Manual Europe in the 16th Century (Illustrated)

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Medieval Poetry in Britain, A. McCarthy Call Number: Main Stacks A scholarly history of British Medieval pottery, intended for archaeologists and historians. Includes a comprehensive bibliography. Main Stacks A collector's handbook of Viennese porcelain from to the 20th century, with a chapter of marks in German, English, and French.

Includes bibliographical references in the text. Keramik und Bauhaus by Weber, K. Call Number: Q. Main Stacks An illustrated survey of western European ceramics from the Middle Ages to the early 19th century, featuring pieces sold at Christie's. Includes maps, a glossary, a brief bibliography, and a list of prices. Charleston Foreword by Call Number: With a comprehensive bibliography. Includes a list of artists with brief bibliographies and a general bibliography.

Call Number: With bibliographical references in the notes. Main Stacks This comprehensive, scholarly history of 18th-century European porcelain is well illustrated with color and black-and-white plates of museum pieces. Includes bibliographical references in the notes and a multilingual classified bibliography.

Main Stacks A well-illustrated, scholarly history of 19th-century European porcelain. Includes a catalog of porcelain marks, a map of factories, and a classified bibliography. Main Stacks A well-illustrated history of faience produced in Delft during the 17th and 18th centuries. With a repertory of marks and a classified bibliography.

Examples of early English pottery named, dated and inscribed by Hodgkin, John E. Main Stacks A collection of examples of English pottery from the 16th and 17th centuries, arranged by type of ware. Includes facsimiles of inscriptions and brief descriptions. Illustrated with pieces from museums and major private collections. Includes a general bibliography. Tile panels of Spain, by Frothingham, Alice W.

Main Stacks A scholarly history of ceramic tile panels made in Spain from to With a comprehensive bibliography and additional bibliographical references in the notes.

Main Stacks This survey of European and American ceramics from to emphasizes the relationship between these works and social and economic history. Greek terracottas by Higgins, Reynold A. Classics A survey of ancient Greek terracotta sculpture from B. Greek pottery in the Bronze Age by Lacy, A. Includes a bibliography. Call Number: H75eu. Volume One is a concise survey with plates and descriptive notes. Volume Two is a dictionary of factories, artists, terms, etc. His influence is still felt today in typefaces like Garmond.

Garamond worked under both Colines and Tory. Christophe Plantin c. He established his Plantin Press in Antwerp, Belgium. Although he began publishing anatomical works, he is best known for this liturgical works. His most famous project was Biblia Polyglotta or Polyglot Bible published the eight volumes between and During this time Protestant movements were attracting great interest. The Netherlands became a center for printing in the 17th century. Dutch printers were known for creating works that were suppressed in other countries for religious reasons. For instance, Lodewijk Elzevir published the works of Galileo.

Lodewijk Elzevir c. He began as a bookbinder working for Christophe Plantin and produced his first book in The focus on the business was science. The image on the right shows the title page for Italienische Fechtkunst printed by Isack Elzevier Although the company folded in , the business name was reintroduced in and continues to publish science works today.

An interest in quality illustration was growing across Europe. During the 17th Century, illustration took a central role in book printing. Readers became interested in books that included scientific illustration and cartography. Theodor De Bry was an editor and engraver who founded a print dynasty. Many of his books were first-hand accounts of world travel by others that he retold and illustrated.

His sons continued the business throughout the 17th century. Jacques Callot had a tremendous impact on 17th century printing and illustration. Callot made technical advances in etching through the use of an etching needle with a slanting oval section at the end as well as the development of an improved recipe of the etching ground that coated the plate. His realistic depictions of war transformed French book illustration.

Illustrators like Leonard Gaultier, Claude Vignon, Claude Mellan, Abraham Bosse, and Francois Chauveau began creating observations etching of social habits, costumes, and the activities of society. The engraved title-page was developed during this time period. According to Harthan , a number of designs were used for these title pages as such "an architectural portico through which the reader enters the book. Robert Nanteuil c. Known for the quality of his portraits, he created over title pages. The image on the right shows an portrait engraving by Robert Nanteuil like those commonly found in the front matter of books.

Professional artists like Peter Paul Rubens and Rembrandt were often involved with book illustration as well. Both Rubens and Rembrandt created title pages. Rubens was known for his. He knew how to convey the book's contents in a decorative as well as symbolical manner" Harthan, , In many parts of Europe in the 17th century, printers were less focused on the craft and more interested in the business side of printing. According to Lommen , ,. The printing was uneven, and the ornaments and decorative initials are a mixture of old sixteenth-century and new baroque materials.

