Pinacoteca Civica di Vicenza: essay by Beltramini, fig. Palladio worked on this edition in the last years of his life and it remained unpublished at his death in Long thought to have been lost, his original Polybius has now been recomposed by drawing on three manuscript copies: the mock-up used by Palladio to plan the edition, rediscovered by John Hale in the British Library, London, in ; a second copy put up for sale by Gonnelli in Florence in , now in a private collection; and a third exemplar only very recently found in the New York Public Library. Thanks to these copies, today scholars and connoisseurs can admire the 43 etchings illustrating the stories narrated by the great Greek historian as well as reach a fuller understanding of them thanks to the manuscript legends and original introductory texts.
It is likely that he in- tended the Polybius to be the second volume in an ideal series of books with similar aims and expressive means. This offers us a complete picture of his effort to recon- struct those excellent features of ancient warfare on which he wished to base his own proposals for reforming the contemporary Venetian militia. I should like to thank them all for their generous and very scholarly contributions. I am indebted to the two people who inspired me to begin this study. First, John Hale, the English historian, who died in Second, Howard Burns, because three illuminating lines on page 44 of his seminal catalogue for the Palladio exhibition sparked off my studies of Palladio on the battlefield.
Of the many people who provided indispensable support in my research which resulted in this publication, I should firstly like to thank Donata Battilotti and Ornella Foglieni, directors of the Soprintendenza Beni Librari della Regione Lombardia. With their assistance I managed to reach the copy of Polybius now in a private collection, to whose owner I offer my sincerest thanks for the courtesy of allowing me to consult it. I am also deeply indebted to many colleagues and friends.
David Kerr not only translated a complex book with great skill, but his comments led me to make improvements in the Italian text. Emanuela Bassetti and Rossella Martignoni at Marsilio sup- ported me, as always, doing much more than fulfilling their duties as publishers. I wish to thank Cristina Setti for her assistance in archive and library research as well as Francesca Caffi and Maria Cristina Ciscato. Lastly, I wish to express my gratitude to the Fondazione Cariverona and its President Paolo Biasi, for having believed in and supported the publishing project, and to Amalia Sartori, President of the Centro Internazionale Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio, as well as the Scientific Committee and Board of Directors, for the trust they have placed in me.
He was born walls to halt an enemy army.
The worst conflict in or the most effective city walls, but primarily on the the century, it was to devastate the territory of the Re- organisation of the army in the battlefield. He writes public as far as the edge of the Venetian lagoon. Thus, when I consider how to deceive Venetian rout. One of purpose than having an excellent and well-ordered army. Aelianus Tacticus, De Instruendis Aciebus, may be ordered in horizontal, vertical or oblique lines. Rome Vicenza, Biblioteca Civica palladio and the principles As we will see, he tackled this issue in his introduction Bertoliana of the ancient militia to Polybius.
He is telling us that his interest in fourteenth-century manuscript exemplar, which Gi- ancient warfare went back to the years of his education angiorgio Trissino would seem to have consulted per- with Giangiorgio Trissino, i. This is not a the same vision. Here Palladio was not practising writing which are infantryman and horsemen. The sym- conceive of anyone else having made this illustration bols used to identify the two kinds of armies come from than Palladio himself fig. In sixteenth-century Vicenza, some members of fami- the patron of the Palazzo Garzadori fig.
Andrea Palladio, studies of infantry Valmarana, patron and protector of Palladio. A cursory glance at the short biographies of formations confronting each other Barbarano, a cousin of Montano, for whom Palladio illustrious citizens published in Book ii of Giacomo Oxford, Worcester College Library, n.
This erudite study of Roman civil the Vicentine aristocratic houses were engaged in the and military life included a large section with an ana- quest for glory on the battlefield in the Italian Wars, lytical description of the army: from battle formations in the service of the Pope, Spain or France.
Of the to the armament, recruitment and so on. Barbarano seven sons of Leonardo da Porto, the author of De Ses- even went to so far as to criticise those who turned to tertio, at least three became professional soldiers: the late Latin sources, such as Gellius and Vegetius, who firstborn Giovanni fought at Vienna, in France and had described a different type of militia compared to in Piedmont; Lodovico was also at Vienna, and then that of Republican Rome, whose order was thought to followed Charles v to Tunis, and eventually died in be superior to subsequent ones.
To an Italian translation published six images in the text: a map of France, the sieges of a decade earlier, and therefore free of copyright, Pal- Alesia fig. Palladio tried out a new by side in the same picture. A Roman legionnaire, in Discorso del S. The news of the existence of a ancient writer. Unlike all the known copies of this work, in bius, dedicating it to Francesco, Grand Duke of Tuscany, this exemplar someone had inserted 43 etchings and six who showed he was very fond of it. The book with the an- lustrated edition of Polybius. Even more any fresh clues. In Antonio Magrini de- time.
