Manual The AMA Handbook of Project Management, Chapter 30: Communities of Practice and Project Management

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Uganda: The National Wetlands Programme. Chad: Traditional management systems and integration of small scale interventions in the Logone floodplains. Costa Rica: The mangrove forests of Sierpe. France: Developing a wise use strategy for the Cotentin and Bessin Marshes. India: Towards sustainable development of the Calcutta Wetlands.

Pakistan: Sustainable management of mangroves in the Indus Delta. The Philippines: Wise use and restoration of mangrove and marine resources in the Central Visayas Region. Vietnam: Rehabilitation of the Melaleuca floodplain forests in the Mekong Delta. Zambia: Wise use of floodplain wetlands in the Kafue Flats. A working group was set up in order to allow the necessary exchange of information amongst experts and to coordinate a number of studies which were financed by the EC. The studies produced by the group cover many of the aspects proposed in the concept of wise use elaborated by the working group of the Ramsar Convention.

They can make a significant contribution to a community-wide policy on wetlands, particularly where addressing the problems at specific wetland sites, identifying problems in a regional context, increasing knowledge and awareness of wetlands and their values, addressing legislation and government policies, and improving institutional arrangements Ramsar Convention Bureau are concerned. This paper summarizes and assesses the information gathered and the main ideas created through the work of the group.

Some of the wetland areas analyzed by the working group are already serving as tests in the real world of the concepts elaborated by the experts. One such case, concerning the Odiel marshes in Spain, is discussed here.

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The paper closes with an overview of how the integrated approach to the multiple use of wetland functions and products could be applied at supranational level in order to give concrete procedures and actions to the term "wise use". Wetlands are environmentally amongst the most sensitive areas in the European Community. Although they now probably cover less than one per cent of its territory, they are among the most productive and fragile ecosystems. Early Mediterranean civilizations were based around coastal wetlands and depended on them for food, water and building materials.

In more recent times these same areas have often been regarded as wastelands. Consequently there has been a massive loss of wetlands, especially in the Mediterranean basin, although data to quantify this are scarce and difficult to obtain. The rate of destruction of remaining wetlands has accelerated this century and has been rapid over the past 40 years. Wetlands are drained for intensive cultivation, to provide land for urbanization and tourist developments. They are reduced and degraded through infilling and inflow of polluted urban, agricultural and industrial waste waters.

Over-fishing, over-hunting and excessive boat traffic deprives wetlands of many of their functions, such as wildlife habitat, food-chain support, and human recreation. Wetland destruction and degradation often have adverse and unforeseen long-term costs, whilst organizations and individuals can make short-term profits from the conversion of wetlands. In the Mediterranean, drainage of excess run-off in winter can result in water shortages in summer and exacerbate drought situations. Irrigation to overcome water shortages for agriculture can be costly and is usually maintained by high levels of public subsidy.

Soil and groundwater salinization, agro-chemical, industrial and urban pollution and disruption of social patterns can result. Destruction of wetland habitat, by whatever means, reduces the abundance and diversity of wetland-dependent flora and fauna, including exploitable fish and shellfish stocks. The vested interests which cause governments, administrations and individuals to use wetlands in a destructive way are powerful and well financed.

Such destructive policies sometimes operate deliberately, for example through publicly declared policies to reclaim land for agriculture. More often, wetland destruction is wrought indirectly, unconsciously or inadvertently. There are strong political short-term disincentives to confront longer-term environmental problems. Financial constraints are of paramount importance.

To improve upon insufficient management, unwise development, deterioration and pollution of wetlands and to conserve these sensitive areas more effectively, one has ultimately to confront indebtedness, inappropriate pricing and institutional arrangements that do not work. In order to tackle these problems, one needs good, large-scale examples of case studies and guidelines for adequate management of wetlands. The concept for a programme on integrated management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type was realized following the Integrated Mediterranean Programmes IMP set up by the European Community in the mid s to improve the socio-economic structures in Greece, southern France and parts of Italy.

At that time, it was recognized that these regions suffer from structural weaknesses such as under-developed agriculture, difficult natural conditions, difficulties in marketing their products, the existence of extensive less-favoured areas with unemployment, a low technology level, industrial crises, and large tourist industries that create socio-economic imbalances and poorly organized administrations. IMPs are multi-annual, cover all sectors and must be consistent with other policies, including the Common Agricultural Policy CAP and the Community policies on nature conservation.

