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This overview covers the Chalcolithic to the Crusader period and is based on data from 76 sites compiled from the literature and from as yet unpublished material under study by the authors. Remains of fish from the Nile, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea are regularly found in archaeological sites that are located outside the natural distribution of the fish species and thus indicate that they were transported as items of trade or exchange. Evidence for trade of Anatolian freshwater fish is also documented. The fish bone finds are discussed according to their provenance and the regions to which they were transported, and an attempt is made, on the basis of archaeological, artefactual and --if available-- textual evidence, to understand the diachronic changes in the distribution within the broader economic and political contexts of the areas involved in the production and the consumption of fish.

View on persee. Parcak more. The reconnaissance work and excavations in South Sinai focussed on Site , a New Kingdom anchorage and copper smelting camp beside the Red Sea, located at the northern end of El-Markha Plain and west of the mining region around Serabit el-Khadim. A topographic map was generated for Site and this mound yielded a limited repertoire of pottery, copper furnaces, copper nodules, and crucible fragments, grinding stones and pounders, lithics, some faience beads, marine shells, urchin spines, and fish bones.

A surface survey revealed two contemporary, small pottery scatters Sites a-b two km to the south. The project also investigated a circular, limestone structure Site , 1. In addition, the project has incorporated satellite image interpretation to isolate vegetation signatures and associated water sources within the arid environment of El-Markha Plain, thereby detecting potential archaeological sites for ground reconnaissance work. This report concentrates mainly on the results of the reconnaissance, but incorporates some preliminary results from the excavations.

Pinch-Brock eds. Pavlish, G. D'Andrea more. Hawass and L. Volume 1: Archaeology. Cairo: American University Press. View on aucpress. ABSTRACT: A satellite remote sensing survey of el-Markha plain assessing areas of vegetation NDVI , water sources, and other features, with a subsequent ground-truthing mission to investigate promising areas for ancient through more recent habitation and exploitation.

More Info: Sinai; Markha Plain; Red Sea; satellite remote sensing; foot survey; New Kingdom potsherds; Roman potsherds; vegetation indicator for water sources and possible archaeological sources words Publication Date: Publication Name: Antiquity 76 : — Redford et. ABSTRACT: A preliminary report on the excavations in part of a First Intermediate Period house at Mendes northeast Delta that contained evidence for destruction by a fire, and a later, large pit dating to the Third Intermediate Period pit that cut through some of the debris and a wall of this house.

The pit yielded an intact wine jar, clay balls, and other refuse e. View on independent. Bagnall et. This entry covers Egyptian fortifications from the late Predynastic through pharaonic periods ca. Bagnell, K. Brodersen, C. Champion, A. Erskine, and S. Huebner eds.

Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. View on onlinelibrary. Speckermann et. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Coogan ed. Oxford Encyclopedias of the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. View on oxfordbiblicalstudies. Klauck et. The main central city featured such things as a north-south royal road, a major state palace along the riverfront originally , an overpass leading to the king's in-town residence, an Aten temple for the king's usage with a small, royal mortuary i. Suburbs lay north and south; other palaces, wealthy homes and desert altars lay to the north; private rock-cut tombs lay north and south; the royal tombs lay to the east; a workmen's village, shrines, stone village, and cemeteries lay to the east.

Klauck, B. Spieckermann, B. Walfish, and E. Ziolkowski eds. View on degruyter. Although letters may remain lost, the majority eventually appeared in private and museum collections. Each reign Each reign summary is accompanied by a selected bibliographies suggesting further readings for each ruler. Redford ed. It focuses mainly on South Sinai and North Sinai, but also includes the Negev and southern Arabah, providing a summary of both historical and archaeological evidence for pharaonic, Levantine, and Near Eastern activities within and across these regions.

An annotated, selected bibliography appears at the end of this entry. Redford editor-in-chief. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. View on oxfordreference. Shubert eds. ABSTRACT: This encyclopedia entry contains a summary of the explorations and findings at Serabit el-Khadim spanning to the s, including Predynastic, pharaonic, and later activity at nearby sites such as several Chalcolithic to Mention is also made of pharaonic activity at Tell er-Retabeh, Serapeum?

In addition, this article details the various periods and reigns of activities attested in the turquoise mines, quarries, shrines, and Hathor-and-Sopdu Temple at Serabit el-Khadim, the types of votive offerings in the temple, and the evidence for New Kingdom copper working from a few caves i. The narrative is accompanied by a temple plan fig. Bard and S. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. New York: Routledge. View on amazon. Pharaonic activity begins in the Old Kingdom, including Dynasty The Middle Kingdom activity yielded several structures, reuse of the hilltop settlement, and mining galleries and inscriptions dating to Amenemhet III-IV, and private texts.

This entry includes a summary distribution map fig. ABSTRACT: This overview first provides a two-page broad background summarizing the late prehistory through recent periods in the Sinai, including the Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Ptolemaic-Roman period, and the Byzantine through Coptic-Islamic periods, with a focus on the exploitation of and other activities in this region: e.