Indeed, the book was preserved in the library of finitively demonstrated the existence of the Polybius. But here, Polybius plates and those in Caesar and the fact that the too, there is nothing straightforward. In fact the letter link between the two works is also stressed in the manu- itself bears the date and it is not clear what Pal- script introduction to the Polybius: ladio is thanking the Grand Duke for. But then nine years later there was another sur- exemplar, not so much in terms of the vividness of by Giovanni Giocondo, Venice prising twist to the story.
The Florentine antique book- the images as the care taken over them: the plates are Vicenza, Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana seller Gonnelli put up for sale a copy of Polybius of Moreover, as regards the positioning of the legends on all 43 plates. Lionello Puppi, who examined illustrations in the body of the book, only 36 of the the copy before it was sold to a private collector, was Florentine plates are inserted in the same position as also persuaded that the manuscript parts were autograph in the English edition in which they all relate logi- Silla Palladio. On the basis of the fact this exemplar was cally to the text.
In the other twist came during the preparatory studies for the Florentine exemplar all the corrections made on the Palladio exhibition of But why was it made? None of the egation. The plates have Grand Duke published by Magrini. It is as if he was in been inserted inaccurately, however, with several mis- difficulty for not having completed the work, whereas interpretations of the hand-written indications, almost the Florentine exemplar is basically complete. Thirty years later, to add the cross references to the images. In the case of in July , the French scientist Nicholas-Claude the Commentaries of , they are found both in the Fabri de Peiresc made a surprising request margin of the illustrated passages and in the body text to the Paduan antiques scholar Lorenzo Pignoria at the incipit fig.
As Sara Mazzarino remarks in the Appendix to this book, at least seven illustrations with no additions I beg you to put in unbound copies of your Cartaro and by Palladio were printed on heavier paper and may your Emblemi by Alciato and one of Luiggi Cornaro il vec- have come from a different print run. Cost nine pounds AD ; only one specimen copy, or to a new reprint of the etchings. Given that all the books and Caesar, he often cites Polybius, referring to pas- requested by the Frenchman from his Paduan friend sages from Book vi on the composition and weapons were new publications dating from to , Peiresc of the army and Book xvii which narrates how the might have had an inkling that a new edition of the Roman legion was confronted by the Macedonian two Palladian works on warfare was in the offing.
But phalanx. On these grounds we can say that 42 plates were spe- Palladio conceived of the illustrated Polybius as a con- cifically made for Polybius, which is exactly the same tinuation of the Commentaries of — a second volume number as the plates in Caesar. This decision was justified by the deeds my opinion, but always submitting to better judgement, by of Hannibal, whose cavalry was his best arm.
Palladio exhorting anyone who so wishes to complete that which I dedicates the first illustration to this subject, providing may have omitted, and so make the truth known. In this case the image is one of fully describes the corvus invented by the Romans to the few illustrations which are purely explicative, and Pal- grapple Carthaginian ships i, 22 58 and illustrates the ladio uses a set of symbols of small toy soldiers on horse- battle of Cape Ecnomus Plate 6.
In fact he was taking part in a will return later figs 23, 24, 25, This was not the triumph of an isolated in- view of the side of the ship and a section of another The technique of representation is very precise, Robortello, Venice Vicenza, examples of the past would enable them to win the producing a thoroughgoing ship design, comparable Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana challenges of the present. But the men close to Fausto, from Bembo Vitruvius also deals with shipbuilding. In Book i, in to Navagero, and Giovan Giacomo Leonardi, belonged explaining the concept of symmetry, he refers to the to a circle of which Giangiorgio Trissino was also a very diameter of pillars in temples, and the space between active member, as well as men at arms like Mario Sa- two rowlocks on ships.
Moreover, as provveditore super- have had access to: it was sent by Stefano Angarano, intendent at the Arsenale shipyards, Contarini cor- the son of Giacomo, dedicatee of the Quattro Libri, responded with Galileo on the subject of the driving to Giacomo Contarini, begging him to show it to Pal- power of oars. With the effective- cartography, one does not have the impression he ness of an atlas, they represent the sequence of war took special care over the geographical context.
The events which led to the Roman conquest of the Medi- most faithful image is arguably that of Brundisium terranean dominion in the period from to BC. Palladio renders were thus able to see the reconstructions of cities that the features of the site a rushing river difficult to ford, had been wiped out or greatly modified by time, like a steep hill that must be gone round or a slope slowing Thebes in Greece, New Carthage in Spain or Seleucia down the cavalry , at times also indicating the orienta- Pieria in Asia Minor, and also less exotic places, like tion in terms of the principal winds since it was useful Taranto or Agrigento.