In this context, the service for nature conservation DG XI, B-2 of the European Commission decided that it would be useful to elaborate a baseline concept of integrated management taking into account the particular political requirements related to coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type. The intention was that this concept would serve as a guideline for actions to implement conservation objectives. The concept should enable conservationists to maintain and even to strengthen their position in the dialogue with politicians and lobbyists of commercial claims.

An important consideration was that it should help those in charge of the implementation of the Community environment policy at local level as an efficient administrative tool. The work programme for the development of integrated management structures proposed by the Commission consisted of three types of preparatory actions:.

A methodology for site-specific problem analysis was proposed which would consider the historical and existing situations at a given site, with an analysis and assessment of existing problems. This would include an evaluation of the factors contributing to the current state, proposals for future actions, and an a priori assessment of the factors which may influence future developments of the area Figure 1.

Such analyses were undertaken for 31 coastal wetland sites in Mediterranean EC member states. Although the main focus was on EC wetlands, for comparative purposes, an additional study dealt with five wetlands of the same type in other parts of the Mediterranean. A number of studies on general management aspects also took place. Figure 1. Methodology proposed by the EC for the studies on integrated management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type cf. Klein At the end of this first phase of the work programme, more than 60 experts gathered to exchange experiences and debate the concept of integrated management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type.

General conclusions on progress with site-specific and problem-related analyses were drawn up and used by the EC Commission as a basis for further work during a second phase. For this, two sub-groups were created to deal specifically with the Messolonghi Lagoons in Greece and the Odiel marshes in Spain. Each group organized a field visit and workshop to discuss the management problems. A project-planning method, "ZOPP" German for "objectives-oriented project planning" , was applied to both projects during the workshops.

The method required a team approach to visualise the problems and their inter-relation. Team members representing different interests in the wetland identified their respective core problems, their causes and effects. This was built into specific multi-level branch models of causal links of the problems, and the activities needed to solve them for both Messolonghi and Odiel. The first step of the ZOPP planning method, problem analysis, is concluded when the team is convinced that the essential information has been used to build up a causal network explaining the main cause and effect relationships characterising the problem.

The hierarchy of problems is transformed into a hierarchy of objectives which are then analyzed. The next step is to identify potential alternative solutions and to develop a matrix of the actions required. At this stage it is important to identify whether assumptions were made which would influence the planned activities and adversely affect the desired end result.

To ensure the success of the actions proposed, it is therefore important to re-examine how realistic the assumptions are which have been made during the planning process. Additionally, the Wetland Ecosystems Research Group of the University of Exeter applied their Wetland Evaluation Technique to the Mediterranean sites analyzed in detail in the earlier studies.

Analysis of the questionnaires facilitated a basic understanding of the dynamics and functions of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type Maltby et al. Coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type considered by the working group included river deltas and associated riverine habitats, estuaries, coastal lagoons, lakes and marshes, and endorheic lakes and marshes; most, but not all, are directly linked to the sea. Artificial wetlands, of which some are of ecological value e. The contrast of cool wet winters and hot dry summers is reflected in a particular way in the hydrological regime, temperature, water chemistry and salinity of Mediterranean wetlands.

Potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall for most of the year, during which run-off is infrequent and recharge of groundwater insignificant. Unless such wetlands are fed by external water supplies either from higher rainfall regions or from the sea , the system is likely to be dry for at least part of the summer.

Wetlands directly connected to the sea become periodically highly saline while those without such connections often dry out completely. Surface water run-off and groundwater discharge are essential in supplying coastal wetlands with freshwater, nutrients and other inputs which effectively link marine and coastal wetlands with a much wider hydrological catchment.

Non-coastal wetlands situated further upstream and which are often influenced more by an orographically dominated climate and water regime mountainous regions were not considered. Unlike many coastal areas, the Mediterranean has a very narrow tidal range. Water levels and wetland processes are therefore influenced more by storms and wind direction than by tidal cycles. Many of the coastal Mediterranean wetlands form a complex association with non-wetland habitats dunes, open grassland, scrub, heath and matorral which are intrinsically involved in the functional support of the wetlands themselves; e.

Most of the wetland functions are determined by the subtle interplay of freshwater and marine water. The most prominent processes and functions of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type can be summarized as groundwater recharge and discharge, flood storage and desynchronization of flood peaks, sediment trapping, shoreline anchoring, dissipation of erosive forces, maintenance of water quality, retaining and removing nutrients, food chain support, providing habitat for wildlife, fisheries support and different socio-economic values recreational, economic, aesthetic and educational.