Catherine; Crusaders and Saladin; and broader activities. The second half of the article provides a narrower summary of the initial excavations and findings in el-Markha Plain in Southwest Sinai fig. Despite the later redating of both sites see more recent articles , this part of the article summarizes and illustrates some of the findings from each site. View on personal. More Info: Sinai; Markha Plain; Red Sea; copper smelting site and anchorage site ; early speculations on nature and date of a stone fort later identified as late Old Kingdom ; stone fort site with late Roman period surface pottery indicating passage through region to el-Tor, Wadi Feinan, etc.

Sinai and Red Sea Trade. An attempt was made to provide a hypothetical reconstruction of the minimum dimensions and design of the temple fig. The summary also provides an account of the ex-situ sarcophagi and other findings from the surface of the site, including a sherd from a Tell el-Yahudiyeh vessel, which suggests some sort of activity at this site in the Second Intermediate Period to early Dynasty Pavlish's coring across the site.

The coring at The coring at Tebilla revealed an apparent 1 meter gap in occupation, presumably reflecting a period when the Mendesian branch of the Nile shifted away from the site, perhaps during the early Middle Kingdom through New Kingdom i. The initial excavations focused upon the southern edge of the mound, finding late Third Intermediate Period to Late Period mastaba tombs fig. Some of the bodies yielded traces of bitumen coating. The artifacts included a wide range of local pottery forms, imported pottery containers, and a locally made Judean-type juglet fig. One of the mastaba structures appears to have been added beside an earlier one, with its foundation trench partly cutting the earlier building.

A series of later, probable Roman period graves were placed in the uppermost surviving stratum in this area. A preliminary assessment of one body suggested the presence of leprosy. ABSTRACT: This preliminary report summarizes the background research, project objectives, and initial results of a summer visit to and an initial December mapping and survey season at Tell Tebilla ancient Ro-nefer in the ABSTRACT: This preliminary report summarizes the background research, project objectives, and initial results of a summer visit to and an initial December mapping and survey season at Tell Tebilla ancient Ro-nefer in the northeast Delta, Egypt.

Past investigations, various artifacts, monuments, and inscribed materials from the mound, plus temple texts elsewhere noting Ro-nefer, attest to a temple dedicated to Osiris-khes and others e.

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This article also summarizes and illustrates two topographic site maps and some of the surface finds from e. However, a closer examination of these potsherds has confirmed that they do indeed represent New Kingdom, Blue-painted pottery, which spans the reigns of Amenhotep III through Ramesses IV i. Ancient Egyptian Pottery and Nile Delta archaeology. SUMMARY: The Sinai Peninsula is a vast region, encompassing around 60, square kilometers with hundreds, if not thousands of archaeological sites, only a relative small sample of which have been fully explored.

The Sinai attracted The Sinai attracted people in ancient times and continues to do so today, whether as a dwelling place, an area rich in resources, a defensive zone, a refuge, a holy site, or simply as a land through which merchants, armies, emissaries, and others might travel from one region to another.

The papers presented here contribute to a greater understanding and appreciation of the rich heritage of the Sinai Peninsula in its role as a key land bridge between Africa and Asia and as a region important in its own right. See JAEI vol. Mumford, M. Yousef-Ali; see also May 21, episode 35 on 60 Minutes [online] more. The mission included several objectives, including 1 the continued excavation of the tomb of Intef, 2 an examination of the pottery from the tomb, 3 photographing, drawing, and recording the other artefacts and remains from the tomb, 4 the conservation and restoration of the limestone pieces with pigments mainly from the season, but including the season , 5 a preliminary assessment of the human remains from the tomb, 6 a geological assessment of the tomb of Intef and its environs, 7 an archaeological fieldwork training program for five students, and 8 the securement of the tomb of Intef.

Parcak www. Mumford and published in JAEI 7. Hummel submitted to project director G. Mumford for inclusion in a pending, multi-authored article on the overall findings, to-date, at Ras Budran. Mumford in JAEI 7. More Info: Excavation report submitted in to SCA end-of-season, 2-page summary Publication Name: Unpublished report to be included in a pending, updated article and the final publiction. The Toronto expedition investigated a mound at Ras Budran and The Toronto expedition investigated a mound at Ras Budran and revealed a late Old Kingdom, circular stone fort.

It displays a new architectural form circular and an uncommon pharaonic application of stone to a fortress. It is exceptionally well-preserved and the undisturbed occupation layer allows analysis of activity patterns. The site illuminates multiple aspects of a period associated with the "collapse" of the Old Kingdom and the activities and cross-cultural interactions of a garrison located at the edge of Egypt's eastern frontier.

Mumford and his crew's excavation work and findings within and beside a New Kingdom fortress in Field V at Tell el-Borg Northwest Sinai during , provided to Hoffmeier , project team members, and project funders. This work was carried out in conjunction with the main excavation work in Field V conducted and directed by James Knudstad and Rosa Frey and consisted of explorations at the corner of a New Kingdom fort's moat in Unit Y late Dyn.