Thus in the case of Thebes, when the descrip- also to create compelling images. The cities can be tion is minimal, the image is generic. In the case of understood in terms of their layout and geographical Psophis Plate 30 , the result is slightly more accurate: context, while the description of individual buildings is only sketchy. Palladio examines sites with the eyes On its western side there descends a violent torrent, which, of a military man, taking into account the orography impassable for the greater part of the winter, prevents the and the defensive or offensive potential of each site, citadel from being reached on that side… On the eastern rather than with the gaze of a traveller interested in side of the town flows the Erymanthus, a large and rapid architecture or natural beauty spots.
For the Italian river of which many fables are told by poets and historians. Three sides ages in atlases. Or, through his powerful friends, like of the city are thus surrounded and protected by the rivers, Marcantonio Barbaro or Giacomo Contarini, he may while on the fourth rises a steep hill: in addition to this, every part is enclosed by large excellently made walls.
A drawing leucia Plate 33 are much more effective. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, study for the arrangement of rowlocks on a quinquereme Florence, Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe degli Uffizi, a recto Alessandro Picheroni, scale plan of the deck of a galley containing one hundred benches with three oarsmen per bench, and a study for rowing a galley, s Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, ms it. The principal subjects are the deeds of Hannibal, which feature in as many as fifteen plates, and of Scipio, The situation of Seleucia and the nature of its surroundings which are described in four plates, while in the image are as follows.
It lies on the sea between Cilicia and Phoe- of Zama, the armies of the two bitter enemies are both nicia, and below it is a hill called Coryphaeum, washed on its depicted. Seleucia lies on its southern stratagem of luring the Romans into a pocket created slope, separated from it by a deep ravine with no roads.
The by the apparent yielding of the Carthaginian line. Beneath the side overlooking the sea lie the markets and a suburb defended by very strong ancient text. Moreover, like Caesar, Polybius had per- walls. The whole of the main city is similarly fortified by sonally visited many of the places described and for very secure walls. Beyond this, it is very well equipped with Palladio he has the value of a primary source. This idea ships and all kinds of machinery. Stairs are thus required for its ascent. Not far from the town, the river Orontes enters the sea. Because of the his drawings of the Roman baths.
The wall partly by nature and partly through construc- tion is thus set on a steep ridge of rock. The citadel overlooking genberg in Civitates Orbis Terrarum, and the powerful the town is south-east from it, being surrounded on its outer view of the city at the time of Cleopatra invented by side by an impassable ravine and having on its inner side only Palladio figs 32, 33, Clearly Palladio does not one approach to the town. On its summit stand the temples simply take on the secondary role of the illustrator, of Athena and Zeus Atabyrius, as in Rhodes. This was nothing new for an architect like Palladio, of Palladian buildings, like the Battle of Zama cf.
Palladio never model must be sought in his education alongside Gi- shows the clashing of massed armies and the heroic angiorgio Trissino. Palladio explains how he was in- deeds of the commanders, who are never recognisable in troduced to the subject of the ancient militia in the the images. Palladio per- might say, alluding to the figures that Andreas Vesalius sonally brought back some freshly printed copies from set in a landscape. In a sophisticated archy and weapons, comes straight from the pages of double edition of Aelian the original Greek with a Polybius vi, Chapters Given the close links with Trissino, he will not be thankless nor useless also to set them before our eyes may have had access to the materials before printing or by means of signs and paintings, which by almost becoming even have discussed them with the author.
There is a considerable difference, however, fig. The publications ranged from books on fortifica- Hungary, the sermons of Fra Martino, the Council, stories, tions and tactics to handbooks on duelling and military stories, the affairs of England, the pomp of the Pope and of medicine. Valerio Chiericati, diagram of orientation according The fact this book was Polybius, he astutely focused on two areas of the from the German-speaking world would not have been market, books on warfare and prints of battles, which, an obstacle for Palladio, since it was used as a source for as we have seen, were particularly flourishing busi- some frescoes in the Vicentine villa of Ippolito da Porto, nesses in Venice in those decades.
The artist for these frescoes from the early s Rome, thus highlighting how in the period probably came from the workshop of Battista Zelotti, Venice was the leading international market, until busi- who had worked with Palladio for almost 30 years in ness was brusquely interrupted by the plague. The apparent lack of spent by Palladio in personally producing the images. And yet Palladio claims to be the author of the the narrative and his information.
We can image that two works: the design of the volumes, which began at this stage Palladio made some simplified sketches. Especially in the Libri in The fact that There is a link — at least in metaphorical terms — be- Zelotti settled in Mantua after becoming the supervisor tween architecture and organising troops. Like an of the fabbriche ducali ducal constructions in and army, builders must be co-ordinated.
Large machines that he died in August , might explain the poorer must be constructed and supplies procured. Yet in graphic quality of the Polybius plates compared to those his last two publishing ventures, Palladio was far re- of the Commentaries. Investing his own resources, he worked more as chose copper etching as the medium for reproduction, an intellectual-entrepreneur than as an architect. He rather than woodcut, which was used for the Quattro was driven by a passion that dates from his early years Libri.
