraisal. Alessi, R. Nonuniform distribution of vagal effects on the atrial refractory period. Kovoor, P. Evaluation of the role of I KACh in atrial fibrillation using a mouse knockout model. Voigt, N. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of atrial arrhythmogenesis in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Neef, S. Li, N. Respress, J. Role of RyR2 phosphorylation at S during heart failure progression. Erickson, J. Cell , — Powers, S. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Spach, M. Mounting evidence that fibrosis generates a major mechanism for atrial fibrillation.
Aviles, R. Inflammation as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Rosas, M. Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis. Oeckinghaus, A. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation. Cold Spring Harbor perspect.
Zarubin, T. Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Cell Res. Palomer, X.
Li, J. Role of inflammation and oxidative stress in atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm 7 , — Li, M. Horiuchi, T. Rheumatology 49 , — Venkatesh, D. Endothelial TNF receptor 2 induces IRF1 transcription factor-dependent interferon-beta autocrine signaling to promote monocyte recruitment. Immunity 38 , — Hohensinner, P. Macrophage colony stimulating factor expression in human cardiac cells is upregulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha via an NF-kappaB dependent mechanism.
Thrombosis Haemostasis 5 , — Porter, K. Tumor necrosis factor induces human atrial myofibroblast proliferation, invasion and MMP-9 secretion: inhibition by simvastatin. Kumar, A.
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Mechanical stress activates the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in skeletal muscle fibers: a possible role in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Yokoyama, T. Angiotensin II and mechanical stretch induce production of tumor necrosis factor in cardiac fibroblasts. Zhu, J. Cyclic stretch stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell alignment by redox-dependent activation of Notch3. Hamilton, D. Right atrial and right ventricular transmural pressures in dogs and humans. Effects of the pericardium. Circulation 90 , — Ohba, H. Effects of prolonged strenuous exercise on plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide in healthy men.
Burstein, B. Differential behaviors of atrial versus ventricular fibroblasts: a potential role for platelet-derived growth factor in atrial-ventricular remodeling differences. Kleinbongard, P. Heart Fail. Mann, D. Jobe, L. TNF-alpha inhibition attenuates adverse myocardial remodeling in a rat model of volume overload. Rose, S.
A novel mouse model that develops spontaneous arthritis and is predisposed towards atherosclerosis. Kyoi, S. Opposing effect of p38 MAP kinase and JNK inhibitors on the development of heart failure in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Hoogsteen, J. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in male endurance athletes. A 9-year follow up. Europace 6 , — Return to Book Page. Preview — Fact or Fib? Fact or Fib? True or false?
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