The automation requires the installation of a new machine. The life of the machine is 15 years.

## Net Present Value Method

The salvage value of the machine after fifteen years will be zero. According to net present value method, Smart Manufacturing Company should purchase the machine because the present value of the cost savings is greater than the present value of the initial cost to purchase and install the machine. The computations are given below:. Notice that the projects in the above examples generate equal cash inflow in all the periods the cost saving in example 2 has been treated as cash inflow.

## Net Present Value vs Internal Rate of Return

Such a flow of cash is known as even cash flow. But sometimes projects do not generate equal cash inflows in all the periods. When projects generate different cash inflows in different periods, the flow of cash is known as uneven cash flow. To analyze such projects the present value of the inflow of cash is computed for each period separately. It has been illustrated in the following example:. The cash inflow generated by the project is uneven. Therefore, the present value would be computed for each year separately:.

Sometime a company may have limited funds but several alternative proposals. In such circumstances, if each alternative requires the same amount of investment, the one with the highest net present value is preferred. But if each proposal requires a different amount of investment, then proposals are ranked using an index called present value index or profitability index. The proposal with the highest present value index is considered the best. Present value index is computed using the following formula :.

Choose the most desirable investment proposal from the following alternatives using profitability index method:. Because each investment proposal requires a different amount of investment, the most desirable investment can be found using present value index. Present value index of all three proposals is computed below:. Proposal X has the highest net present value but is not the most desirable investment. The present value indexes show proposal Y as the most desirable investment because it promises to generate 1.

The basic advantage of net present value method is that it considers the time value of money. The disadvantage is that it is more complex than other methods that do not consider present value of cash flows. Furthermore, it assumes immediate reinvestment of the cash generated by investment projects. This assumption may not always be reasonable due to changing economic conditions.

Any body to help pls…..

## What is investment appraisal? | APM

A project has a net cash flow of N10,, per annum for the next four years. It is 1. You can find these numbers in the Present Value of Annuity Table. I found mine in my Appendix of my Managerial Accounting course book. Hope this helps you and anyone else with the same question! For 0. The content is very useful.

The way you give the difference scenarios examples of how to use the NPV. Many thanks. If expected profit is given and the note stated that profit is calculated after deducting depreciation, how should I treat this in the question please? How do you determine how many years to calculate to get the NPV? Is it the first year to become a positive number? Given pretax cash inflows for a given duration of time and corporate tax in percentage. How do you get net cash inflow? Please send Economics Investment Appraisal to my mail. Really, all topics presented here are very useful for accountants and the concerned people, thank you.

I use the NPV to compare returns among other projects. The NPV is for a full project. So rather than comparing full project to full project, this comparison compares the return to finish the project from the period of calculation. The units to be produced by the new machine will sell at 9. At what level of sales revenue per units will be project NPV be zero? Please I have given this question but I did not know how to solve it.

I have the initial investment and the cost of capital 9 percentage and then year one was this figure. And then year three. Thanks your examples are helpful. But what do I do if I have initial investment costs as well as fixed cost and operating cost excluding depreciation? Then how much would be the net present value??? Is it inflows -outflows or inflows- outflows- cost to remove equipment.

### Executive Summary

Net present value b. Internal rate of return c. Profitability index d. Payback period e. Simple rate of return f. Should the company purchase the machine? Why or why not? Can somebody help me with following question: Project A : Net cash inflows is 1st yr ; 2nd yr ; 3rd yr ; 4th yr ; 5th yr , initial cost is , depreciation per year is , machinery scrap value of Project B: Net cash inflows is 1st yr ; 2nd yr ; 3rd yr ; 4th yr ; 5th yr , initial cost is , depreciation per year is How about a situation where you have a one time investment of net working capital of additional amount?

How do you calculate npv? Jody then performs the following calculation:. With this investment and information, Jody can begin to achieve what he has always dreamed of: a comfortable retirement which allows him to spend time with the people he cares about most. Jody is pleased because all of his efforts are resulting in the life he has worked to gain. This tool enables you to quantify the cash unlocked in your company. Not a Lab Member? Payback period Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cash flow 40 40 10 20 Cumulated cash flows 40 0 10 30 Also in case of depreciation which one should I apply, the one whose depreciation data details are given to calculate in the question or the depreciation amount already given in the income statement?

Please help me as soon as possible. How do you calculate net present value, payback period and average rate of return with given example below. The company is considering two mutually exclusive projects.

Both require an initial cash outlay of Ugx 10,, each, and have a life of five years. The before taxes cash flows expected to be generated by the projects are as follows. Project A. Project B 0 Name required. Email will not be published required. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Net Operating Loss Carryback and Carryforward. Opportunity Cost Article. Eunice Stemela August 25, at am. Expert CostSeg March 18, at am. I like the helpful info you supply for your articles. Thanks for sharing a smart thought. Anjali Yadav May 16, at am. Ring May 21, at am.

How do you calculate net present value, payback period and average rate of return with given example below The company is considering two mutually exclusive projects. Sharon May 26, at pm. How do you calculate NPV with carried forward losses and no effective tax rate. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Comment Name required Email will not be published required Website.