As far as the Polybius is concerned, Palladio per- and by an entrepreneurial spirit. They alone, however, sonally met the cost of the production of the copper do not fully explain his motivation; nor does a purely plates, which were still owned by his heirs in But academic interest. Domenico de Franceschi, the skilled xy- Ancients, which we would like for our artillery and arque- lographer and publisher of the Quattro Libri, had died buses, at least in this they are mistaken, since they would not long after and copperplate etching was probably operate much better with order than with confusion.
They better suited to the format of the illustrations. Com- also say that the ancient orders are difficult and impossible pared to engraving with the burin, etching is certainly to adapt to the customs of our times, but in this as in other matters they are again mistaken, because the an- faster and cheaper, especially considering that the plates cient soldiers were peasants and craftsmen, for the most of the Commentaries and the Histories were made in a part uncouth and uneducated, and neither were their cap- single etching, i.
The operation was further easy and clear to those who understand their principles. Chiericati died on Crete in He had been The Vicentine Andrea Palladio, an architect by profession, sent there to organise the Venetian troops in October and Valerio Chiericato who had never seen war in our day, thus providing us with a terminus ante quem for but books by Aelian, and Leo and Caesar, were able to amaze the manoeuvres with Palladio.
In the passage quoted those present. They saw the first disembark the crew and sol- above, Francesco Patrizi stressed that the manoeuvres diers from a galley in marvellously good order. And I was one of the spectators. Matteo Bandello describes a similar episode in the pro- The two quotes may refer to the same episode: a dis- logue to his Novella xl, in which he mocks Machiavel- embarkation of troops and their manoeuvres on land.
The day was of the cavalry colonel Valerio Chiericati When, in , he was sent by can go and dine. And having said this to Macchiavelli, who the Venetian Senate to Friuli to train the peasant ter- withdrew to let you do it, in a wink with the aid of drums ritorial militia, he organised the ranks according to you ordered those men in various ways and forms to the the model of the Roman legion and the Macedonian admiration of all those who were there.
Signifi- Cosimo Bartoli, published in Venice: cantly, the Accademia had accepted him as a member, despite the fact he was not a noble, right from its foun- And if you were to examine the expeditions that have been dation in In the same years Palladio reconstructed undertaken, you might well find that most victories were the battles of the ancient world, and discussed strategy won more through the art and skills of the architects, than with military aristocrats. Theatre, architecture and mi- through the conduct or fortune of the commanders; and litia.
Beltramini, Palladio privato, Venice , pp. Teatro, edited by L. Zorzi, Turin , pp.
Beltramini and E. Burns, M. Collareta and D. Barbarano, Promptuarium rerum quam plurium in re praesertim Ro- 4 A. Giulio Cesare, Venice Davis et al. Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria, iv, 3. Puppi and D. Puppi, Vicenza , p. Battilotti, Andrea Palladio, Milan , pp. I am indebted to Claudio Povolo for having reminded me of this baro, Venice henceforth Vitruvio, Barbaro edn, , fols 38vr. Il primo Cin- , appendice pp. Bruschi, Milan , pp. Palladio The Portico and the Farmyard…, p. Burns, Andrea Palladio The Military Diagram in the Renais- Bollettino cisaap, xxi , pp.
BUY ON AMAZON'S NEVER EASY
Mostra documentaria, edited by M. Tiepolo, Venice , pp. Bel- Puppi, Andrea Palladio. Burns, London henceforth Palladio , pp. Witcombe, Copyright in the Renaissance. Il simposio del cinquecentenario, Venice henceforth Simposio , pp. De bello 17 S. Serlio, Architettura civile, edited by F. Fiore, Milan , p. De bello Alexandrino liber 1.
De bello Africano liber 18 G. De bello Hispaniensi liber 1. Pictura totius Galliae, diuisae in partes tres, se- drea Palladio e la villa veneta da Petrarca a Carlo Scarpa, edited by G. Bel- cundum C. Caesaris commentarios. Venetijs, in aedibus Aldi, et Andreae soceri, tramini and H.
Burns, Venice , pp. Beltramini and P. John Soane e i ponti in legno svizzeri. Architettura e cultura tecnica da Palladio 19 A. Palladio only de- ai Grubenmann, edited by A. Maggi and N. Navone, Mendrisio , pp. The Romans as Appian writes had at the time of the em- Italiani, vol. Iulij Caesaris Rerum gestarum commentarij 14 […] Cum doctiss. The navy had two thousand ships and gal- Aldi Manutij, P.