However some small advances in printing craft were being made in England. David Pankow, author of The Printer's Manual: An Illustrated History , notes that by the end of the seventeenth century, manufacturing technology was expanding rapidly and the trade secrets were being shared. Joseph Moxon was the son of printer. He was also an English hydrographer and printer specializing in mathematics book and maps. He produced the first English language mathematics dictionary. However he's best known for his Mechanick Exercises published in He felt strongly about the importance of sharing the art and practice of printing with workman who wished to refine their skills.

In the preface, he states that. Besides, I find that one trade may borrow many eminent helps in work of another trade. By far the earliest book on this topic, Mechanick Exercises described in great detail the printing methods used during that time period. Over the next couple centuries many authors borrowed his ideas for use in their own books on printing.

The image on the left shows a printing press and the image on the right shows paper drying. Increase Mather was a minister, author, and prominent figure in the history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In he published a biography of his father, Richard Mather and included the first known woodcut printed in America.

The wood cut is attributed to John Foster. Although Mather published over works on a variety of topics, he is best known for his prominent role in the Salem witch trials. In , he published a book titled Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits image shown above right. John Foster was America's first wood engraver and first Boston printer. After graduating from Harvard, he opened a printing office and printed his first book in To view up close versions, go to the Massachusetts Historical Society.

To learn more about the early history of printing in colonial America, skim Wroth, Lawrence C. A History of Printing in Colonial Maryland: Typothetae of Baltimore. Increasingly, jobs in the printing business became more specialized and fewer printers did all the work themselves from writing and engraving through to publishing and sales. Like the 17th century, many professional painters were also involved with book production.

Their artwork often needed further work by engraver before printing. By the middle of the 18th century, there was such a demand for illustrators that this became a separate profession. This new type of illustrator had skills as an artist as well as an engraver. The pressures of the business demanded that artists collaborate. For instance Ovid's Metamorphoses including engravings by many of the best illustrators of the time including Boucher, Gravelot, Eisen, and Moreau le Jeune. The 18th century marked a shift from baroque to rococo styles. It was a time of ornamentation, decorative elements, and playfulness in illustration.

Illustrators used a combination of etching and engraving on copper plates. These were printed from metal plates, while the text was printed from cast metal types. The illustrations intaglio and the text letterpress had to be printed on two different presses. Therefore, wood engravings became popular towards the end of the eighteenth century: the metal type and the block of wood would be printed simultaneously.

Wood engraving was an illustration technique went on to dominate the market for a century. Title page vignettes became popular during this time. A full page on the title page and a small design at the head of a chapter and the end would provide a decorative expression. Johann Ulrich Kraus was a German illustrator and publisher in Germany. His Historische Bilder Bibel contains elaborate illustrations and fantasy architecture. The images below are from Historische Bilder Bibel. Toward the end of the 18th century, English book publishing experienced a surge in beautifully illustrated books.

A number of new illustration and printing techniques were introduced.

Printing houses had become well-established. No longer was printing simply a a family business.

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The positions within the printing house became more specialized. The compositors arranged the metal type in the frame for printing. The pressmen worked the printing press. The image shows broadside published by James Watson detailing the rules and directions to be observed in printing houses.

The original is housed at the National Library of Scotland. In America, the printing business was growing rapidly. Benjamin Franklin was a scientist, diplomat, printer, and publisher. From he owned and operated a printing business that published the Philadelphia Gazette. He published a successful series called Poor Richard's Almanack Skim Wroth, Lawrence C. The Colonial Printer. Southworth-Anthoensen Press. Examine the chart titled The Diffusion of Printing. Notice the connections. Work your way through the book exploring the different aspects of the colonial printing business including type, ink, paper, roles, bindings, and products.

What would like have been like as a printer during this time period? With hundreds of symbols and elements, printing music was a complex process. Woodcuts continued to be used through the 16th century.


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During the 17th and 18th centuries, American printers used freehand engraving for producing music. Engraving continued to be used into the 20th century. By the 19th century, J. Breikopf perfected the mosaic system of music printing.

