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Ich habe versucht, es ihm zu zeigen, ja. I tried to show him, yeah, yeah. Ich habe versucht, es ihm zu zeigen, ja, ja. Yeah, yeah, yeah. Goin' on you with the pick and roll. Auf dich gehen mit Hacke und Walze. Young LaFlame yeah he's in sicko mode. Junger LaFlame, ja, er ist im Spinnermodus. Made this here with all the ice on in the booth. Habe das hier mit dem ganzen Eis an in der Zelle gemacht. At the gate outside, when they pull up, they get me loose. Yeah, Jump Out boys, that's Nike boys, hop in our coupes.

This shit way too big,. Wenn wir ankommen, gib mir die Beute gib mir die Beute! Was off the Remy, had to Papoose. War weg vom Remy, musste Papoose. Had to hit my old town to duck the news. Musste in meine alte Stadt kommen um vor den Neuigkeiten untertauchen. Two-four all on lockdown, we make no moves. Von zwei bis vier alles zu, wir machen keine Bewegung. Now it's 4AM and I'm back up poppin' with the crew.

Jetzt ist es 4 Uhr morgens und ich bin wieder auf mit der Crew am auftauchen. I just landed in Chase B mixes pop like Jamba juice. Ich bin gerade in Chase B Mixen gelandet, knallen wie Jambasaft. Different colored chains, see my jeweler really selling fruits. And they joking, man, know the crackers wish it was a noose. Someone said. To win the retreat, we all in too deep. Playing for keeps, don't play us for weak Someone said. Playing for keeps, don't play us for weak. This shit way too formal, ya'll know I don't follow suit.

Stacy Dash, most these of girls ain't got a clue. All of these hoes I made off records I produced. Alle dieser Huren habe ich aus Aufnahmen, die ich produziert habe, gemacht. I might take all my exes and put 'em all in a group. Hit my eses, I need the booch. Triff meine Erleichterung, ich brauche den Koks. Bout to turn this function to Bonnaroo. Dabei diese Funktion zu Bonnaroo zu machen. Told her "hop in, you coming too". Habe ihr gesagt "Spring rein, du kommst auch". In the ,. Had to slop the top off, it's just a roof. She said "where we going? Sie hat gesagt "Wohin gehen wir? I said "the moon", we ain't even make it to the room.

Ich habe gesagt "zum Mond", wir haben's nicht einmal ins Zimmer geschafft. She thought it was the ocean, it's just the pool. Now I got her open, it's just the Goose. Warum hat Julie den Stierkampf im Fernsehen gestern Abend verurteilt? Es gelingt mir nicht. In der Nacht werfe ich mich im Bett hin und her und warte auf den Schlaf.

Ist dieses Ding, das 'Ich' genannt wird, nicht nur eine in Ehren gehaltene Wunde aus der Vergangenheit?

The Poems | gottfriedbennpoems

Ich werde am 8. Ich beginne das Licht am Ende des Tunnels zu sehen. Oder vielleicht den Tunnel am Ende des Lichts. Bitte mach das Licht aus. Es ist Viertel nach sechs. Sie sind es, die mit der Gesellschaft in Konflikt stehen. Deshalb laufen Sie auf Ihrer Suche nach Frieden von ihr weg. Die Welt kann nicht anders sein, als sie ist," sagt U.

Aber ich will nicht ich selbst sein. Ich will sein wie er. Wahrscheinlich nie, nehme ich an. Und was jetzt? Harry, dessen Mutter ihn als 'intellektuellen Zwerg' bezeichnet, schenkt U. Heute hat er ihm wieder Geld gegeben. Wissen Sie warum? Das ist der Grund. Das Thema des Todes scheint in all unseren Unterhaltungen wieder aufzutauchen.

Τελευταία Νέα

In diesem Moment klingelt des Telephon. Hier ist die Botschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, wir rufen aus Thailand an. Ich werde ihn rufen. Ich bemerke, wie er zunehmend zittrig wird. Er erteilt sie. Das Ende ist hart. Ich bin viel gelaufen hier. Weniger Essen wird Ihnen nicht schaden, aber mehr wird Sie mit Sicherheit schneller umbringen," sagt U. Sie ist sprachlos. Aufgeschnapptes aus U. Einsichten haben nichts zu bedeuten. In einer bestimmten Lebenssituation benimmt sich ein Mensch mit Einsicht genau wie jeder andere auch.

In den meisten Situationen wollen Sie zwei Dinge gleichzeitig haben. All Ihr feministisches Gerede ist keinen Pfifferling wert. Einfach wegen des Geldes, der Sicherheit. Sehen Sie jetzt, was Geld Ihnen bedeutet? Es ist das, was offenbart, wo Sie wirklich stehen. Sie kontrollieren dich, indem sie dir Geld geben und sie kontrollieren dich, indem sie dir kein Geld geben Solange Sie von jemandem etwas haben wollen, wird es immer jemanden geben, der Sie kontrolliert. Am ersten Tag jeden neuen Jahres gibt U. Du bist, was du tust.