Frankfurt ; D. Architec- 20 G. Zorzi, Le ville e i teatri di Andrea Palladio, Venice , pp. Deswarte-Rosa, i, Lyon , pp. Giulio Cesare, con le figure in rame de gli alloggiamenti, pp. Guglielmo Choul gentilhuomo lionese, Padua The story descritte in essi. Giulio Cesare. Con le figure in rame, di Andrea Pal- Gli affreschi nelle ville venete. Il Cinquecento, edited by G. Pavanello and V. Volpi, Padua , pp. Concina, Navis. From page 33 to page 41 of this second section we find the Lettera al and Sopra gli studi militari fatti da An- 60 Concina, Navis…, pp.
On the military Biografico degli Italiani, vol. Bembo, Lettere, edited by E. Travi, iii, Bologna , pp. Algarotti, Livorno I am indebted to Stephen Parkin edition of Vitruvius : V. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. The fact that Gualdo also 66 A. Magrini, Memorie in- lotti, Andrea Palladio, p. The document torno la vita e le opere di Andrea Palladio, pp. Lymbus, 46 Bollettino Libreria L.
Gonnelli e figli, s. Gros, Turin , pp. Burns, Florence , forth- posio , pp. Christian army at Antioch in mlxiviii pp. Gaston, Milan , pp. Castiglione, Il libro del Cortegiano, Turin , p. Woodward, Map as Prints in the Italian Renaissance. Puppi, 98 E. Lippi, Cornariana. Studi su Alvise Cornaro, Padua , p. Del Florence , pp. Inventory Catalogue. Explanatory Notes on the febbraio , published for the Trento-Cavalli wedding, Udine The Works Exhibited, Munich , pp. Beltramini, Vicenza , pp.
Guide Codice civile svizzero - CC (Italian Edition)
Florence , iv, p. Aretino, La Cortigiana, Act i, Scene iv. Vegetii Renati viri illustris De re militari libri quatuor. Iulii Frontini viri consularis de Strategematis libri totidem. Aeliani de insuendis Infelise, Prima dei giornali. Alle origini della pubblica informazione secoli xvi aciebus liber vnus. Modesti de vocabulis rei militaris liber vnus. Item picturae e xvii , Rome-Bari On the engraving see maxime Budaei, quod testabitur Aelianus, Paris Originali, copie, derivazioni, Florence , pp. Passavant, Le Peintre-Graveur, vi, Leipzig , p.
A 90 Polybius. Quinque fragmenta decerpta ex ejus historiarum libris quadraginta. Bembo, Let- plate of a Turkish army, which, in my opinion, was appreciated by many, tere, edited by E. Travi, iv, Bologna , pp. On Savorgnan, see and spurred on by the conviction of some friends, I similarly wished to L.
- Project (contract no.
- 37 Am. U. L. Rev. .
- Project (contract no | uvinigyz.tk.
Thus you can mainly see, L. At its sides are orosi capitani antichi, e moderni. The volume is no wider than five soldiers for each row. Of these squadrons the one at the centre is Spanish, 94 The subjects of the plates are: Roman encampment pp. Bury, The Print in Italy, , London , p. Fronsperger, Von Kayserlichem Kriegss- rechten, Graz Brugnolo Meloncelli, Battista Zelotti, Milan , pp.
Parte ii. Della militia riformata, Rome , p. The first part of the work had been published the previous year by Luigi Zannetti Rome and in the dedicatory letter to Giacomo Boncompagni, Patrizi lists some of the scholars whom he had favoured, including Palladio, who had dedicated his Commentaries to Patrizi. Mallett and J. Venice c. Studi in memoria di Amelio Tagliaferri, edited by T. Fanfani, Pisa , pp. Bandello, La prima parte de le novelle, edited by D. Maestri, Alessan- dria , pp. I am indebted to Elena Svalduz for having brought this passage to my attention.
Even in the first half of the eighteenth century it belonged when the facts are long established and familiar to to the collection of Consul Joseph Smith in Venice, many, blanks remain between them which can seem and an entry for it appears in the page catalogue by contrast even more puzzling. The brief note the young king George iii, as the foundation stone of which follows is in effect the expansion and explora- what was to become during his long sixty-year reign tion of a footnote to J.
It had been bought in work which has been published on him, he remains along with the greatest part of the library of Joseph Smith, shadowy. Venice , ccclxxxii. There is no annotation on the copy used as a receipt for the sale counts of him by people he came into contact with B.
He was first and foremost a busi- Augusta] Barnard. The manuscript introduction inserted 2. This original pro- British Museum. It is ironic that with the transference of George sibilities of provenance studies. The new of course, perfectly possible but it is also equally pos- cataloguing rules introduced by Panizzi allowed for sible, if not more probable, that Barnard derived the the indication of copy-specific features when these information from elsewhere.
As early as the s he had com- taken significant research on the provenance of some missioned a series of overdoor paintings for his house of the incunabula in the collection. Mandelbrote and B. Still this copy of Polibio, which was, as we have seen, in useful are the accounts found in K. See also 12 L. Reidy ed. The and Taylor, Libraries within the Library…, pp. Interestingly, the binding of this is in the same style as that of the Polibio volume, perhaps indicating a common source of acquisition.