The Expansion of Europe

In the 19th century, a major transformation occurred in printing. Production shifted from human muscle-powered printing to nonhuman power printing. New technology allowed automation of both the typecasting and press components of printing. By , scientist and statesman Charles Stanhope constructed a cast iron press shown below left that reduced the force necessary to produce a print.

This improved the efficiency of the press. It was capable of printing sheets per hour. Steam printing press shown above right dramatically reduced the costs of book production. The first of these steam presses was built by German printer Friedrich Koenig in His press was also the first to require no manpower. In just a few years, his presses increased from to impressions per hour.

The introduction of electrotyping in by Mortiz con Jacobi made mass production possible. It allowed printers to duplicate printing blocks that were more resistant to wear. By the late 19th century, electrotyping became the standard method for creating plates. Invented in by Richard March Hoe , the rotary printing press allowed millions of copies of a page to be printed each day. Rolled paper allowed a continuous feed of paper keeping the presses running at a fast pace. The image below from the History of the Processes of Manufacture shows Hoe's 6-cyclinder press. In offset printing , an inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to paper.

In , Robert Barclay patented the first offset printing press in England using a metal cylinder to print on tin.

Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

In Ira Washington Rubel of New Jersey discovered that a rubber roller was more effective and began using the process to print books. Offset printing is still used today. It is an economically way to produce large, high-quality prints. Today, computer to plate systems are used. Ottmar Mergenthaler invented the Linotype machine in Because of its revolutionary impact, he's been called the "Second Gutenberg". The linotype was the first machine that could quickly create a complete set of type for use in printing presses. This hot-metal typesetting allowed the operator to type text on a 90 character keyboard and the machine would cast the linotype line-of-type , a complete line of type.

The matrices could be reused. The linotype caught on quickly and rapidly displaced the typefoundries. The ATF helped to standardize type. They published The American Specimen Book of Type Styles in as a price list as well as an encyclopedia of typographic styles. By the late s, poor production quality was a problem. New high-speed presses were churning out thousands of books using cheap ink and paper. Printers just wanted to make money. By the turn of the century some publishers were ready for the return of quality works. Some printers reintroduced the tools, techniques, and type of earlier times.

American Theodore Low De Vinne was an influential printer and typographer. He developed printing skills and worked his way up to own a printing business in New York known as De Vinne Press. He co-designed the popular typeface Century Roman. He is best known for his books on the history and practice of printing.

In The Invention of Printing , 9 , De Vinne described the history of printing and printers and explored the importance of building on their legacy. He also described the problem with studying history. Its early history is entangled with a controversy about rival inventors which has lasted for more than three centuries, and is not yet fully determined.

De Vinne authored a well-known book on printer Christopher Plantin in His introduction reflects his thoughts about the art of printing and the need to revisit the first printers. Whether it be old, with grimy hand-presses and dingy types, or new, with huge iron machines and long lanes of cases and stones, it does not invite the artistic pencil. Without doubt the cradle of books, but can one see any poetry about the cradle? The Arts and Crafts movement flourished between and While popular presses were running at high volume with low quality books, a few private presses emerged that focused on quality and fine works.

The Aesthetic movement of the period brought a revival of high quality illustration. Since photography was becoming common, book buyers "began to treat illustrated books rather more as precious objects and less as objects of use" Harthan, Lead by William Morris , the English Arts and Crafts movement brought a return to the antiqua forms, as well as, a focus on simplicity. Morris called his hand craftsmanship and focus on high-quality illustration and typography "The Book Beautiful.

Inspired by William Morris, the works of this period moved toward simple quality. Morris wanted to revive quality printing. He disliked the industrial movement and returned to the use of the hand press and his own types based on 15th century models. In Morris began to design the Kelmscott types. Morris's Kelmscott Press established in was the first of a private press movement that reached into the 20th century.

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Beautiful books were published by Kelmscott Press between and The 53 books that Kelmscott Press printed were greatly admired. Edward Burne-Jones was Morris's primary illustrator. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer is considered to be one of the great books of all time Harthan, Charles Ricketts was an artist, typographer and printer. Like the others, he wanted to revive quality works.

Europa Regina. 16th century maps of Europe in the form of a queen

Later, Thomas Moore, and William Hacon joined the group. They produced 75 books. They established Doves Press in to focus quality printing with little decoration and quality typography. Publishing around 40 books, they focused on the beauty of typography and pure design. They modeled their type after Jenson's from the s. The image on the right shows The Bible published by Doves Press in Many other private presses like Eragny and Esse House also emerged in England. In St. John Hornby had been experimenting with the Caslon and Fell fonts and established the Ashendene Press with type adapted from the 15th century.