Not all wetlands perform all functions and not all functions are performed to an equal extent Maltby et al. Functions also interact Figure 2. Figure 2. Matrix showing the interaction between different wetland functions Maltby et al. The most important factors causing environmental problems in coastal Mediterranean wetlands are dam projects, water extraction, soil erosion, agricultural intensification with increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides, salinity control measures, pollution from sewage and industrial wastes, overfishing, hunting and tourist development.

Resistance to conservation by local people, internal conflicts between management objectives, and the lack of adapted institutions, adequate finances, scientific resources, and skilled personnel further add to the management difficulties Baldock et al. A specific study dealt with the problem of how best to integrate aquaculture activities into the management of coastal wetlands Cataudella et al. Traditionally, Mediterranean lagoon fisheries have taken advantage of the fact that many marine fish species migrate regularly between the sea and shallow brackish lagoons which they use as spawning grounds.

Thus, for centuries, fish traps were installed at strategic links between lagoons and the sea. Such installations are widely distributed along the Mediterranean coast and can be found in every country with coastal lagoons. The study summarized their functioning, ecology, and socio-economics, focusing mainly on the "vallicoltura" in the lagoons of the northern Adriatic and other sites on the Italian coast. In some lagoons, shellfish is also commercially exploited, either with ground-nets or by cultivating the desired species on artificial banks.

The danger of exploiting these resources above a sustainable level is real in several places. On the other hand, aquacultural installations often suffer from dystrophic crises during the hot summer months and from water pollution in the lagoons, which are still used in many places as recipient basins for only partially or untreated sewage. Additionally, piscivorous birds such as cormorants, herons, gulls and terns are seen by fishermen as competitors depleting a resource in which the fishermen have heavily invested. Several studies have investigated the extent of such damage and evaluated means of deterring the birds with acoustic devices or preventing them access to the fish with nets spanning smaller basins.

The problems are, on balance, of lesser commercial importance than was initially believed and always restricted to specific localities and seasons. In places where new aquaculture infrastructures are to be installed, environmental impact assessments EIA are needed to assess the capacity of the hydrological regime and the long-term viability of the wetland to support the proposed installation. The sustainable exploitation of such renewable coastal lagoon resources by means of non- or semi-intensive aquaculture based on traditional methods is considered by the authors of the study to be compatible with the integrated management and the conservation of coastal Mediterranean wetlands.

However, this applies only where the coastal lagoons are clearly zoned in areas where either aquaculture and fisheries , tourism boat traffic, surfing, swimming, etc , or conservation wildlife refuges are dominant patterns of use. Nevertheless, plans for regular restocking of the commercially exploited species with fry from fish farms need to be elaborated to ensure real sustainable exploitation. Further research into the ecology of the species exploited and improved environmental training of personnel working in aquaculture are needed.

Increased finances are likely to be needed to compensate landowners, and to cover restoration costs and training programmes Cataudella et al. Sound integrated management of wetlands depends on a clear understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes which control their functions. General recommendations concern: a the importance of the catchment scale when examining processes and impacts, as well as appropriate management strategies; b the need for active monitoring of the water table and hydrological budget of a wider range of wetlands than currently is the case, particularly in the light of increasing pressures on aquifers for alternative water use irrigation, tourism ; c the assessment of sedimentation rates, inputs from soil erosion in the catchment, and erosion rates at the seaward edge of the wetland complex, together with analysis of the effects of water regulation structures and land use change on the stability and functions of the system; and d the development of practical restoration or mitigation options Maltby et al.

Integrated management can be divided into four main activities: shielding against negative influences , control of ecological and socio-economic influences , utilization of natural resources , and design and structuring i. None of the studies came up with a concept of integrated management which would have been transferable from the region of its creation to another Mediterranean country, although some basic considerations were repeatedly mentioned.

It was considered useful to direct a major effort to follow up the initial analyses in the site-specific studies, taking account of the special features of the ecosystem complexes, the apparent deficiencies of the direct application of existing methodologies and the need for active collaboration with a variety of regional specialists Maltby et al. Above all, integration means the synchronization of opposing interests in this case in a given wetland and its resources towards a common goal of conservation and sustainable utilization. If this is done properly, i. To achieve such integration, the roles of the various organizations - governmental and non-governmental, local, regional, national and supranational - need to be clarified.

To give adequate recognition to such an integrated planning procedure, and to demonstrate its importance to other administrations ministries , it was proposed that an authority for integrated management would be created at the appropriate administrative level, and that a manual on integrated management techniques and procedures would be elaborated Malakou et al. Besides having to deal with the supra national policy for integrated management, such an authority would have to deal with the different wetlands on a case-by-case basis.