The date has been removed from the text in the edition which Hale consulted. The binding of the etchings in the volume has made it impossible to provide precise measurements of the original plates because of the fold. We can thus only offer an approximate average indication of the width made from the printed edge outside the image as around mm.
The heights of the images vary and we have been measured them on their left-hand side. The etching on Plate 7 has been cut. To complete the texts where there are lacunae, they have been supplemented with information found in the texts of the copy put up for sale by the Libreria Gonnelli, Florence, in , and now in a private collection, which I consulted in June Any additions are always indicated at the foot of the relevant plate.
In the body text of the transcriptions, any information about the original position of the text, notes, aids to comprehension or explanations are in square parentheses. The various handwritings found on the British Library copy are always indicated. In the transcriptions the full terms have been given for abbreviations and the use of capitals and punctuation has been standardised. The copy held in the British Library is referred to as Polibio bl and the Florentine copy as Polibio fi.
Thus if in my labours which I have recently devoted to Venice 15 September I therefore do not live, Most Serene Prince, without hope that, through the grace of our Lord God, I might achieve both of these aims: because, as regards the first, I have employed my work on such a thoughtful writer of such high standing that it will inevitably be useful for the world to try and make appear to the mind of man through the sense of the eyes that which he describes felicitously in another way by writing and narrating; and, as for the second, I hope to convey my devotion to a Prince of such benign spirit that it [my devotion] can have no fear of not being understood and very humanly received.
On these two grounds, therefore, I plucked up courage to publish my drawings in printed form and to make a gift of them to Your Highness, whom I beg to receive them with his usual humanity. In the first row they set the horses alongside each other, which they also did in the second row but with one horse less, and in the third row with again a horse less and so on as can be seen in figure A. But when they lined up without yoking, they ordered them differently, that is setting them one behind the other, making it so that in the second line there was one horse less than in the first and in the third one less than in the second and so ordered as can been seen in figure B in which there is one less in every line.
Now we come to neither yoking nor lining up, which was done by ordering the horses in the shape of a rhombus as follows. Making the first flank with five and no leader; but in which the head of the first horse and also of all the others, reached the saddle of that further forward, that is the second reached the first, the third the second, and so on, as can be easily seen in the figure C.
And lastly by positioning in order those which yoked and lined up meant that all the rows were of the same number, as the last figure D shows. The ancients did not position their horses in battle in any other way than in one of these four orders. Plan of the galley, showing how the oars are placed b. The bridge called the corvus, plan c. The body of the galley, that is the profile [n. Praetorium b. Porta Praetoria c. Porta Decumana, where the condemned were led out to be slain d.
Quarters of the Tribunes, who were heads of the legions e. Quarters of the Prefects, who were heads of the confederates f. Select Cavalry, who were all men of distinguished valour, and were two hundred in number g. Infantry numbering four hundred and all valorous men, selected by the Consul h. Extraordinarii cavalry who undertook various actions according to the orders of the Consul and were four hundred in number i.
Extraordinarii infantry, eight hundred in number, who obeyed the Consul, and were lodged like the others, behind the army k. Quaestorium, where the soldiers were paid l. Praetorian Forum, where the Consul kept justice m. Infantry of the confederates n. Cavalry of the confederates o. Hastati of the Roman legions p. Principes of the said legions q. Triarii of the said legions r. Cavalry of the legions s. Road called the Quintana, where the soldiers trained t. Gates to the square where the soldiers walked v.
Edge of the embankment of the quarters x. Place where victualers and others were y. Ditch which went round the quarters [n. The side of the galley, how the oars were with some higher than others d. Wooden beam four paces long, three palms thick e. Bridge called the corvus thirty feet long, 2 feet high, x feet wide f. Iron hook for grappling enemy galleys g. Rope to keep the corvus up [n. The city of Agrigentum b. The two quarters of the Romans c. The river called Agrigentum e.
River called Hipesa f. On this side was the temple of Aesculapius, and it faced east h. On this side was Heraclea, and it faced east i. Konzepte, Methoden und Beispiele aus der Journalistenausbildung. The Individual and the Welfare State. Life Histories in Europe. Heidelberg: Springer Lepori B. The case of project funding indicators. Journalismus im Internet-Zeitalter. Nomos Edition Fischer, Meneguzzo M. Mulino Padula M. Mulino Beretta E. Mein Lieblingsbuch - Geschichte n einer Freundschaft. Lehmann, K. Lessons from the European Monetary Union.
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Arestis, J. Ferreiro e F. Plummer e E. Hein, A. Heise e A. Arestis e M. Fontana e R. Credit Market for the Poor. Lavoie e M. Masciandaro ed. Life-Cycle Savings and Public Policy. Carigiet, U. Theories monitaires post Keynesiennes. Paris: Economica, Rossi S. Gugler e R. Baum and O. Sorensne eds. Advances in Strategic Management: Strategy and Geography. Money and Inflation. A New Macroeconomic Analysis. Cheltenham: Elgar Rossi S. Modern Theories of money. Cheltenham: Elgar, Rossi S. Sahlin Andersson, K.