The Revival in the United States began with D. Updike who founded Merrymount Press. In , Will Bradley produced a book in and directed Wayside Press. In , Houghton Mifflin's Riverside Press began producing fine books. While many of those involved in the arts and crafts movement shunned the new print technologies, others saw how technology could use be used to create high-quality books.

Louis Octave Uzanne is an example of a French bibliophile and publisher who embraced new technology in book production. He wanted to produce luxury books incorporating the latest technology. He advocated that authors, artists, typographers, printers, and binders all work closely together to produce quality works. In , Uzanne wrote an article titled The End of Books in Scribner's Magazine which predicted the rise of technologies that would incorporate words, sounds, and images. Meeting with people like Thomas Edison, Uzanne foresaw the changes in media that technology would cause.

Think about the changes that were happening in the late 19th century. Compare his work to a recent article predicting the end of books. Skim Silverman, Willa Z. Octave Uzanne, technology, and the luxury book in Find-de-Siecle France. Book History , 7, While Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau continued to have an impact, a new movement emerged in the early 20th century.

According to Lommen , those involved with the avant-garde movement including Futurists, Dadaists, Constructivists, and others rejected the traditional aesthetic views and conventions. These politically charged groups focused on visual design. For instance, Theo van Doesburg published What is Dada? Walter Crane was a popular children's book illustrator and leader in the Arts and Crafts movement as well as Art Nouveau.

The images below are by Walter Crane. After World War I, the costs of printing illustrations in books became more expensive. As such, most contemporary novels no longer contained illustrations. The modernist movement gained speed after World War II. Graphic designers like Paul Rand produced work in the corporate world of logo design and advertising as well as the creation of picture books like Sparkle and Spin: A Book About Words.

In the s, a backlash against the modernist credo "less is more" was replaced by a pop culture focus known as postmodernism. Skim the website using the left navigation bar. How does this company reflect the printing industry of the 19th and 20th centuries? Third major transformation in the method and power of printing occurred during the 20th century. Technology tools allowed new ways of thinking about how information could be stored and shared.

In , Vannevar Bush invented a devise known as the memex. He developed a way to store and distribute scientific information on books made of microform pages. These pages could be "hyperlined" for non-linear access. Computers became a common part of the printing process in the second half of the 20th century. Dot matrix printers were introduced in the s.

A print head moved back and forth on the paper printing tiny dots on the page. They continued to be used until the s and s. Letterpress, lithography, and other analog methods required printing plates that needed to be replaced. In the early s, computer-based photocomposition was combined with off-set printing for a new way of thinking about duplication of materials. Digital printing resulted in quick, high quality, low cost images.

Although some fine detail was lost in early versions, new printers can produce fine-image detail. Inkjet using ink and laser printers using toner are the most popular methods. It's one of the last shops in the world where all the work on a book is done under one roof. Press director Andrew Hoyem designed and printed the Bible here, and his colleagues cast the type, made the covers, and bound the work by hand.

These artisans and their tools have been designated an endangered cultural treasure by the National Trust for Historic preservation'. Explore Arion Press to learn more about letterpress book. In The Evolution of the Book , Kilgour , 3 states that.

The History of the Reformation in the 16th Century - Jean-Henri Merle d’Aubigné

Books on printing provide book historians with useful information about the process and tools used by printers during different points in history. The image below is the frontispiece from the German book on printing titled Die Wol-eingerichtete Buchdruckerey. It provides a wonderful glimpse into the daily operations of the 18th century printing house.

Stephen Daye and His Successors by Explores the history of the University Press in Cambridge, Massachusetts in the 17th century. Amert, Kay RIT Press. Darnton, Robert Summer What is the history of books? Daedalus , , Darnton, Robert Harvard University Press. Gondi, Cristina Jenisch, Jared April The history of the book: introduction, overview, apologia.

Kilgour, Frederick The Evolution of the Book. Lommen, Mathieu ed. Alfred A. Mosley, James Pankow, Davis San Juan Islander A New England Genius. Tanselle, Thomas G. Printing history and other history. Studies in Bibliography , 48, The History of Printing in America. Wroth, Lawrence C. In The Evolution of the Book , Kilgour , 4 states that there have been "three major transformations in method and power application in reproducing the codex: machine printing from cast type, powered by human muscle ; nonhuman power driving both presses and typecasting machines ; and computer-driven photocomposition combined with offset printing This page will explore the printing process and the role of the printer in book production.