Du kannst dich nicht von deinen Handlungen trennen. Deine Taten lassen dich erkennen, sage ich zu mir selbst, und schaue mein ungeschickt gemachtes Bett an. Haben Sie sich die Zeiger einer Uhr angesehen? In den Zeigern einer Uhr liegt wirkliche Anmut. Er bejaht das Leben. Wir essen unser Lunch in einem vegetarischen Restaurant. Wissen um des Wissens willen gibt es nicht. Toll, wie gut mein Bett heute aussieht. Wenn man mit ganzem Herzen bei dem ist, was man gerade tut, erzielt man ein weit besseres Resultat, als wenn man nur halbherzig etwas tut, nicht ganz bei der Sache ist und nur an sich selbst denkt.

Man sollte genau so arbeiten, wie man liebt. Sie werden in Bern die Nacht zusammen verbringen, bevor er in die Vereinigten Staaten fliegt. Diese Bewegung des Wollens kann niemals enden. Aber sie sind im Hintergrund durchaus immer noch vorhanden. Zu wollen, nicht zu wollen, ist auch ein Wollen.

Ulysses (German Edition)

Das Ende des Wollens ist der Tod. Wollen Sie den Tod? Mahesh: U. Mahesh: Aber das ist es, was ich immerzu will. Warum will ich nur so sein wie Sie?

Sagen Sie es mir. Ich verstehe das nicht. Sie wollen immer jemand anderer sein, als Sie es sind. Lehren Sie ihnen nichts, was gegen den Wettbewerb spricht. Wenn Sie sagen, Sie liebten sie, dann helfen Sie ihnen, die Werkzeuge zu erhalten, deren es bedarf, um den Lebensunterhalt zu verdienen, und dann gehen Sie ihnen aus dem Weg Mittags rufe ich in Bombay an und spreche mit Mukhesh.

Seine neue Fernsehserie, Central Park West, wird am September ausgestrahlt. Das ist der Alptraum jedes Entertainers auf der Welt. Nimm's leicht! Er lacht erleichtert. Er sagt: "Warum tun Sie denn alle so, als ob Ihnen etwas am menschlichen Leben gelegen sei? Was haben Sie im Irak getan? Keine Macht kann diesen Kurs wieder umkehren. Niemand sagt ein Wort.

Bhatt, seien wir doch ehrlich. Drei Franken zu verlieren, tut weh. Das ist es, was sterben bedeutet. Bist du bereit zu sterben? Mein ganzes Wesen wendet sich weg von dieser Frage. Eine angeregte Diskussion zwischen U. Genau dann bemerke ich U. Er sieht aus wie ein Fremder in diesem Raum.

Er scheint sein eigenes Abbild auf dem Fernsehschirm nicht zu erkennen. Die Einfachheit dieses Menschen, der U. Ich kann nicht anders, als an den Pomp und die Grandeur von Rajneesh oder J. Krishnamurti zu denken. Was stimmt nicht mit dem Verhaftetsein? Fliegen, zu viele Fliegen.

Die schweizerischen Fliegen sind fett, ganz anders als die mageren, die wir in Indien haben. Deshalb haben Sie so viele Fliegen um sich herumschwirren," sagt U. Diese Unterhaltung findet in der ersten halben Stunde des Morgens statt. Die Uhr zeigt zwei Minuten nach sieben. Ich habe mich gefragt: 'Worum geht es bei dieser Meditation eigentlich? Ich konnte sehen, wie frustriert und voller Zorn er war - er konnte gar nicht anders handeln.

Aber ich habe die ganze Idee von Meditation und den sogenannten seligen, friedlichen Zustand in Frage gestellt, in den sie einen angeblich versetzen soll. Es war diese Vorstellung, die in mir das Gegenteil schuf, und das war das 'Ich'. Juni St. Johannes Tag , ego sum qui sum," steht auf einer E-mail an U. Das ist erst der Anfang" sagt U. Der Tag ist strahlend, klar und warm. Deshalb hat sein Werk diesen ganz eigenen 'Touch'.

Thun ist eine attraktive Stadt. Das Restaurant sieht verlassen aus. Gottfried, Paul und ich bedienen uns von der Salatbar, und U. Sein Blick richtet sich auf die Papierunterlage, die die Kellnerin vor ihm ausgebreitet hat. Jetzt sehen Sie hier, wie diese Burschen Sex dazu verwenden, Wasser zu vermarkten. Jeder verdient mit Sex Geld, verurteilt ihn aber gleichzeitig.

Wenn dieser Mechanismus verschwindet, der in Ihnen die Vorstellungen erweckt, dann verschwinden auch Sie. Sie werden an dieser Stelle, in diesem Augenblick physisch tot umfallen. Das weckt U. Heute ist mein achtzehnter Morgen in Gstaad. Besonders dann, wenn man nach dem Klang der Stille lauscht. Ich fange an, die Wahrheit dieser Aussage zu sehen. Selbst Sehen ist Reden. Was er sagt, verwirrt mich. Und der wurde von der Kultur dort eingerichtet Sie schaffen Hierarchien und zwingen sie anderen armen hilflosen Leuten auf. Krishnamurti zugetragen hat: Krishnaji und U. Sie treffen einen armen Jungen, der um Geld bettelt.