It might be useful to regroup smaller wetlands into larger administrative units. Day-to-day management would need to be based on an integrated management plan, and the wetland area would need to be zoned. This zonation would have to include, at least for basic considerations, the whole hydrological catchment area. Figure 3a. ZOPP analysis of management problems at the Odiel marshes.

Figure 3b. ZOPP analysis of management objectives for the Odiel marshes. The sub-group created to deal with the Marismas del Odiel, a coastal marsh at the mouth of the rivers Odiel and Tinto next to the industrial town of Huelva on Spain's southern Atlantic coast, met for the first time in October This enabled the local office of the regional governmental environment agency, Agencia de Medio Ambiente AMA , to coordinate a detailed study on the history, the environmental problems and pollution, and the development options for Odiel.

Their conclusions were integrated in a detailed analysis of the history, environmental problems, and management constraints and proposals. This "Preparatory action concerning the Integrated Management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type" occupied a core group of about 30 experts for roughly three years of part-time work, spending an EC budget of nearly , ECUs on specific studies and meetings. ACE projects were therefore selected for EC co-financing according to the benefits they proposed to contribute to the survival of threatened bird species as listed in Annex I of the Directive by conserving or restoring the particular habitat in precisely delimited areas upon which a number of these bird species depend.

Article 4 of the Directive mentions specifically the conservation of wetlands, especially those of international importance as habitat for migrating waterbirds i. As a result, such ACE projects consisted mostly of land acquisition in order to protect and conserve particular natural habitats. The programme of actions leading towards integrated management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type was therefore a conceptual novelty for DG XI since it addressed nature conservation issues of a more complicated nature. The partners involved needed to gain experience, and the efficiency of their work should be judged with this in mind.

During the process, useful debate took place between the partners, and some very important information on particular sites and the administrative and political structures was gathered, and, in some cases, also presented to a wider audience. At seven sites, ACE projects for land purchase and habitat improvement were already running when the studies on their integrated management were commissioned; at two additional sites, ACE projects were soon to start. The elaboration of the studies on integrated management had a clear influence on many of the ACE projects in broadening their approach to include management aspects.

The mutual exchange of expertise, information and experience amongst the technical and regional experts of the working group on integrated management proved to be highly valuable, both within the group and through outside contacts. The work of this group was essential in preparing the ground for the symposium on "Managing Mediterranean wetlands and their birds for the year and beyond", held in February in the Adriatic town of Grado. During the symposium, participants developed "A strategy to stop and reverse wetland loss and degradation in the Mediterranean basin" Anon One may criticize the imbalance of the quantity of paper produced compared with the number of concrete actions following on the ground.

Additionally, besides extremely important matters, much rather marginal information was also compiled and buried in a small number of internal draft reports. Some of these reports are unstructured, badly presented, unedited, and exist only in a small number of photocopies. They have most probably never been read by more than a few selected insiders. On the other hand, some authorities e. This is in line with the principle that the free flow of information is an essential prerequisite for achieving integrated management.

The Camargue study even merited publication by a commercial publisher Boulot Although the Messolonghi gulf wetlands study did not produce an easily accessible written output, discussions between the study group members and local people were essential to furthering the understanding of the ecological and management problems of the area's wetlands. They also created awareness at the local and national level of the potential impacts of important developments in aquaculture and hydraulic works, particularly in the Acheloos river delta at the western end of the gulf.

According to the "subsidiarity principle", the role of the EC is limited to initiating activities at Community level without interfering at the regional level. The preliminary actions towards integrated management of Mediterranean wetlands initiated by DG XI need therefore to be followed up at the regional and local level by regional and local initiatives. Where it has not already been done, the results of the valuable preliminary studies need to be edited, published and distributed widely amongst key people.

Regions should be encouraged to follow examples set elsewhere. It should be seen as a way of instigating public debate on the issues raised, confronting the different interest groups, and commencing the integration of management proposals at a local and regional level. These follow-up activities, all part of good wetland conservation practice, should receive further EC support. Ultimately, the implementation of integrated management of coastal wetlands of Mediterranean type should be refined in light of future experience. It can then be adapted and applied to all Community wetlands, including non-coastal wetlands and those of Atlantic type e.

The present programme has laid solid groundwork to this end. This paper addresses wetland conservation at the supranational level, i. The EC is unique in its structure as a supranational entity with a central administration that was given the power to unify and streamline nature conservation policies, while, at the same time, the implementation of these directives has to be based on national laws and policies.

