His archetypical portrayals in the Dead Sea Scrolls, differently nuanced in Hebrew and Aramaic, embodied the tensions for groups that were struggling to understand both their distinctive self-identities within Judaism and their relationship to the nations among whom they lived. Dually located within a trajectory of early Christian and rabbinic interpretation of Noah and within the Jewish Hellenistic milieu of the Second Temple period, this study of the Noah traditions in the Dead Sea Scrolls illuminates living conversations and controversies among the people who transmitted them and promises to have implications for ancient questions and debates that extended considerably beyond the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Author: Mark Brighton. Detailed rhetorical analyses are provided not only for the Masada narrative, where Josephus tells how the Sicarii famously committed suicide, but also for all other places in War where their activities are described or must be inferred from the context. The study shows how Josephus adopted the Sicarii in his narrative to develop and bring to a resolution several major themes in War.
Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement. Powered by: PubFactory. Sign in to annotate. Ellis, Kail C. The Vatican, Islam, and the Middle East. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, Firestone, R. Goitein, S. New York: Schoken Books, McAulliffe, Jane. New York: Cambridge University Press, Newby, G.
Columbia, S. Peters FE. Princeton: Princeton. Stillman, N. Wassenstrom, S. Portland, Or. Watt, Montgomery W. Muslim-Christian Encounters: Perceptions and Misperceptions. London and New York: Routledge, Islam has Academic Article. Muslim, Jews and Christians - Relations and Interactions. The Early Centuries of Muslim History The period of the first caliphs and the subsequent era of the Umayyads was a time in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians negotiated the new power arrangements. Muslim, Jewish, and Christian communities have all suffered from conflicts pitting one group against another.
As with any conflict, this period has produced considerable polemic. References Armstrong, K. Cragg, Kenneth. The Call of the Minaret. New York: Oxford University Press, Sandals at the Mosque. Hourani, A. Europe and the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, King, N. Christian and Muslim in Africa. New York: Harper and Row, Lewis, Bernard. Esther, Judith, and Susanna are contributions to the theoretical debate on the nature of women and their competence as political leaders.
Because of formal and ideological similarities between Esther and the books of Judith and Susanna, I have suggested here that all three can be seen as serving that purpose. Ioudith plays a definitive mediating role for the early Christians linking Jewish Scriptures to Christian theology through pairing Judith and Mary. The book demonstrates an early form of Jewish asceticism. It allows modern scholars to understand how Judaism itself evolved from a religion of birthright to a religion of choice and presents an early example of a conversion to Judaism in the ancient world.
It contained an important set of literary innovations that constituted a critical chapter in the creation of the modern book as we know it. It is one of the earliest examples of historical fiction and is a precursor to the modern novel. It is one of the most eloquent rhetorical constructions in antiquity promoting the leadership capabilities of women, and was perhaps composed as propaganda for a Jewish queen.
Jewish languages, Jewish music, and the anthropology of Judaism
It also remains one of the most important source texts from antiquity about the social conditions of woman in the Second Temple period. Then the story reappeared in midrash Jewish tales and piyyut prayers. The Book of Judith was preserved by Christian tradition, however. Though apparently lost to the Jews, the Book of Judith exercised a formative influence on the creation of models of Christian piety and asceticism. Several literary milestones from the first five centuries of Christianity illuminate the ways that Judith was appropriated as a model for Christian spirituality.
Christianity in the 1st century
The first reference to the Book of Judith in the Roman period was by Clement, the third bishop of Rome. The fourth-century Roman Christian poet Prudentius, in his influential Latin poem Psychomachia , typologically paired Judith with Mary and used Judith allegorically as a figure of chastity cf. Mastrangelo, Chap. His influence was formative in the development of the place of Judith in Marian theology.
Origins of the Written Bible
The Roman Catholic tradition considers the book to be of divine inspiration deemed deuterocanonical. Categorized as apocryphal originally meaning secret , it was considered by Protestants a story worthy of moral instruction, but not divinely inspired.