Stanford University Press: Dafflon B. Schoonhoven and E. Romanelli eds. Macal and D. Sallach eds. Agent Simulation: Applications, Models, and Tools. Argonne National Laboratory, Sagaria G. Baum and B. McKelvey eds. Politiche Locali, infrastrutture per lo sviluppo e integrazione euro-mediterranea, Roberto Camagni e Vincenzo Fazio eds. Ginsberg A. Baum and J. Inflation and Unemployment. Paolini, C, e Saija, A. Burton and B.
Obel eds. Europa ' E la piazza finanziaria svizzera?. Strumenti per la formazione sui sistemi informativi socioassistenziali, Mauri, L. Ebeling and M. Penschel eds. Bruni e A. Penati , in M. Monti ed. Contributi di analisi economica. Bellinzona: Casagrande. Bellinzona: Casagrande, Cencini A. Advances in Economic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell and New York: St. Martin's Press, Cencini A. Martin's Press, Rossi S. Correa e A. Ponsot e L. Working paper Blasch J. Mejia J. Evidence from Switzerland Filippini M.
Filippini M. La Vecchia D. The riskiness of value and small stocks Filippini M. Conference proceedings 36 Filippini M. Italian Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. A study of argumentative loci in a nineteenth-century treatise about politeness. Amsterdam Sic Sat. University of Vaasa. ETH Zurich. MEC Filippini M.
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Academy of Management. Italian Statistical Society. IOS Press Amsterdam. TU Delft, The Netherlands. II Filippini M. Montreal, Canada. July Castelnovo W. Dunn et al. Article in conference proceedings 3 Mensi A. The coherence of EU external action with the principles of customary international law in the light of the Western Sahara Campaign. Europe as a Global Actor. Empresa y Tursimo de la ULL. Teneriffa, Spain. April 20, Filippini M. Energy: Expectation and Uncertainty.
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However, in the midth century, a new application o. He is best known for his contributions to hermeneutics, part of a broad interest in interpretation. As a legal theorist, Betti is close to interpretivism. Betti's intellectual support of fascism between the end of World War I and the beginning of the s led him to be arrested in , in Camerino.
Betti remained in prison for about a month, as decided by the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale. In August , Betti was presented to court and absolved of every accusation. His political choices, anyway, have not diminished the value and importance of his work. Between many other things, Betti was one of the members of the drafting commission for the Italian civil code of Betti is perhaps best known for his work in hermeneutics. He took issue with the hermeneutic views of Hans Georg Gadamer and argued that interpreters should attempt to reconstruct the.
Swiss law is a set of rules which constitutes the law in Switzerland. Structure and Sources There is a hierarchy of political levels which reflects the legal and constitutional character of Switzerland. They exercise all rights that are not vested in the Confederation" and "the principle of subsidiarity must be observed in the allocation and performance of state tasks".
Women in Italy refers to females who are from or reside in Italy. The legal and social status of Italian women has undergone rapid transformations and changes during the past decades. This includes family laws, the enactment of anti-discrimination measures, and reforms to the penal code in particular with regard to crimes of violence against women. Women in Pre-modern Italy During the Middle ages, Italian women were considered to have very few social powers and resources, although some widows inherited ruling positions from their husbands such in the case of Matilde of Canossa.
Educated women could find opportunities of leadership only in religious convents such as Clare of Assisi and Catherine of Siena. The Renaissance 15th—16th centuries challenged conventional customs from the Medieval period. Women were still confined to the roles of "monaca, moglie, serva, cortigiana" "nun, wife, servant, courtesan". FAA radiotelephony alphabet and Morse code chart The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
Although often called "phonetic alphabets", spelling alphabets are unrelated to phonetic transcription systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Instead, the International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO alphabet assigned codewords acrophonically to the letters of the English alphabet, so that critical combinations of letters and numbers are most likely to be pronounced and understood by those who exchange voice messages by radio or telephone, regardless of language differences or the quality of the communication channel.
Unione di Banche Italiane S. Although the two groups merged, Banca Popolare di Bergamo and Banca Popolare Commercio e Industria were re-incorporated as a subsidiary in t. Map of Switzerland This is a list of airports in Switzerland, sorted by location. The country is situated in Europe where it is bordered by Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
The capital city of Switzerland is Bern. Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law. While criminal procedure differs dramatically by jurisdiction, the process generally begins with a formal criminal charge with the person on trial either being free on bail or incarcerated, and results in the conviction or acquittal of the defendant. Criminal procedure can be either in form of inquisitorial or adversarial criminal procedure.