This mix of administrative powers and the existence of powerful lobbies such as agriculture, industry at international and national level explains many of the difficulties and the slow progress experienced while working towards the wise use of wetlands and their resources within the EC. Comparing the EC programme of integrated wetland management with the guidelines for wise use as prepared by the Ramsar Convention working group, it becomes clear that the EC programme has made a substantial contribution towards the implementation of the wise use concept, especially towards the establishment of a community-wide wetland policy, integrating the best parts of the different national wetland policies.

The work programme on integrated management has yet to contribute in any depth to the following fields of the concept of wise use:. In addition, the training of appropriate staff in the disciplines which will assist in implementation of wetland conservation action and policies has barely been touched upon by the studies and the working group. These issues could form the basis for specific programmes in the near future. A study leading to the integration of different, recently-established national and regional wetland policies into a unified community-wide policy would be most beneficial.

Above all, it would be preferable to seek to implement effectively, and without delay, the knowledge on integrated management already gained during the work summarized in this paper. For more than a decade the three countries have cooperated to protect and conserve the Wadden Sea as an ecological entity, and it is included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention. The Convention's concept of wise use has been of major importance in the framework of the trilateral Dutch-German-Danish cooperation as it constitutes a common organizing principle in terms of defining common principles and objectives for a wetland system shared by three countries.

The Wadden Sea is a shallow coastal area with extensive tidal flats, saltmarshes, sandbanks and islands, all subject to formation and erosion by wind and water. It has a coastline of about km, from Den Helder in the Netherlands to the Skallingen peninsula in Denmark Figure 1. Its width averages some 10 km, although in some areas it can reach a width of more than 30 km. Although it covers an area of almost 8, km2, changes in tidal amplitude mean that the Wadden Sea lacks a clear borderline. Tidal amplitude, which changes with the phases of the moon and is affected by wind, is about 1.

Twenty-three islands with sand dunes and 14 sandbanks form a barrier to the North Sea. The Wadden Sea region includes the whole coastal area from Den Helder in the Netherlands to the Skallingen peninsula in Denmark, a coastline of about km. For marine organisms, the Wadden Sea is a severe environment, yet it is characterized by a very high biomass production and an ecological importance extending far beyond its borders. Saltmarsh, a transition zone between sea and land, is the habitat of a large number of plant species, most of which are salt-tolerant.

Many invertebrates, especially insects and spiders, also depend on the Wadden Sea's saltmarshes, and there are more than endemic species, sub-species and ecotypes. The Wadden Sea is important for breeding birds and for the numerous passage migrants which feed, moult and roost. Six to twelve million individuals of more than 50 species utilize the area throughout the year. Of species of fish recorded for the Wadden Sea, 22 species are common, 26 fairly common, 16 scarce, 12 rare and 22 extremely rare. Most are migratory and are therefore only present in certain periods of the year.

A number of commercially important fish are dependent on the Wadden Sea, e. Until , the population size of the Common Seal Phoca vitulina decreased steadily, due mainly to hunting. The Dutch population only started to increase after , pollution having depressed breeding success prior to this date. Traditionally, man has used the Wadden Sea for farming, fishing and hunting for many hundreds of years. The Wadden Sea borders on one of the most populated and industrialized areas of Europe where advances in technology allied to industrial development and an increase in recreational activities have had a substantial impact on the ecosystems of both the Wadden Sea and its adjacent areas.

Damage to or loss of biotopes as a result of new infrastructure, e. The saltmarshes of the Wadden Sea are the largest of their type in Europe, but are a modest remainder of an extensive landscape of salt and brackish marshes, peatland and lakes which, up to some two thousand years ago, occurred in the border region between pleistocene and marine deposits. Embankment for human habitation and the subsidence of peat soil were quickly followed by storm surges which inundated the area. New saltmarshes formed through the sedimentation of sand and silt, often stimulated by human interference.

One by one, the inundated areas were diked, yet only after was it possible to reclaim the land taken by the sea. The pace of land reclamation eventually outstripped saltmarsh formation and the area of saltmarsh gradually decreased. During the last fifty years, about 15, ha of saltmarsh have been embanked, an area equivalent to roughly half of the current saltmarsh Common Wadden Sea Secretariat Disruption of processes that maintain the productivity and health of the system through the input of nutrients and pollutants which reach the Wadden Sea via rivers, the North Sea and the atmosphere.