For a more comprehensive overview and publication of Field V and other fields at Tell Borg, see the diverse and collaborative excavations and findings by multiple team members in the recent project volume by J. These findings originated from the Supreme Council of Antiquities' excavations within and monitoring of a construction site for a water plant, initiated in at Tebilla. The Toronto pottery team processed over 4, Late Period, diagnostic potsherds from the and seasons at Tebilla.

Creationism starts from a single assumption: that the history of the Earth is accurately recorded in the Bible. It thus dismisses all scientific evidence that does not fit this credo. The reference to the "way[s] in which the speed of the clock has varied over time" are a very thinly veiled attack on a bedrock assumption of scientific practice, uniformitarianism , in for the sake of argument contradistinction to catastrophism.

Assuming good faith qua ignorance, this attack is simply a misconstruction of uniformitarianism - as a scientific assumption it does not claim that major disruptive events like ice ages, meteor impacts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and so on have never happened since plenty of people alive today have witnessed or been affected by one or more of them , but rather that the specific physical laws governing their causes and effects have remained constant over time.

Assuming good faith qua scientific disagreement with uniformitarianism, none of the creationist theories predicated on alternatives to the constancy of physical laws over time can be valid without encountering big problems very quickly; cf. If we don't assume good faith, it appears that CMI is combining a false dilemma with the Nirvana fallacy - one theory can't yet answer all possible questions, so the other should be accepted unquestioningly. This logic is both fallacious wrong in its pattern of reasoning and incorrect wrong in the facts it reasons with.

There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old. However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now. And there are now good reasons for thinking that it might have been quite intense in the past, in which case the craters do not indicate an old age at all see below.

Ages of millions of years are all calculated by assuming the rates of change of processes in the past were the same as we observe today — called the principle of uniformitarianism. If the age calculated from such assumptions disagrees with what they think the age should be, they conclude that their assumptions did not apply in this case, and adjust them accordingly.

If the calculated result gives an acceptable age, the investigators publish it. There is no need for an "independent natural clock" thanks to the principle that reality is objective: if analyses of many samples by different methods arrive at the same age, this is strong evidence that the estimate is correct, by consilience. Errors tend to be random; for the estimate to be incorrect, the errors would have to be the same for all samples and all methods, which is extremely unlikely.

A single observation of a wildly discordant estimate is not enough to overturn the concordant estimates, because observations are always subject to errors and outliers. A failure to understand consilience is why many creationists postulate a conspiracy amongst scientific investigators, as the author does here. It is important to note that creationists often use the term "uniformitarianism" in a different way than modern science does, and insist that it also refers to a uniformity of geological rate with no regard for well-known prevailing conditions.

The author misunderstands crater counting. It is not used to obtain absolute dates, but to compare the age of one region to another, whose age is known through radiometric dating. Its only assumption is that the bombardment of the moon was uniform over its surface not necessarily over time. We assume an approximately constant rate of meteor impacts on the moon, with variations depending on the stage of development of the solar system e.

However, the "increased rate" that would be required to produce the observed craters is unrealistic: if the rate of impacts to the Moon was high enough to give it its characteristic surface in under 6, years — the standard [5] [6] [7] creationist time since creation, according to the chronology worked out by Archbishop James Ussher in — we'd expect a lot more craters on Earth; with a presumed abundance of meteors intersecting the shared orbit of Earth and the moon, it would stretch credulity indeed to suggest that something like Examples of young ages listed here are also obtained by applying the same principle of uniformitarianism.

Long-age proponents will dismiss this sort of evidence for a young earth by arguing that the assumptions about the past do not apply in these cases. In other words, age is not really a matter of scientific observation but an argument about our assumptions about the unobserved past.

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This is partially true, but there is a crucial difference: the uniformitarian assumptions of science have reasons behind them. For phenomena which are used in dating, such as the radioactive decay of potassium, the observed rate is constant and no known mechanisms of changing the rate exist. The vast majority of creationist assumptions of uniformitarianism, however, end up absurd because they ignore important known mechanisms of rate change.

Radiometric dating does not merely give age for an assumed constant rate of decay, but also relative age. Comparing, for example, a 10, y. To believe that they are about the same age requires that two different places be subject to vastly different rates of decay. If they are found in the same place, the problem is further exacerbated. The assumptions behind the evidences presented here cannot be proved, but the fact that such a wide range of different phenomena all suggest much younger ages than are currently generally accepted, provides a strong case for questioning those accepted ages about 14 billion years for the universe and 4.

Indeed, the assumptions of constant rates used by many creationists cannot be proved — but they can easily be disproved by pointing out plausible mechanisms of rate changes. No such disproof is available for the assumptions behind mainstream methods of dating. Also, a number of the evidences, rather than giving any estimate of age, challenge the assumption of slow-and-gradual uniformitarianism, upon which all deep-time dating methods depend.