Understanding Printers through Primary Sources By examining the book as a physical artifact, researchers can learn about how the book was printed including the particular type of ink, press, and printing process. The Printing Press The mid-fifteenth century marked a tremendous change in book production and ultimately print culture. The Printing Press A printing press is a machine used to evenly transfer ink to paper or cloth. The press itself stood from 5 to 7 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 7 feet tall.

Typecasting The movable type consisted of small metal blocks with raised letters. Typesetting The typesetter is in charge of organizing the type pieces into pages on a frame. Pressing After the typesetting is complete, the form is laid on the press stone. The image on the right from around shows a printing operation. Block Book Printing Block book printing involved creating a single carved or sculpted wooden block for each page. Typographic or Movable Type Book Printing Typographic book printing was the second type of printing during this period.

Korean Printer In the 14th century, a Korean printer was printing books in the Chinese language using cast bronze type. The image below shows movable type from the first printed book in Korea around Johann Gutenberg As a goldsmith familiar with screw presses, Johann Gutenberg c. Nicolas Jenson Nicolas Jenson c. Gheraert Leeu Gheraert Leeu c. The image by Johi left shows a status dedicated to Leeu. Erhard Ratdolt Erhard Ratdolt c. Aldus Manutius Venice became the home to many printers in the late 15th and 16th centuries. The image on the right shows Aldus Manutius.

The image on the right above shows Aldus Manutius printer emblem. William Caxton William Caxton c. The image on the right shows the printer's device of William Caxton. Anton Koberger Anton Koberger c. The Age of Incunabula Early printing was distributed throughout Europe. The image on the right shows Johannes Froben's printer's device. Estienne Printing Dynasty The Estienne family is another great example of how printing became a family enterprise.

The image on the left shows Robert Estienne. According to Lommen , , Colines "is considered to be the greatest typographic innovator of the French Renaissance. France's Royal Printers In France, print took a different approach than in other countries, the Imprimeurs du roi pour le Grec or Royal Greek Printers were established by Francois I in to publish literature for the French government. Book Structure During the 16th Century, the book structure we know today became standardized. According to Amert , "Colines as much as anyone built the semiotic structure of the book as we now know it, with its chapter headings and subheads, page numbers and running heads, tables of contents, indices, and source notes.

According to Morison and Jackson , 12 , "The title-page began as a mere two-line text printed high up on the page. Typography and Printing During the 16th century, the role of typographer gained importance in the printing process. The image below shows Tory's letter A from Champfleury Christophe Plantin Christophe Plantin c. The image on the right by artist Hendrik Goltzius shows Christophe Plantin. House of Elzevir Dutch printers were known for creating works that were suppressed in other countries for religious reasons.

His sons and grandsons continued the business after his death. Illustration Despite the Thirty Years War , Germany continued to be a center of printing also. Rubens was known for his "masterly understanding of the function of the allegorical title-page, treating it differently from the isolated print or engraving. The Business and Craft of Printing In many parts of Europe in the 17th century, printers were less focused on the craft and more interested in the business side of printing. According to Lommen , , "early seventeenth century Venetian printers could not match the skills of predecessors such as Aldus Manutius.

In the preface, he states that "The Lord Bacon in his 'Natural History' reckons that philosophy would be improved by having the secrets of all trades lye open; not only because much experimental philosophy is caught among them, but also that the trades themselves might by a philosopher be improved. The image below left shows the woodcut of Richard Mather published in Professional Illustrators Like the 17th century, many professional painters were also involved with book production.

According to Lommen , , "in the eighteenth century, book illustrations were often etchings or copperplate engravings. The Business of Printing Houses Printing houses had become well-established. James Watson was an important Scottish printer. Printing in America In America, the printing business was growing rapidly. Other American Revolution patriots such as Paul Revere was also involved in printing.

Printing Music With hundreds of symbols and elements, printing music was a complex process. In the 18th century, European printers began to typeset music. Cast Iron Press By , scientist and statesman Charles Stanhope constructed a cast iron press shown below left that reduced the force necessary to produce a print. Steam Printing Press Steam printing press shown above right dramatically reduced the costs of book production.