Rivers are the major source of pollution in the Wadden Sea, the Elbe bringing by far the highest amounts of nutrients and contaminants. Dumping of dredged material, which includes roughly one third of all lead input, is another important source of heavy metals reaching the Wadden Sea. No clear decreasing trend in nitrogen inputs can be found for the total Wadden Sea but phosphorus inputs seem to be decreasing slowly.

There are strong indications that polychrorinated biphenols PCBs reduce the reproductivity of seals and that substances, or combinations thereof, attack the immune system of seals so that they become more susceptible to infections. Possible sea-level rise as a result of the enhanced greenhouse effect may pose a substantial threat to the Wadden Sea ecosystem. It is estimated that an average cm of sand and silt is deposited every year, against an expected sea-level rise of 0. In addition to this, an increase in the height of the average tide and the subsidence of the sea bed should be added in those areas of the Wadden Sea where gas is extracted.

Mainland saltmarshes may be able to withstand a cm sea-level rise, whereas the tidal flats in the tidal basins with relatively small intertidal areas will tend to disappear even under the influence of a relatively small sea-level rise of 0. Whether further sedimentation on flats in tidal basins with extended intertidal areas can keep pace with a 0. Blue mussel fishing is a highly important economic activity in the Wadden Sea, total yields averaging about , tonnes. The mussel fishery is mainly carried out on culture lots, and currently about 10, ha of the Wadden Sea are designated as such.

Mussel and seed fishery have resulted in the complete loss of old mature mussel banks in the Dutch Wadden Sea and in a considerable reduction of their number and biomass in the German and Danish Wadden Sea. The impact of culture beds has local effects as well as wider ecosystem effects, such as changes in habitat and species composition, food competition with other organisms and a change in nutrient and primary-production balance in areas with culture beds.

There are further indications that culture beds cause food shortages for other filter feeders and result in lower levels of species abundance, including the number and distribution of birds, in adjacent areas. Disturbance to wildlife as a result of recreation, hunting and military activities. The Wadden Sea region is an important area for tourism.

The tourist industry has developed into one of the most important activities in terms of income and employment. Most of the islands are fully dependent on income from tourism. In addition to the loss of biotopes and changing structures within the ecosystem resulting from the construction of tourism infrastructure, e. Disturbance during the critical May to September period, the peak time for tourism, can reduce the viability of animal populations by lowering reproductive success and by increasing mortality rates. In order to protect the Wadden Sea as an area of international importance, a large part has been given protected area, nature reserve or national park status by the authorities responsible in the three countries.

The three Wadden Sea countries cooperate to protect the Wadden Sea as an ecological entity. This trilateral cooperation is based on the Joint Declaration on the Protection of the Wadden Sea , in which the governments undertake to consult each other in order to coordinate their activities to implement a number of international legal instruments in the field of nature protection, e.

Within the framework of this trilateral cooperation, the parties established the Common Wadden Sea Secretariat in The assessment of the current state of the Wadden Sea leads to the conclusion that, although considerable progress in the field of nature and environmental protection has been made on a national, as well as an international, level, the quality of the ecosystem needs to be significantly improved in order to restore and maintain its natural potential, as required by the wise use concept of the Ramsar Convention. To begin with, the protection measures of the national authorities must be enhanced in order to improve the quality of the ecosystem, and they must be harmonized between the three Wadden Sea countries to be effective.

However, the legal and administrative systems of the three countries differ and, as a result, different solutions to basically similar problems impede their mutual effectiveness. It is here that the wise use concept of the Ramsar Convention comes into the picture. Until now, the national and international Wadden Sea policies have primarily been concerned with the conservation of 'actual values' of parts of the ecosystem, e. This, however, provides no guarantee for maintaining the values and potentials of the whole system.

In fact there are, as stated above, many indications that the Wadden Sea ecosystem is still deteriorating. In conclusion, better guarantees for maintaining the natural properties of the Wadden Sea ecosystem can be provided by a policy based upon conservation and wise use. It should be emphasized that the key concept is to increase natural values, which may mean a decrease in actual uses. The extent to which such a policy is implemented is determined by politicians.

The concept of wise use, as applied in the framework of the trilateral Wadden Sea policy, can be visualized by the flow diagram Figure 2. Flow diagram of the Wadden Sea wise use concept. The guiding principle of the Wadden Sea policy is to determine the goal and the nature and direction of policy, based upon the wise use concept. The actual situation of the Wadden Sea can be described in terms of utilization, ecological values and threats, and is relatively well known, although differences exist as to the assessment of the situation.