Many of these indicators for younger ages were discovered when creationist scientists started researching things that were supposed to "prove" long ages. The lesson here is clear: when the evolutionists throw up some new challenge to the Bible's timeline, don't fret over it. Sooner or later that supposed evidence will be turned on its head and will even be added to this list of evidences for a younger age of the earth. On the other hand, some of the evidences listed here might turn out to be ill-founded with further research and will need to be modified.

Such is the nature of science, especially historical science, because we cannot do experiments on past events see "It's not science" img. Young-Earth Creationism is unanimously rejected by the scientific community.

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Deep time and the 4. In fact, deep time and an old Earth aren't even part of evolution—they're questions in geology and cosmology, not biology. Many of the scientists who discovered evidence for an Earth much older than the Biblical account were devout Christians and experienced crises of faith because the insistence that Ussher's 6,year timeline was inviolable strained consilience. Many creationists make an artificial and bogus distinction between historical science , or science which makes them uncomfortable, and operational science , with which they claim not to have any problems.

Science is based on observation, and the only reliable means of telling the age of anything is by the testimony of a reliable witness who observed the events. The Bible claims to be the communication of the only One who witnessed the events of Creation: the Creator himself. As such, the Bible is the only reliable means of knowing the age of the earth and the cosmos. In the end we believe that the Bible will stand vindicated and those who deny its testimony will be confounded.

The claim here is that God is a reliable witness, although He did not physically inscribe the Bible himself. This was done by the hands of many over the course of centuries, with well-established Biblical scholarship indicating tremendous amounts of editing and sources in older legends. By this line of reasoning, no one would have any justification for estimating the age of another person; they might look elderly but unless they tell you their age or look up their birth records, they could be six days old for all you knew. DNA in "ancient" fossils img.

DNA extracted from bacteria that are supposed to be million years old brings into question that age, because DNA could not last more than thousands of years. A valid point is being made here. Unfortunately for them, it's probably not the point they intended to make.

In the early s a number of studies were published which claimed to have isolated DNA from samples dating back as far as million years. Regardless of the doubt about these studies of extremely ancient samples, DNA from human and other species going back as far as , years has been sequenced and there is scientific consensus that the results are reliable.

Lazarus bacteria img — bacteria revived from salt inclusions supposedly million years old, suggest the salt is not millions of years old. See also Salty saga img. The decay in the human genome due to multiple slightly deleterious mutations each generation is consistent with an origin several thousand years ago.

Sanford, J. This has been confirmed by realistic modelling of population genetics, which shows that genomes are young, in the order of thousands of years. See Sanford, J. This argument relates to the claimed Fall of Man , in which it is posited that humans were cut off from God's life force and their genomes thus started "decaying".

This is completely factually inaccurate. Not only is there no evidence of a general genetic decay, but there are known recent beneficial mutations in humans, e. The data for " mitochondrial Eve img " are consistent with a common origin of all humans several thousand years ago. Creationists and scientists aren't talking about the same "Eve" here. Mitochondria contain mitochondrial DNA mtDNA , which derives from an early point in evolutionary history when mitochondria existing symbiotically with precursors to animals' cells merged.

Unlike the Eve of the Bible, Mitochondrial Eve was not the first human female; she is only the most recent matrilineal common ancestor of all persons living today. This does not imply that she was the only female around at the time, just that the mitochondrial lines of all the other women alive at that time were interrupted at some point, either by having no children or by having only sons—so there's nothing particularly special about her. Mitochondrial Eve had to inherit her mtDNA from her mother, after all, and her mother inherited it from her grandmother, etc.

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Finally, the geography that leads biologists to their conclusions about Mitochondrial Eve's origin in East Africa is more or less conclusive disproof of the claim of the Garden of Eden as having been present in what we now call the Middle East. This isn't necessarily evidence against a young earth per se , but certainly a problem for CMI's belief in Biblical inerrancy. Very limited variation in the DNA sequence on the human Y-chromosome around the world img is consistent with a recent origin of mankind, thousands not millions of years.

The Y chromosome, unlike most DNA, is inherited only from the father, which means that all DNA on the human Y chromosome can be followed back to a single most recent common male ancestor. That male would have inherited his Y chromosome from his father, who inherited it from his father, etc. The existence of a Y-chromosomal Adam does not mean that there was only one man alive at that time, but rather that the male-exclusive lineages of all the other men alive at that time have been broken — either by childlessness or by having only daughters.

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The only factor affecting the DNA on the Y chromosome is mutation, so measuring mutation rates and extrapolating them backwards can provide an estimate of when this most recent common male ancestor lived: not less than 60, years ago, [17] and possibly as long as , years ago — before Homo sapiens. Many fossil bones "dated" at many millions of years old are hardly mineralized, if at all. See, for example, Dinosaur bones just how old are they really? There is no requirement that fossil bones have to be re-mineralized — bones and teeth are naturally made from a mineral apatite , which is largely calcium phosphate in the first place, so have some chance of preservation.