Krishnaji umarmt ihn, anstatt ihm Geld zu geben. Er braucht Geld. Heute lasse ich mein Ticket via London umbuchen. Ich habe meinen Plan fallengelassen, nach Athen zu fliegen, um dort nach einem Drehort zu suchen. Auf meinem Heimweg finde ich U. Seshagiri Rao, erhalten hat. Bob, Paul und ich entwischen U. Zur Essenszeit bittet U. Und lassen Sie nicht all das Zeug hier liegen. Ich werfe Leute weg. Ich habe meine Frau, meine Kinder und alle anderen verlassen. Glauben Sie, ich sammle diese billigen Sachen, die Sie kaufen?

Geld lassen Sie nie herumliegen, nicht wahr? Was das Geld anlangt, verhalten Sie sich wie eine Hure Was macht das denn? Das ist der Anfang vom Ende Wir lachen. Sein 'Galgenhumor' funktioniert nicht. Sie ballt sich zusammen und hindert uns daran, den lebendigen Augenblick einzuatmen. Bin ich denn nichts als der tote Abfall der Vergangenheit, ein nichtendender Widerhall der Milliarden von Gestern der menschlichen Rasse? Unser 'Guten Morgen' kommt heute morgen simultan.

Kiran ist der Sohn von Narayana Moorty und Wendy. Der ruhige Morgen wird von der Ankunft Julies zerrissen. Geld werden Sie niemals bringen Es ist nicht, was Sie getan haben, sondern was Sie sind, das ich verabscheue. Julie geht weg. Mein 'leerer Geist' hallt jetzt von den Nachbeben dieses Ausbruchs wider. Es scheint alles so einfach zu sein. Wir sollten sein wie die Tiere; zehn, zwanzig Lebensjahre, das ist genug.

Der Schaden durch die Meditation ist dagegen irreparabel und irreversibel. Ich brauche Julie nicht, sie braucht mich. Alle Beziehungen, die Sie mit mir haben, sind nur einseitig. Nicht jedoch hier. Das Beziehungsspiel wird sogar noch gemeiner, wenn es dabei um Sex geht. Das wissen Sie Der Countdown hat begonnen.

Nur noch neun Tage, dann werde ich diesen Ort hoffentlich verlassen haben. Ein neuer Tag hat begonnen. Warum schreiben die Menschen so viel? Tun sie es, weil sie einsam sind und voll des Bedauerns? Das Schreiben ist die Suche des Menschen nach Fortdauer. Alle Sinngebungen sind die eigenen. Bin ich bereit, das, was er sagt, anzunehmen? Offensichtlich nicht. Vielleicht ist es auch eine kritische und nachdenkliche Pause im mittleren Alter. In effect, the Chandos letter of gave poetic license to the Expressionist generation to explore new forms of expression in language, new means of organizing words or verbal particles on the page, in order to explode conventional narration and give fuller expression to spiritual longings.

As a sharp rejection of social convention and its corresponding rhetorical forms, and as an attempt to inaugurate and embrace a whole new sense of artistic practice or style and get closer to an immediate and unfragmented experience of life, the Chandos letter is, apart from its sixteenth-century English dress-up, imbued with the spirit of early Expressionist primitivism.

Primitivism emerged as a means of calling into question the conventions both of pictorial representation and of bourgeois society. DONAHUE imperialist upbringing while most likely also reinforcing a strain of brutal sexism endemic to the avant-garde and Expressionism. While visibly present in the art of the period in the rejection of verisimilitude, the simple forms and awkward shapes, the heavy lines and disharmonious proportions, the term embraces a broad range of thematic elements in both art and literature: the flight from civilization and a return to nature, the exoticism of locales, the rejection of the forms of technological culture, of rationality or even consciousness, hence a fascination with its opposites, with animals and animality, with will or instinct, violence and sexuality, an exaltation of vitality for its own sake, and further, with insanity, sickness and depravity, alienation and estrangement embodied in outsiders — in short, the term refers to forms of regression away from the inhibiting refinements and constraints of modern culture, founded on assumptions of technical rationality and cultural progress.

As an expression of critical modernism in the arts and of historical modernity, primitivism lies at the heart of German Expressionism, which thus stands in relation to German colonial practices in Africa and elsewhere. The articulation of that relation constitutes a new dimension in research on Expressionism.