This provision, known as the presumption of innocence, is required, for example, in the 46 countries that are members of the Council of Europe, under Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, and it is included in other human. This is a list of all airline codes. Historical assignments are also included for completeness. The current numbering scheme, in use from , is unrelated to the geographical provenance of the car.
By law, Italian plates can only be made by the Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato and issued by local departments of motor vehicles. History The very first Italian plates had to have the owner's name and the local communal number visible. These were first plates to be made of metal and had to be manufactured by the car's owner. The use of capital punishment in Italy has been banned since , with the exception of the period —, encompassing the rule of Fascism in Italy and the early restoration of democracy.
Before the unification of Italy in , capital punishment was performed in almost all pre-unitarian states, except for Tuscany, where it was historically abolished in It is currently out of use as a result of the adoption of the current constitution, and defunct as of 1 January So Tuscany was the first modern European state in the world to do away with torture and capital punishment. Execution of capital punishment by guillotine in , shortly after the birth of modern Italy. The death penalty was subsequently abolished in and only revived under Italian Fascism. However, the deat.
The Kingdom of Italy Italian: Regno d'Italia was a state which existed from —when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until —when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state.
Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in , thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in , following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions.
However, even if relations with Berlin became very friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-H. The judicial system or judicial branch in Egypt, is an independent branch of the government which includes both secular and religious courts. The Egyptian judicial system is based on European and primarily French legal concepts and methods. The legal code is derived largely from the Napoleonic Code. Marriage and personal status are primarily based on the religious law of the individual concerned.
Thus, there are three forms of family law in Egypt: Islamic, Christian, and secular based on the French family laws. The judicial branch plays an important role in the political process in Egypt, as the branch is given the responsibility to monitor and run the country's parliamentary and presidential elections.
History Egypt was among the first countries in the world after France to establish a judicial institution. The beginning was in with the enactment of the modern codification under which the Mixed Courts were established. The Egyptian judicial institution that existed in the mid 19th century was c.
Italian nationality law is the law of Italy governing the acquisition, transmission and loss of Italian citizenship. Like many continental European countries it is largely based on jus sanguinis. It also incorporates many elements that are seen as favourable to the Italian diaspora. The Italian Parliament's update of Italian nationality law is Law no. Presidential decrees and ministerial directives, including several issued by the Ministry of the Interior, instruct the civil service how to apply Italy's citizenship-related laws.
Acquisition of citizenship Cover of an Italian biometric passport issued in Italian citizenship can be automatically acquired: By birth to an Italian parent in line with the principle of jus sanguinis. By birth in Italy to stateless parents, to unknown parents, or to parents who cannot transmit their nationality to their children; this is partially consistent with the principle of jus soli. With the acknowledgement or legit.
The Q-code is a standardized collection of three-letter codes all of which start with the letter "Q". It is an operating signal initially developed for commercial radiotelegraph communication and later adopted by other radio services, especially amateur radio. To distinguish the use of a Q-code transmitted as a question from the same Q-code transmitted as a statement, operators either prefixed it with the military network question marker "INT" dit dit dah dit dah or suffixed it with the standard Morse question mark UD dit dit dah dah dit dit.
Although Q-codes were created when radio used Morse code exclusively, they continued to be employed after the introduction of voice transmissions. To avoid confusion, transmitter call signs are restricted; no country is ever issued an ITU prefix starting with "Q". Italy Italian: Italia listen , officially the Italian Republic Italian: Repubblica Italiana , is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands.
Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland Campione and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea Lampedusa. With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.
Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to a myriad of ancient peoples and cultures, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the penins. The Republic of Iraq's legal system is in a period of transition in light of the invasion that led to the fall of the Baath Party. Iraq does have a written constitution, as well as a civil, criminal and personal status law.
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In September , the Iraqi Legal Database, a comprehensive database that makes all Iraqi positive law freely available only in Arabic to users online, was launched. Despite the rejection of the provinces of Anbar, Salah al-Din, and Nineveh, the overall turnout was 63 percent, with more than 90 percent voting for its adoption. All such personal liberties. During the 's Italy started to unify into one country and in , Manfredo Fanti signed a creation decree which created the Army of the Two Sicilies.
This newly created army first task was to defend against the repressive power in southern Italy. The Army of Two Sicilies combated against criminals and other armies during this time of unification.
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After the monarchy ended, the army changed its name to become the Italian Army Esercito Italiano. The Esercito Italiano has a website and social media accounts, as the militia is still active today. Within the Italian Royal Army are the elite mountain military corporals called, the Alpini. The Alpini are the oldest active mountain infantry in the world. Their original mission was to protect and secure Italy's northern mountain border that aligns with France and Austria. This group emerged in World War I when a three year campaign was foug. Perlingieri, Pietro Italian civil code topic The Italian Civil Code Italian: Codice civile is the civil code of Italy, a collection of norms regulating private law.