And this still leaves fossil bones which are dated many millions of years old that have been mineralized. There are also other hard parts, notably shells, that are formed of calcium carbonate calcite or aragonite and can be found almost unchanged since deposition as far back as the Cambrian. Dinosaur blood cells, blood vessels img , proteins img hemoglobin img , osteocalcin img , collagen img are not consistent with their supposed age, but make more sense if the remains are young. Lack of racemization of amino acids in fossils img "dated" at millions of years old, whereas complete racemization would occur in thousands of years.

Amino acid racemization dating is a technique that uses the ratio of amino acid isomers to date fossilized objects up to several millions of years into the past. Measuring the racemization of the amino acid isoleucine, for example, can date objects as far back as the claimed-implausible several million years. Living fossils img — jellyfish, graptolites, coelacanth , stromatolites, Wollemi pine and hundreds more.

That many hundreds of species could remain so unchanged, for even up to billions of years in the case of stromatolites, speaks against the millions and billions of years being real. The jellyfish have actually changed, as have the coelacanths — they aren't the same species at all, as the author claims.

They merely belong to the same order : think "primates", not "homo sapiens", for example. Of the life forms given as examples, only the Wollemi pine is a species , and not such an old one as claimed. The "many hundreds of species" are out of millions of species. Only a tiny proportion of fossil species have modern counterparts. The key point, however, is that the "living fossils" didn't change much because they were well-adapted to a stable environment. This argument also presumes that the only changes are morphological — evolution also includes biochemical changes, behavioral changes, and others that are not preserved in the fossil record.

Discontinuous fossil sequences. Coelacanth img , Wollemi pine img and various "index" fossils, which are present in supposedly ancient strata, missing in strata representing many millions of years since, but still living today. Such discontinuities speak against the interpretation of the rock formations as vast geological ages—how could Coelacanths have avoided being fossilized for 65 million years, for example? See The "Lazarus effect": rodent "resurrection"! Fossilization is a rare event. Marine fossils are even rarer, because they start out on the sea floor, where they are inaccessible.

That sea floor must be uplifted and turned into dry land through geological processes before humans can find the fossils it contains. The reason coelacanth fossils virtually disappeared from the fossil record around 65 million years ago is that there are no locations where they could have been fossilized and uplifted. The Mediterranean was now a much shallower sea, and the Indian Ocean segment had become shallow upon impaction with the Indian subcontinent. The species in this area died out, unable to adapt to the reduction in their habitat.

After this, there would be no tectonic uplift in the region, meaning that the coelacanth fossils would be deep in the ocean floor. The Indonesian coelacanth has not been fossilized because of similar conditions. In their location, trenches formed allowing for the transfer of coelacanths, which were then trapped in Indonesian waters. The trenches have consistently been getting larger, and new land is not being uplifted, meaning that fossils cannot reach the surface. An index fossil is a species used as an indicator by paleontologists as a working convenience.

The incorrect creationist claim that coelacanths were an index fossil originates with Kent Hovind , who misdescribes what an index fossil is, and confuses coelacanths with graptolites, [24] a blunder similar to confusing trilobites with raccoons. The linked articles suggest that fossils were all laid down during the Great Flood. This does not explain why dinosaurs other than birds are only found in the lower strata, and never not just rarely found in upper strata. If the flood was as suitable for the creation of fossils as is described, there should be more fossils than we actually find.

The described mechanism would fossilize a large proportion of everything that was living at the time. We would also expect modern animals, such as cows, to be found in the fossil record. The author's interpretation of the data is inconsistent with his stated model. The ages of the world's oldest living organisms, trees img , are consistent with an age of the earth of thousands of years. The oldest living individual trees are younger than 6, years — but dendrochronology , which the linked article endorses, is not limited to studying a single tree.

Because the thickness of rings differs depending on weather conditions during each season, tree ring patterns can be matched between living and dead trees, extending the record beyond the lifetime of a single tree. In suitable places, the record has been extended this way to roughly 11, years before present. Regardless of the age of individual trees, Pando , a massive clonal colony of aspen in Utah verified by genetic markers to be a single monolithic organism — at a weight of 6, tons, by far the heaviest on Earth — has a lower bound on its age projections of 80, years and may be as old as a million years.

Current scientific opinion is that the oldest living organisms are sea grasses, not trees, and the oldest known example has been given an age in the vicinity of 80, to , years. See Origins 21 1 —56, Also the Coconino sandstone in the Grand Canyon has many track-ways animals , but is almost devoid of plants. Implication: these rocks are not ecosystems of an "era" buried in situ over eons of time as evolutionists claim.

The evidence is more consistent with catastrophic transport then burial during the massive global Flood of Noah's day. This eliminates supposed evidence for millions of years. Plants are almost completely soft tissue and so most of their remains decay very quickly. Animals, on the other hand, have bones and teeth, and shells, etc. Owing to the transitory nature of tracks, no modern geologist insists that they were buried over eons. They all recognise that a special event which covered the tracks took place — which does not imply a global flood, but only a small-scale local event.