Now the sheer accumulation of such revisions has brought about successive reassessments of Expressionism in relation to Modernism as the site of essential and complex confrontations with modernity. Though the prose of this period has emerged to bridge the former divide between Modernism and Expressionism and to extend the range of the theoretical discussion or debate about Expressionism, the centerpiece of literary Expressionism remains lyric poetry. The short form of the poem begins at the point of intensity that Expressionist prose seeks to attain. DONAHUE shortcomings; he then, as a corrective measure, introduces some of the Expressionist poets not included in that epoch-making collection, thus providing an expanded portrait of the epoch in Expressionist poetry, and its immediate influence.

Likewise, in her essay, Barbara D. Both of these essays give a direction for necessary future archival and historical research. DoH, , as well as some of the most beautifully elegiac, stridently ecstatic and vividly vituperative. The art of political engagement and social activism, seen collectively, attempted to inspire and enact a transition from formal autonomy on the page to other forms of social discourse off the page, within a new social collectivity.

In this respect the anthology as a genre becomes a blueprint for society as a collection of heterogeneous voices bound together in a common spirit. In Wolkenfernen trommeln die Propeller. Die Seele schrumpft zu winzigen Komplexen. Tot ist die Kunst. Die Stunden kreisen schneller. O meine Zeit! So namenlos zerrissen, So ohne Stern, so daseinsarm im Wissen Wie du, will keine, keine mir erscheinen. Noch hob ihr Haupt so hoch niemals die Sphinx! MHD, 40 [Song and giant cities, dream-avalanches, Faded lands, poles without glory, The sinful women, perils and heroism, Spectral brewings, storm on iron rails.

In cloudy distances the propellers drum. Nations melt away. Books turn into witches. The soul shrinks to tiny complexes. Art is dead. The hours move in swifter circles. O my age! So indescribably mutilated, So without star, so existentially poor in knowledge As you no other age seems to have been. Never before did the sphinx raise its head so high!

Art too has lost its mystery Tot ist die Kunst and its ability to resist those historical imperatives, which only allows for the acceleration of the whole process Die Stunden kreisen schneller. The works of Wedekind beginning in the s and of Brecht beginning in , frame, chronologically and conceptually, the development of Expressionist drama as it evolved away from Naturalism to find new technical and rhetorical means of presenting, or rather emoting, the anguish of the individual within bourgeois society.

This primitivist encounter of the sexes exploded the social nuance and delicacies of domestic drama, and of Viennese polite society. In that very literal way, Kokoschka tried to render rawly visible the visceral inner life of mankind. As a result, his play serves as a prototype for three main types of Expressionist drama16 that overlap but can nevertheless be clearly distinguished. This form of Geist or spiritual drama aims at the formal unification of elements on stage through rhythms of sound, color, language, movement in concord with the entranced audience.

Indeed, the concept of the Schrei marks the new poetics of performance that emerged in Expressionism based on the presence of the primal Self on stage, which entailed in turn new registers of voice and what David F. Therefore, actors such as Werner Krauss, Fritz Kortner, and especially Ernst Deutsch became closely associated with Expressionist drama in this vein and famous for the moody and energetic physicality and vocality of their acting. Such intensity on stage no longer seemed like acting in any conventional sense.

Ich-drama is not about the individual as much as about the idea mediated by that character. Through heightened visual scenarios, this tension enacts the idea of the play, which is topical and thus in part depends on the historical circumstances outside the theater. Whereas Geist performance attempted a sort of transcendent spiritual communion with the audience in the theater, emblematic performance attempts to forge community beyond the individual in order to address and ultimately change society at large.

The stations of his journey get acted out in seven scenarios, as he moves from the provincial bank to his home, and then to a crowded velodrome, a cabaret, and a Salvation Army hall, where he ends up, disillusioned, shooting himself and dying in an Ecce Homo scene of crucifixion. The use of stunning backdrops and stark lighting collapses the three-dimensional space of the stage into a broken sequence that is, without transitions of virtually two-dimensional allegorical pictures or emblems. DONAHUE as from the reduction of language: instead of staying within the norms of conventional dialogue, the language swings from single explosive words to rhapsodic monologues, both of which can serve to frame a powerful silence that foregrounds the expressive body of the actor in its looming physicality.

Caligari, On his murderous outings, dressed all in black, the pallid sleepwalker Cesare played by Conrad Veidt , under the mind control of his master, Dr. Caligari played by Werner Krauss , seems to merge with the shadows and lines of the townscape. Though the film image can isolate a powerful gesture, that gesture is inevitably divorced from the voice and presence that forcefully anchored the Schrei performance on stage, yet the graphic image exerts a different, equally powerful, even hypnotic, effect of its own, as thematized by the film itself, which invites the viewer to think through the relations of sight and seduction, vision and violence.

In many ways, as first suggested by Kurtz and explained here by Hake, early Weimar or Expressionist film absorbed, revised, refined, and ultimately tamed or domesticated the unruly visions of Expressionism, integrating them fully into society through the new technology of a mass medium, a process which extended also to poster advertisements for Expressionist films.

As developed by Frans Masereel, the woodcut or graphic novel uses no words at all to develop its powerful narrative line: instead, the deeply gouged lines of Expressionist woodcuts create images of stark simplicity that isolate in a single moment as in painting bold gestures and incidents as in drama that follow one another in successive frames as in film to create a slow, powerful, strobic effect of declamatory images.