The reference situation describes the potential natural values of the ecosystem. It is a hypothetical ecosystem composed of up-to-date scientific knowledge and serves as a calibration instrument. Ecological references are values assigned to parameters describing the reference situation. The ecosystem parameters must provide relevant information about an aspect of the ecosystem. Furthermore, the parameters should: a be easy to measure and be based on sufficient scientific information; b have political and social appeal; and c be indicative of human influences on the ecosystem.

Together, the complete set of parameters must provide sufficient information about the quality of the ecosystem, while at the same time they must be limited in order to be applicable in practice. It should be emphasized, however, that there are many problems related to assigning concrete values to parameters describing the Wadden Sea. In evolutionary terms, the Wadden Sea is in its infancy, subject to very strong fluctuations which make it difficult to discern anthropogenic influences from 'background noise'.

It is, furthermore, an open and heterogenous system. Currently, the preliminary basic conditions necessary for achieving the reference situation are that:. In conclusion, by comparing the actual situation with the reference situation, it can be assessed how far the actual situation is diverging from the reference. In consequence, political targets can be set in order to turn the actual situation in the direction of an ecosystem in which the quality is in accordance with the guiding principle.

Management principles are intermediate between overall policy and politics, linking the guiding principle with the actual situation in the area, where people live, work and pursue recreational activities. Management structures integrate the above elements and contain guidelines for the application of the elements in specific management plans.

Feedback is achieved through monitoring and research in order to assess the effects of the measures taken. It can also influence the reference that is currently used in that it provides new insights and, possibly, results in the setting of new political targets. At the Sixth Governmental Conference on the Protection of the Wadden Sea in November , the above concept of wise use of the Wadden Sea was adopted, with the aim of maintaining the actual values and potentials of the ecosystem as a whole.

The wise use concept is the cohesive element in the common, trilateral protection of the Wadden Sea. The guiding principle of the trilateral Wadden Sea policy is "to achieve, as far as possible, a natural and sustainable ecosystem in which natural processes proceed in an undisturbed way". It aims to:. Improve the quality of water, sediment and air to levels that are not harmful to the ecosystem;. Maintain the scenic qualities of the landscape, in particular the variety of landscape types and their specific features.

The Wadden Sea is not an isolated nature area. It is used extensively by people, whose activities demand common management principles as a basis for the actual conservation and management of the area by the respective national authorities. These are:. The Principle of Careful Decision Making, i.

The Principle of Avoidance, i. The Precautionary Principle, i. The Principle of Translocation, i. The Principle of Compensation, i. The Principle of Restoration, i.


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For each of the common uses, impacts and human activities in the area, common objectives have been set, based upon the above-mentioned principles. Examples which demonstrate the implementation of the principles and the level of common regulations are:. To harmonize the interests of nature protection and the essential safety of an area's inhabitants, there has been agreement on the prohibition of sea-walls and minimization of the unavoidable loss of biotopes through sea defence measures.

Measures to protect saltmarshes and dunes have also been agreed in order to allow natural processes to take place, with special emphasis on flora and fauna; e. It has been agreed to close sizeable areas of the Wadden Sea to cockle and mussel fisheries, including intertidal and subtidal areas, in order to limit their negative ecological impact.

To maintain the recreational values of the Wadden Sea, and to protect sensitive areas for birds and seals, it has been agreed to establish zones where recreational activities, including excursions by ship and recreational boating, is forbidden. In other areas, speed limits for boats are to be set and the use of jet-skis and similar motorized craft may only be carried out in small designated areas. The use of hovercrafts and jet-scooters will be prohibited altogether. For civil air traffic, minimum altitudes of between 1, and 2, feet will be set.

Lower flight altitudes of to 1, feet will be allowed in designated flight corridors in less vulnerable areas. The hunting of migratory species in the Wadden Sea will be progressively phased out, and the hunting of non-migratory species will only be permitted if it can be clearly established that migratory species will not be harmed. The use of lead shot for shooting over the Wadden Sea is to be prohibited. Whilst the above activities are carried out mainly in the Wadden Sea and adjacent areas, the input of surplus nutrients and pollution, such as heavy metals and organic micropollutants, originates primarily from the catchment area of the North Sea, and also reach the Wadden Sea via atmospheric pollution.

It is therefore necessary to take measures to reduce or, where necessary, eliminate such inputs. In addition, the Wadden Sea countries have taken measures to reduce the direct input of pollutants into the Wadden Sea, prohibit discharges from off-shore installations, and reduce pesticide emissions.