If tracks were buried in situ over eons, then the Earth would be covered in them. Thick, tightly bent strata without sign of melting or fracturing. This wipes out hundreds of millions of years of time and is consistent with extremely rapid formation during the biblical Flood. See Warped earth img written by a geophysicist. This refers to the creationist idea of soft-sediment deformation which bears no relation to the use of the term in geology. What is happening is ductile deformation. What seems like "solid rock" to us is actually "plastic" with geological timescales and conditions — under long term stress or strain, these crystalline structures can deform into convoluted shapes.

And, of course, many rocks are fractured as a result of folding. Purple slates from North Wales often contain light green discolourations from ferrous reduction spheres which formed around iron nuclei; these are deformed into long thin ovals, which are evidence of folding after the rock has lithified.

Polystrate fossils — tree trunks in coal Auracaria spp. There are also polystrate tree trunks in the Yellowstone fossilized forests img and Joggins, Nova Scotia img and in many other places. Experiments show that with conditions mimicking natural forces, coal forms quickly img ; in weeks for brown coal to months for black coal. It does not need millions of years. Furthermore, long time periods could be an impediment to coal formation because of the increased likelihood of the permineralization of the wood, which would hinder coalification.

Experiments show that with conditions mimicking natural forces, oil forms quickly img ; it does not need millions of years, consistent with an age of thousands of years. Experiments show that with conditions mimicking natural forces, opals form quickly img , in a matter of weeks, not millions of years, as had been claimed.

The linked article speaks of Len Cram, an opal expert who claims he can grow opals. The linked article asserts that Noah's flood "would have uprooted the entire pre-Flood biosphere and buried it with huge quantities of sand and mud" and correctly states that "The coal seams occur within thick layers of clay, sand and basaltic lava, which together form a metre 2,foot sequence of rocks".

But there are multiple seams interleaved by well defined layers of other materials which indicates that they have been formed by a cyclical process rather than a single event, yet "There has only ever been one global Flood". Any catastrophic mingling of vegetation, rock and water would — depending on the relative proportions — either have produced deposits resembling a giant "fruit cake", with ingredients more or less evenly distributed, or a single sequence of differentiated layer with the heaviest particles at the bottom and lighter vegetation near the top covered by the finest clay.

It would not have produced "three groups of major coal seams, separated and underlain by clays and sands". Evidence for rapid petrifaction of wood img speaks against the need for long periods of time and is consistent with an age of thousands of years. Clastic dykes and pipes intrusion of sediment through overlying sedimentary rock show that the overlying rock strata were still soft when it happened. This drastically compresses the time scale for the deposition of the penetrated rock strata. See, Walker, T. This is factually incorrect. A clastic dike , an intrusion of sediment into cracks in harder rock layers, does not imply the rock was intruded when it was soft, but that it cracked when it was hard, e.

Para pseudo conformities—where one rock stratum sits on top of another rock stratum but with supposedly millions of years of geological time missing, yet the contact plane lacks any significant erosion; that is, it is a "flat gap". See Austin, S. All of this is well understood in geology. The sandstone of the Schnebly Hill formation eroded away in the Grand Canyon region, but not further south in Arizona.

Both regions were subsequently covered with Hermit shale. The argument about the "flat gap" lack of erosion on the contact surface is based on the findings of a creationist expedition investigating Park Service signs, as well as quote mining. It has the same problems as The presence of ephemeral markings raindrop marks, ripple marks, animal tracks at the boundaries of paraconformities show that the upper rock layer has been deposited immediately after the lower one, eliminating many millions of "gap" time. See references in Para pseudo conformities. True — these markings are preserved only by rare events such as lava flows, which explains their great rarity.

Once again, the error is the assumption that rapidity of some depositions means rapidity of all depositions. Furthermore, one would expect a world-wide flood, which creationists claim was violent enough to erode almost all geological formations - including forming the Grand Canyon - to have completely erased any ephemeral markings. Inter-tonguing of adjacent strata that are supposedly separated by millions of years also eliminates many millions of years of supposed geologic time.

The case of the "missing" geologic time img ; Mississippian and Cambrian strata interbedding: million years hiatus in question, CRSQ 23 4 — The basic idea behind this claim is that strata from the Mississippian and the Cambrian lie "next" to each other in the Grand Canyon such that there is no obvious disruption. This would "prove" that there was no time gap between what geologists have found to be about a million year time period.

The lack of bioturbation img worm holes, root growth at paraconformities flat gaps reinforces the lack of time involved where evolutionary geologists insert many millions of years to force the rocks to conform with the "given" timescale of billions of years. The link does not mention bioturbation at paraconformities at all. Instead, it nitpicks an article in The Skeptic criticizing creationist interpretation of a landform in Australia. Admittedly, the article does not appear to be perfect. It mentions "vertical tree trunks" buried in sandstone, which the creationists themselves were forced to admit are actually unusual iron concretions.