Though not a new form of visual technology like film, the woodcut novel offers a vivid counterpoint to both the visual dimension of prose narratives and to the narrative dimension of film in this period.


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The strong lines of plot and picture in the graphic novel reinforce one another in a compact message of social critique and political protest against inequities in post-First-World-War German society. The war decimated the ranks of Expressionist artists from Alfred Lichtenstein, Georg Trakl, Ernst Stadler, and August Stramm to Franz Marc and August Macke, and to survivors it marked the cataclysmic demise of an obsolete patriarchal and authoritarian society, clearing the ground for a potential renewal of general humanity after the flight from Germany of Kaiser Wilhelm II on November 9, and the proclamation of a republic with elections to come.

Nonetheless, the fusion, not to say confusion, of art and politics, produced a fascinating imbrication of the two in mediums from poetry to poster art to political discussion: to no small extent, Expressionism had become the common graphic idiom of applied ideology in public pronouncements. The sense of renewal, the hope of Expressionism, then faded fast.

His disappointment or despair about the failure of the collective Expressionist project of revitalizing art and culture resounds also in commentaries by such contemporaries as Wilhelm Hausenstein and Adolf Behne, among others Haxthausen , — In addition to the German defeat in war and the failure of the revolution, these critics were also demoralized by the ubiquitous commercialization of art under the rubric of Expressionism , which they saw as a sort of decorative decadence, along with the new artistic legitimacy and prestige of film.

Of course, their own increasingly tenuous economic status, as examined by Fritz K. He ignores any potential for critique in Expressionism and its forms verbal, visual, gestural as well as the totalizing and aesthetically conservative impulse of his own approach. To a large extent, the writers of German Expressionism and their works, literally the copies of their books, along with the audience for those texts, were destroyed by the Nazis. The recovery and reissue of works of Expressionism has continued to the present, which reflects the fact that the literature of German Expressionism arose from and reflected upon the most critical periods of German cultural history in the twentieth century, before, during, and after the First World War, during the Weimar period, and in the immediate postwar period.

Also, David Kuhns, 28— Gordon, and Perkins. Ehrenstein, C. Einstein, G. Benn , along with some others I did not include G. Sack, P. Adler, R. Goering, and Kafka. Murphy simply ignores prior studies with the sort of close textual analysis he then calls for, but he does capably embed these familiar texts in the discursive fields or vocabularies of postmodern theory; what he does not do is open or broaden the field of literary interpretation in this period by introducing new works or authors into the discussion.

In a discussion of the Expressionist avant-garde, he addresses only prose and film, omitting all mention of drama or poetry. Conard et al. Its anti-intellectual intonations should not call into question its broad and deep intellectual roots and affinities; pathos marks the desire to overcome and reconfigure traditional modes of expression.

Joanna M. Ratych, Ralph Ley, and Robert C. The categories overlap, but the emphasis differs in each. David F. Kuhns likewise works with three categories that he calls Geist, Schrei and the emblematic mode. For the first full review of the concept of inner emigration in English, along with essays on the circumstances of individual writers, see the collection Flight of Fantasy: New Perspectives on Inner Emigration in German Literature, —, eds. Neil H. Anz, Thomas. Literatur des Expressionismus. Stuttgart: Metzler, Anz, Thomas, and Michael Stark, eds. Stuttgart and Weimar: Metzler, Expressionismus: Manifeste und Dokumente zur deutschen Literatur, — Aschheim, Steven E.

The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany, — Berkeley and London: U of California P, Barron, Stephanie, ed. Bathrick, David. Jost Hermand und Reinhold Grimm, 89— Benn, Gottfried. Wiesbaden: Limes, Dieter Wellershoff, — Berman, Russell. Richard J. Golsan, 56— Brinkmann, Richard. Expressionismus: Forschungsprobleme, — Corngold, Stanley. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, Crockett, Dennis. Denkler, Horst, ed. Einakter und kleine Dramen des Expressionismus. Stuttgart: Reclam, Diebold, Bernhard. Anarchie im Drama. Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Verlagsanstalt, German Expressionist Prose: Theory and Practice.

Toronto: U of Toronto P, Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, Donahue, — Rochester, NY: Camden House, University Park: Penn State Press, Donahue, Neil, and Doris Kirchner, eds. New York and London: Berghahn Books, Einstein, Carl. Afrikanische Legenden. Berlin: Rowohlt, Bebuquin, oder die Dilettanten des Wunders.

In Werke, — Rolf-Peter Baacke. Berlin: Medusa, Eisner, Lotte. Roger Greaves. Paris: Le Terrain Vague, Goebbels, Joseph. Michael: A Novel. New York: Amok Press, Golomstock, Igor. Golsan, Richard J. Fascism, Aesthetics, and Culture. Gordon, Donald. Haxthausen, Charles W. Rainer Rumold and O. Werckmeister, — Columbia, SC: Camden House, Gesammelte Werke: Prosa II.

Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, Huyssen, Andreas, and David Bathrick, eds. Modernity and the Text: Revisions of German Modernism. New York: Columbia UP, Jelavich, Peter. Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas Kellner, — Kandinsky, Wassily. Munich: Piper, Bern: Berteli, Kracauer, Siegfried. Princeton: Princeton UP, , Kuhns, David F. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Kurtz, Rudolf. Expressionismus und Film. Lloyd, Jill.

German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity. Manheim, Ron. Martini, Fritz, ed. Introduction to Prosa des Expressionismus. Michalski, Sergiusz. Cologne: Taschen, Murphy, Richard. Oehm, Heidemarie. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, Pan, David. Primitive Renaissance: Rethinking German Expressionism.

Lincoln and London: U of Nebraska P, Paret, Peter. Perkins, Geoffrey. Contemporary Theory of Expressionism. Bern and Frankfurt: Herbert Lang, Robert C. Conard, Ralph Ley, and Joanna M. Literatur-Revolution, — Dokumente, Manifeste, Programme. Neuwied am Rhein: Luchterhand, Raabe, Paul. Expressionismus: Aufzeichnungen und Erinnerungen der Zeitgenossen. Olten: Walter, Rigby, Ida Katherine.

Ringer, Fritz. Rubin, William, ed. New York: Museum of Modern Art, Rumold, Rainer. Scheunemann, Dietrich. Expressionist Film: New Perspectives. Die Expressionismusdebatte: Materialien zu einer marxistischen Realismuskonzeption. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, German Expressionist Plays.

New York: Continuum, Sokel, Walter. Wolfgang Rothe, — Bern: Francke, Stanford: Stanford UP, Sokel, Walter, ed. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, , Stern, Fritz. Berkeley: U of California P, Strathausen, Carsten. The Look of Things: Poetry and Vision around Torgovnick, Marianna.

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Vietta, Silvio. Werenskiold, Marit. The Concept of Expressionism: Origin and Metamorphoses. Michael Bullock.

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New York: International UP, Formprobleme der Gotik. Herbert Read. Fragen und Gegenfragen: Schriften zum Kunstproblem. Bruckmann, Reprinted in Fragen und Gegenfragen: Schriften zum Kunstproblem, — Zeller, Bernhard, ed. Mai bis 31 Oktober Marbach: Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Even if we allow for a modicum of rhetorical overstatement in this remark, we cannot help but come away with the view of Nietzsche as an intellectual giant whom the Expressionists adopted as the flag-bearer of their movement. GRAY Martens, This assertion is confirmed by the formative impact Nietzsche had on the intellectual profiles of most of the leading spokespeople of the Expressionist generation.

Nietzsche also figures prominently in the intellectual biography of Franz Pfemfert, the publisher of the influential Expressionist journal Die Aktion, who used this publication to disseminate texts both by and about Nietzsche Martens, 46— Most important, perhaps, is the fact that Nietzsche and his works were heralded by both the vitalistic-Dionysian line of Expressionist thinkers and the politically activist strain of Expressionism.

Thus we might go so far as to claim that to the extent that Expressionism is a unitary phenomenon and has a unified nucleus at all, this nucleus is constituted by the thought and the person of Friedrich Nietzsche. The reasons for the limitation to this work are manifold: First, Nietzsche himself clearly affirmed the significance this text assumed in his intellectual genesis when he republished it towards the end of his philosophical career, in spite of the sometimes scathing critique to which he subjected this piece of intellectual juvenilia in the foreword to this new edition.

This continued significance of Geburt is corroborated by the fact that Nietzsche himself came back to this book repeatedly throughout his life, deliberating on its central ideas — especially the dichotomy between the Apollinian and Dionysian approaches to art — and its place in his intellectual development see especially Ecce Homo, KSA — Nietzsche himself confirms the persistence of this Freudian slip when he writes in Ecce Homo that he has repeatedly seen his work cited under this skewed title KSA However, he is not satisfied with simply using abstract logic to demonstrate his claims — as is often the case in philosophical aesthetics — but instead wants to bring this point concretely before the eyes of his readers by presenting them with a historical example.

In other words, the examination of Greek tragedy, its emergence and decline, and the role of the Apollinian and Dionysian principles in this historical development — the substance, in short, of the first twelve sections of Geburt — serve merely as a demonstrative example of this larger argument about the nature of aesthetics as such, which is the true focus of this text.

This is the same status, I will argue, that we can accord to the aesthetic practice of literary Expressionism: standing between the scientifically theorized mimesis of Naturalism and the radical non-representationalism of Dada, it represents a transitional aesthetics that does not yet abandon the requirement of representation, but which moves beyond traditional conceptions of mimesis by applying representational techniques not to the physical world, but instead to the metaphysical domain. This metaphysical mimesis is a program, I will claim, that the Expressionists adopt from Nietzsche.