Operational pollution and accidental discharges which originate from shipping will be eliminated or minimized by the establishment of a vessel-traffic-information system for ships carrying hazardous substances; compulsory pilotage for ships of a certain size; and making available adequate port-reception facilities for harmful ship wastes and garbage. There is common agreement among the Wadden Sea countries with regard to the protection of migrating waterfowl along the East Atlantic Flyway, of which the Wadden Sea is a core area.

Project Management Fundamentals

The common wise use principles and objectives outlined above are currently being implemented in national instruments, measures and management. The Wadden Sea countries have agreed the establishment of a special conservation area, for which a coordinated management plan will be prepared. The management plan will include a comprehensive set of measures aimed at achieving common ecological targets by the time of the next Governmental Conference in The plan will also give consideration to whether zoning can be used to improve the protection of the Wadden Sea, in particular the designation of adjacent buffer zones in order to enable better regulation of activities outside the Wadden Sea but which impact on the Wadden Sea ecosystem; and to the need to harmonize zoning measures within the Wadden Sea, including the designation of special protection zones.

The wise use concept plays a vital role in the trilateral cooperation on the protection of the Wadden Sea in that it is the common denominator linking together three countries, each with different legal and administrative structures. As such, it provides the basis for the maintenance of the natural values and resources of a shared wetland system.

Such wetland systems often suffer from different measures being undertaken by the different countries involved, with the result that wise use is not achieved for the wetland system as a whole. The wise use principle may thus prove to be an outstanding tool for transboundary cooperation. Common principles of policy and management, and common goals, are therefore indispensable in attempting to manage shared wetland systems in a sustainable way.

Another very important aspect of the application of wise use in the Wadden Sea is the development of a conceptual framework and its implementation in terms of policy and management in the three countries. Two points are worthy of note here. Firstly, the wise use concept combines the conservation of the system's natural values and resources with its sustainable utilization. Secondly, the concept of wise use demonstrates the need to develop measures for assessing the state of the ecosystem, followed by the practical implementation of wise use principles. Constant monitoring of and research into the application of wise use practices are necessary to ensure that objectives are being met.

Where new knowledge or insights are gained from such research, targets can adjusted with the aim of improving still further the wise use activities being undertaken in the wetland ecosystem. This Wadden Sea case study demonstrates the value of viewing wise use from an international perspective, and at different levels: on a global scale, wise use must address a reduction in the greenhouse effect; at the level of migratory flyways for waterfowl, it means adequate protection of habitats which are critical for their survival and life cycles; where it concerns the catchment area of the North Sea, it means a reduction in, and where necessary the elimination of, pollutants and surplus nutrients; at the level of the Wadden Sea as an entity, it means the conservation of the ecosystem and the regulation of human utilization; and at a local level, it might encompass the phasing out of certain activities, including the strict application of zoning.

The wise use concept is a dynamic approach to the problems that wetlands, national or shared, face and, as such, it is a powerful instrument for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands.


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However, a profound challenge to the Wadden Sea, and the wise use activities being pursued, is sea-level rise as a result of the greenhouse effect. To lessen this effect, the sustainable development of the Wadden Sea requires the application of the wise use principle on a global scale. Jens A. They provide a major portion of the nation's freshwater supply, significant pollution sinks, interaction with groundwater supplies, as well as watershed flood protection, water quality enhancement, and wildlife habitat.

Canada's wetland resources also provide a significant contribution to the national economy.

The AMA Handbook of Project Management

Some of the economic sectors that benefit greatly by the presence and ecological functions of wetlands are:. These benefits include:. Current trends and results of monitoring studies indicate Canada has experienced a major loss of wetlands. In total, over one seventh 20 million hectares of the original wetland area of Canada is estimated to have been converted to other land uses. The most severe losses of wetlands are coincident with areas of major urban concentration and extensive agricultural development.

The factors causing wetland decline are many and vary in intensity and geographical focus. Flooding of large areas for reservoirs for hydro-electricity production and water level management in areas such as the Great Lakes shared with the United States are other important factors. While wetland use and conversion have historically contributed to the socio-economic development of Canada, continuing wetland degradation and loss are reaching critical levels in some areas.

She specializes in Human Resources and Organizational Behavior. Her clientele spans across industries, including: financial, real estate, technology, healthcare, consumer products, energy, transportation and automotive. She was awarded a Fulbright Scholar grant to Armenia. Prior to entering academia, Dr. Parks-Yancy worked in human resources, specifically recruitment, training and development.

The AMA handbook of project management (Book, ) [uvinigyz.tk]

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