Even ignoring this, signs of bioturbation tend to be destroyed in the process of lithification — transformation of buried soil and sediments into rock. There is nothing surprising about this. Furthermore, the fact that the worm holes and root growth exist in different stratigraphic layers is evidence of separate depositional sequences rather than a single flood event. The almost complete lack of clearly recognizable soil layers anywhere in the geologic column. Geologists do claim to have found lots of "fossil" soils paleosols , but these are quite different to soils today, lacking the features that characterize soil horizons; features that are used in classifying different soils.

Every one that has been investigated thoroughly proves to lack the characteristics of proper soil. If "deep time" were correct, with hundreds of millions of years of abundant life on the earth, there should have been ample opportunities many times over for soil formation.

See Klevberg, P. Limited extent of unconformities unconformity: a surface of erosion that separates younger strata from older rocks. Surfaces erode quickly e. Badlands, South Dakota , but there are very limited unconformities. This is again consistent with a much shorter time of deposition of these strata.

See Para pseudo conformities. Badlands are places where soft sediments devoid of vegetation receive rare but intense rain showers, and have very high rates of erosion. They are not a typical landscape in this respect. The point of the rest of the argument is not clear enough to respond to. The amount of salt in the world's oldest lake contradicts its supposed age img and suggests an age more consistent with its formation after Noah's Flood, which is consistent with a young age of the earth.

The article is about Lake Eyre, which is not the oldest lake on Earth. In fact, it is considered relatively recent. The oldest lake is believed to be either Lake Baikal with a widely accepted age of million years, or potentially Lake Zaysan in Kazakhstan with a disputed age of 65 million years. Sediments thought to have formed slowly over eons of time are now becoming recognized as having formed extremely rapidly. See for example, A classic tillite reclassified as a submarine debris flow img Technical. Turbidity currents do not "create" sediment out of nothing, they just move around older unconsolidated sediments.

It is very unclear how this constitutes any kind of evidence for a young Earth. The linked article cherry picks a single publication presenting evidence that one specific deposit of what was assumed to be glacial rubble could actually be sediment laid down by turbidity currents. Clearly, this over-generalization is absurd, and completely ignores other kinds of evidence for ice ages , such as erratic boulders, changes in the distribution of species observed in the fossil record, or the temperature record from ice cores. Flume tank research with sediment of different particle sizes show that layered rock strata that were thought to have formed over huge periods of time in lake beds actually formed very quickly.

Even the precise layer thicknesses of rocks were duplicated after they were ground into their sedimentary particles and run through the flume. See Experiments in stratification of heterogeneous sand mixtures img , Sedimentation Experiments: Nature finally catches up! The rapidity of the formation of these canyons, which look similar to other canyons that supposedly took many millions of years to form, brings into question the supposed age of the canyons that no one saw form. Canyons can form rapidly, especially in the volcanic and alluvial deposits the article mentions; however, this does not mean that all canyons formed quickly, or recently.

Observed examples of rapid island formation and maturation, such as Surtsey img , which confound the notion that such islands take long periods of time to form. See also, Tuluman—A Test of Time img. Surtsey is a volcano; not all islands are volcanoes. Britain's path to islandhood involved a massive lake bursting its banks thousands of years ago, cutting away the chalk deposits linking it to Europe. Other islands such as Sri Lanka and Cuba were formed as rising sea levels isolated them from the mainland. Still other islands, such as New Zealand and Madagascar, were formed when the movement of tectonic plates sheared them off of previously adjoined landmasses i.

Rate of erosion of coastlines img , horizontally. Beachy Head, UK, loses a metre of coast to the sea every six years. Presumably this is meant to imply that if the earth were old, all land would have been eroded into the ocean by now. Land lost from coastlines, however, does not necessarily just disappear, but is often deposited somewhere else. For example, Rye, East Sussex , a town in the same county as Beachy Head , was once an important port but is now inland.

Similarly, Cape Cod , which is entirely sand and gravel a glacial moraine , sometimes loses substantial amounts of shoreline in places — while aggregating large amounts in other places. Rate of erosion of continents vertically img. See Creation 22 2 — Existence of significant flat plateaux that are "dated" at many millions of years old img "elevated paleoplains". An example is Kangaroo Island img Australia. Twidale, a famous Australian physical geographer wrote: "the survival of these paleoforms is in some degree an embarrassment to all the commonly accepted models of landscape development.

On the survival of paleoforms, American Journal of Science 5 —95, quote on p. This is an example of quote mining : the author has misread the referenced paper and picked out a quote he thinks supports his position, but the source of the quote itself shows the author's claim to be incorrect. At no point does Twidale's paper suggest that the results of dating are in error. It recounts various theories of landscape development, points out that all of them fail to explain all observed features of paleoforms, and proposes an alternative model that does explain them.