His very valorization of drama, and of tragedy in particular, as the highest literary form takes its cue from the thought of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, whom Nietzsche greatly admired,12 and Schiller, who devoted many essays not only to general problems of aesthetics, but specifically to the theater as a social institution. To be sure, Nietzsche explicitly rejects the moralizing component in the dramatic theories of these predecessors, but in so doing he is simply following the lead already inaugurated by Schopenhauer Similarly, Lessing and Schiller have already outlined conceptions of drama as the most effective literary form, allowing it to be deployed for the transformation of cultural and political institutions.

But Nietzsche goes on to argue that the Schillerian distinction is not broad enough to encompass all the artistic manifestations he has in mind. This empirical world, for Schopenhauer, is hence a world of semblance, a secondary product of the will. Schopenhauer thus re-evaluates traditional aesthetic theory, based on the Aristotelian concept of mimesis, by asserting that art is not the mimetic representation of the phenomenal world, but rather of the Platonic ideas that underlie the objects that constitute the sphere of phenomenal appearances These ideas themselves are immediate objectifications of the will , , and as representations of these archetypal ideas, art gives a deeper, more authentic picture of the will than if it were a mere mimetic representation of the phenomenal world.

However, as we know, Schopenhauer interprets music as an exception even to this general rule governing the arts; music does not copy Platonic ideas, as do the other arts, rather it is a copy of the will itself and hence stands on the same level of ontic value as the phenomenal world, which is also a direct copy of the will In other words, Schopenhauer differentiates three possible modes of representational mimesis for art that stand in a clear hierarchy. At the top of this hierarchy stands music, which, as the least mediate form of representation, provides a direct copy of the will itself GRAY ontic level equal to that of the phenomenal world itself.

Dionysian artists are thus the most authentic artists in the sense that they imitate in their own creative process that primordial creative act by which the phenomenal world itself is born. This is what Nietzsche means when he writes in Geburt that Dionysian artists are no longer merely artists as creators of works of art, but actually become works of art themselves 30 , or when he argues that the creative act of the genius must fuse with that primordial act of creativity out of which the world itself originarily issued 47— In this formulation Huebner has implicitly elided the basic distinction between idealism and realism.

And this, in fact, is the point: for Expressionism — as for Schopenhauer — the realm of ideas has assumed the character of the real, even of the hyperreal. But, the Expressionists might justifiably retort, anticipating a phrase popularized in the United States during the s, What is reality? First, it presents an early formulation, from within the camp of Marxist thinkers, of what in the thought of Theodor Adorno will blossom into a full-fledged suspicion of all totalizing worldviews as totalitarian constructions.

He no longer seeks anything in its totality, a totality that also includes all the natural cruelty of things. Taking as his point of departure the widespread sense of malaise commonly associated with the advent of modern culture, Nietzsche offers a critical analysis of the causes of this discontent. Ist Wissenschaftlichkeit vielleicht nur eine Furcht und Ausflucht vor dem Pessimismus? Eine feine Notwehr gegen — die Wahrheit? Und, moralisch geredet, etwas wie Feig- und Falschheit?

Is reverence for science perhaps nothing but fear of and flight from pessimism? A refined defense mechanism against — truth? And, moralistically speaking, something like faintheartedness and falsehood? Geburt, 12— And Nietzsche believes the malaise of modernism derives from the fact that his contemporaries have generally recognized the limits of rational thought but nonetheless refuse to admit or embrace these limits. An art that practices metaphysical mimesis, such as Attic tragedy, becomes an antidote to the deceptions of Apollinian or Socratic culture, a machete that both cuts through the veil of ideological self- deception and offers a form of non-deceptive, non-ideological consolation.

The Expressionists would embrace this view of art as an instrument of cultural and ideological critique. Both, in fact, are clear in their assertion that the will only appears in diverse — but differentially evaluated — forms of semblance. GRAY Dionysian artist of intoxication, or, finally — as is the case, for example, in Greek tragedy — simultaneously an intoxicating dream-artist; Nietzsche thus argues that all art is mimetic, but that one can distinguish three subcategories of mimetic art, one purely Apollinian, one purely Dionysian, and one that melds and intermingles these two, for which Greek tragedy stands as the historical model.

Even at this early stage in his treatise Nietzsche then goes on to provide a first glimpse into how he imagines this interaction occurring in the Attic tragedy he will valorize as the pinnacle of art. The tragic artist is, first and foremost, a Dionysian artist.

We recognize once more, then, that Nietzsche frames his arguments as a contribution to the much broader context of aesthetic theory in general, specifically as a redefinition of the applicability of mimesis. When he shifts from the aesthetic to a more psychological or existential explanation of the interaction between the Apollinian and Dionysian principles of art, Nietzsche proposes a relationship of fundamental interdependence between the horror of Dionysian reality and the concomitant necessity for the redemptive semblance invoked by the Apollinian dream world.