The theological divide between Catholics and Protestants had a profound impact on the iconographical treatment of Judith. Schmitz rhetorically and philologically analyzes the Septuagint and convincingly locates the writing within Greek and Roman literary traditions and provides a new cipher to help us understand the representation of Holofernes.
Deborah Levine Gera analyzes the changes rendered in character, setting, and plot in the tenth-century Hebrew midrash tales through which Judith was reintroduced to Hebrew tradition after a thousand-year, unexplained hiatus. When Judith returns in these tales, Judith is a younger, more vulnerable figure.
Susan Weingarten suggests that Megillat Yehudit was written as Jewish counter-history, presenting Judith as a sexual being; setting honeyed manna against the Christian Eucharist; and creating a heroine-queen who has a redemptive function, like David and Esther. Ruth von Bernuth and Michael Terry challenge the assumption that Jewish and Christian interaction was limited during the reformation.
This argument has implications for the way we understand both Ashkenazic attitudes to the Renaissance and the Reformation and the relationship of Old Yiddish literature to Christian German sources. He argues that by locating the Christian doctrine of free will in a typological series of female figures Judith, Mary, and Pudicitia , Prudentius has made female agency the ideal for both males and females and the imitation of female weakness and chastity a source of moral strength for all. The latter are taken as the foundation of the representation of Judith in subsequent French literature.
He demonstrates the use each author makes of the biblical model. She reveals the early modern metamorphosis of the ambiguous biblical heroine. This epic was later translated into English and used to endorse both Catholic and Protestant regimes.
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The late medieval development of illustrated short versions of the Judith story contributed significantly to developing the iconography of Judith as seductress and, finally, femme fatale. Judith iconography was nurtured in illuminated manuscript traditions such as the Winchester Bible and the illuminated manuscript of the Speculum Virginum , or Mirror of Virgins.
Donatello, Caravaggio, and both Artemisia and Orazio Gentileschi created works based on the subject of Judith. The sculpture Judith and Holofernes became a metaphor for Medici rule in Florence. The five papers on the visual arts elaborate these themes. Crum analyzes the social and ideological content given to these two Old Testament figures in Renaissance Florence.
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Crum uses the different deployments of representations of Judith versus David to explore the way that the negotiation between public and private realms reflected tensions between Florentine private interests and public responsibilities. Ciletti shows how these works are congruent with a large corpus of polemical writings on Judith written in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and argues that they helped convert Judith into a weapon of Catholic orthodoxy.
This section contains six essays that examine dramatic musical works and theatrical stage productions of Judith. The earliest work addressed in the essays was composed in , the date of the earliest opera on the subject of Judith. Following a tradition that stretched back to the sacra rappresentazione, which flourished during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Italy, virtually every performance of a Judith play included at least some music.
Marsh provides a survey and textual analysis of some sixty years of libretti written on the theme between and and set to music as late as From being an individual and a strong supporter of individualistic action and female agency, Judith gradually changed and became the representative of the general will and action in operatic tradition. This transformation occurred in the context of important new biblical translation projects, both Catholic and Protestant, which revalued the sanctity and historicity of the text. The Jewish narrative is connected to the Jewish Question and used to negotiate images of Jews and Jewishness.
As the earliest extant text, the study of the Book of Judith in the Septuagint is one of the foundations of Judith Studies. There are two other formative factors that set the conditions for the study of Judith. One is the subject of the thousand-year lacuna in the mention of Judith in Jewish writings and the omission of the book from the Hebrew Bible. The second is the uniquely determining influence of biblical canonical traditions, Catholic and Protestant, on the representation and reception of the Judith story. These two prominent topics, and others, are explored in the introductory chapters on Judith in Jewish and Christian textual traditions.
Medvedev has written, seeing perception is shaped by genres of expression. As the Book of Judith was translated and the story has been retold in new genres, new aspects of Judith and her tale have been made visible. Each genre possesses definite principles of selection and a definite scope and depth of penetration. Sie lebt nur in diesem Augenblick. II, no. Wright eds. Biblical books are referenced with the short titles following the Chicago style cf. Moore , p. Mohr Paul Siebeck , ; repr. Albert J. Kevin R.