The author is using inadequacies in old theories mentioned by Twidale to suggest that the data itself is wrong, which is completely backwards. The recent and almost simultaneous origin of all major mountain ranges around the world: all "dated" at only 5 million years ago, whereas the continents have, it is claimed, been around for up to billions of years. See Baumgardner, J. Impact , March The statement is completely incorrect. The Appalachians go back so far — million years — that they predate the Atlantic Ocean and the dinosaurs. Rocks found in the Appalachians match those found in Scandinavia and Scotland.

In any case, even if the claim were correct, 5 million years is over eight hundred times longer than the standard YEC timeframe of 6, years. It does not refer to some problem with deep time. Erosion at Niagara Falls img and other such places is consistent with just a few thousand years since the biblical Flood. However, much of the Niagara Gorge likely formed very rapidly with the catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz; see: Climate change, Niagara and catastrophe img. Waterfalls are sites of rapid erosion and therefore highly dynamic. There is absolutely no reason to suppose any waterfall is as old as the Earth.

Furthermore, we might ask that, if under a creationist scenario the Grand Canyon and Niagara Gorge supposedly both came into being after the global flood, why aren't they of similar sizes? This highlights the absence of coherency in the flood geology paradigm where the apparent aim is only to try to undermine the old-Earth model rather than give a consistent alternative. Niagara Falls first formed at the end of the last ice age, 12, years ago. River delta growth rate is consistent with thousands of years since the biblical Flood, not vast periods of time.

The argument goes back to Mark Twain. Underfit streams. River valleys are too large for the streams they contain. Dury speaks of the "continent-wide distribution of underfit streams". Using channel meander characteristics, Dury concluded that past streams frequently had 20—60 times their current discharge. This means that the river valleys would have been carved very quickly, not slowly over eons of time.

This "evidence" turns out to be another example of quote mining. In the s, a misfit stream was thought to arise when the drainage area of a river was reduced. George H. Dury recognized that misfit streams are more common in some regions, and therefore cannot arise only by this mechanism, which would have no regional variation. Amount of salt in the sea img. This suggests that the age of the earth is radically less also.

Again, evolution is a part of biology. The age s of the oceans were established by geologists , not biologists. The amount of sediment on the sea floors img at current rates of land erosion would accumulate in just 12 million years; a blink of the eye compared to the supposed age of much of the ocean floor of up to 3 billion years. Furthermore, long-age geologists reckon that higher erosion rates applied in the past, which shortens the time frame.

From a biblical point of view, at the end of Noah's Flood lots of sediment would have been added to the sea with the water coming off the unconsolidated land, making the amount of sediment perfectly consistent with a history of thousands of years. The calculation arriving at 12 million years has been shown to be flawed and simplistic.

Iron-manganese nodules IMN on the sea floors. The measured rates of growth of these nodules indicates an age of only thousands of years. Lalomov, A. Mineral deposits as an example of geological rates. CRSQ 44 1 — This is almost completely incorrect. Manganese nodule growth is so incredibly slow that it takes several million years to form one centimeter.

It is one of the slowest known geological phenomena. Fast-growing nodules at least years per centimeter do exist in some locations, [51] but are by no means the usual case. All examples of fast growth given in the cited paper refer to nodules found growing on man-made steel objects. In this case, nodule growth is greatly accelerated by electrochemical processes driven by the dissolution of iron from the steel.

The age of placer deposits concentrations of heavy metals such as tin in modern sediments and consolidated sedimentary rocks. The measured rates of deposition indicate an age of thousands of years, not the assumed millions. See Lalomov, A. Age determination of coastal submarine placer, Val'cumey, northern Siberia. Journal of Creation TJ 14 3 — If they were many millions of years old we would expect the pressures to equilibrate, even in low permeability rocks.

In their opinion, if models demand the standard multimillion-years geochronological scale, the best exploration strategy is to drill wells on a random grid. Many meters of solid rock can and do hold the oil and gas in place at least as well as a few millimeters of steel. The Lalomov paper's assertion otherwise is an argument from incredulity.

The assertion as to the recommendations for petroleum prospecting is factually incorrect. No oil company expert recommends drilling on a random grid. Direct evidence that oil is forming today img in the Guaymas Basin and in Bass Strait img is consistent with a young earth although not necessary for a young earth.

The game sees the protagonists fighting off a rich industrialist who wants to do away with both the Union and Confederacy in one swift movement and turn the United States of America into a country called the "American Empire" with a totalitarian dictatorship. This is just a wistful blog post by Jed but all three services had a very painful learning experience and so many other nations, including the US, learned the same lessons. Although Mexico [4] and Canada were allies, it would be hard to imagine that they could have held out for long. By nightfall, the American ships, spent on ammo and frustrated by visibility, withdrew towards the south and back to Boston to take on more ammunition and hopefully hunt down the British another day.

Immediately bellow the marble plinth on the river flank are 22 rooms in red stone with their ventilators all walled up by Shahjahan. If you take a look at who is running the clubs, managing the labels, booking the artists, and playing the records, the demographics are starkly different from the crowds that got this music started.