We understand in this context precisely what Nietzsche means when he claims that the world — that is, empirical reality and existence — is only justified as an aesthetic phenomenon Geburt 17, 47, : reality, in all its existential abomination, requires semblance as an eternal palliative. This should not lead one to believe, however, that all semblance, all illusion is by definition good.

On the contrary, the escapism of absolute semblance is precisely what Nietzsche lambastes in Wilhelminian Germany, with its reliance on the deception of science and the fanciful illusionism of its art, represented in Geburt by the genre of classical opera — GRAY good and bad mimesis. On the contrary, it is Dionysian mimesis of the existential horror of the will as filtered through the transfiguring second-order mimesis of Apollinian image that Nietzsche holds up as the high-water mark of artistic achievement, as exemplified for him in Attic tragedy.

And yet in this regard it does not represent a world that is arbitrarily fantasized into the space between heaven and earth; rather, it is a world whose reality and credibility are equal to those that the believing Hellene attributed to Mt. Olympus and all its occupants. The world of tragedy, by contrast, is a creative imitation that exists on the same order of ontic reality as does the world of phenomenal existence itself, and once again Nietzsche turns to the metaphor of the Olympian gods to exemplify this concept.

He goes on to extrapolate from this comment a general maxim about the reality and truth of the poetic world. The contrast between this authentic truth of nature and the cultural mendacity that poses as the sole form of reality is similar to that between the eternal core of things, the thing in itself, and the totality of the phenomenal world. Thus mimesis in Nietzsche takes on positive connotations when it is related either directly to the representation of this metaphysical core, as in the case of music, or when mimesis functions as a palliative that makes this tragic recognition palatable, rather than providing ideological escape from this ultimate tragic insight.

Ähnliche Songtexte

This new dithyramb represents a kind of program music that alienates musical art from its true mission, the direct mimetic representation of the will, by recasting it as the imitator of the phenomenal world. This limitation to mimesis of the phenomenal world of appearances, to the semblance of semblance is, for Nietzsche, the very definition of degeneracy in art, especially in music. In some of his unpublished notes for Geburt Nietzsche is much more lucid on this point. One type reveals itself to us in the form of sensations of pleasure and displeasure and accompanies as a never absent thoroughbass all the other ideational expressions.

In other words, feelings of pleasure and displeasure are universal sensations, and as such they are those forms of ideation that link us most closely with the pre-individual ground of existence. Universality, in short, becomes the measure of authenticity because it points to that realm of experience — the Dionysian — that antedates the principium individuationis, the fragmentation of originary oneness into the manifoldness of distinct individuals.

What is perhaps most significant about the cited passage, however, is that immediately after identifying these two genres of ideation, Nietzsche shifts to the manner of their representation, concentrating initially on the way they express themselves in language. This constitutes, as it were, the music of speech.

From here it is but a short step to the pathos, attention to rhythm and meter, and emotionality of Expressionist literary language. The mimetic object of such speech is not the logos, not the conceptual realm of ideation, but the sub-conceptual, psychological domain of primordial emotions.

Or, put another way, why, and in what sense, is music the origin of tragic art and myth? Only because these allegorical images are born of music itself does their semblance contain a dimension of authenticity: these images, as images, are adequate to the Dionysian element they allegorically represent. Indeed, as Nietzsche explains a few pages later, this allegorical representation itself retains the mimetic capacity inherent in music.

Denn der Mythus will als ein einziges Exempel einer ins Unendliche hinein starrenden Allgemeinheit und Wahrheit anschaulich empfunden werden. Genuinely Dionysian music presents itself to us as just such a universal mirror of the world will; the visual phenomenon refracted in this mirror immediately expands for our emotions into the replica of an eternal truth.

It is, in essence, a kind of synaesthetic metamorphosis, a transformation of what is manifest in rhythm, meter, and sound into the Apollinian sphere of the visual. It is difficult to imagine a more emphatic and powerful defense of the ultimate reality of allegorical portrayal. But what is this symbolization of particular universality if not allegory? Subjectivism is only the proper word here if we identify it with that core level of experience below the sphere of the phenomenal that Nietzsche identifies with the Dionysian; it is, perhaps, subjective, but it is nonetheless, for Nietzsche and the Expressionists, a shared subjectivism.

The drive to discover a level of universal truth and reality below the everyday dimensions of the phenomenal world was one of the characteristic traits of the Expressionist artists. One began to dissolve the surrounding reality into irreality, and to penetrate beyond the realm of appearances to the essence; , Es wird so lange gesucht in seinem eigentlichsten Wesen, bis seine tiefere Form sich ergibt, bis das Haus aufsteht, das befreit ist von dem dumpfen Zwang der falschen Wirklichkeit.

It goes beyond this. It is pursued in its most authentic essence until its more profound form comes to the fore, until a house emerges that is freed from the dull constraints of false reality. Decades before Husserl, Nietzsche emerged as the philosopher of what we might call a phenomenological aesthetics, an aesthetic theory that exploited the principle of representational mimesis as a revelatory strategy for the essence of existence.