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If we break down a conditional statement into its two clauses, we come up with these basic elements. Practice: Here are some examples where the person is the same in both parts of the sentence. To get even more practice, keep on using the model, but change the adjectives, the subjunctive verb, and the conditional verb along with the person. Otherwise, they can be included in the verb in both the conditional and the subjunctive. It can get tricky between the first and second person, which have the same endings, and between the third person and polite second person, which have the same endings see conjugation charts.

Even though the grammar itself might seem daunting and complicated, before you know it, verbs in the subjunctive will become part of your everyday Italian speech. To get the basics about why and how we use modal verbs in Italian, and how they are conjugated, see Daniela's video lesson about modal verbs. Italian modal verbs have some similarities with English modal verbs, because they are used together with verbs in the infinitive, but there are differences, too. In English, for example, we can use "to be able to," which does get conjugated, or "can," which doesn't get conjugated. Italian modal verbs are conjugated and are irregular, so as Daniela says, you just have to learn them.

These verbs are used so often that you're bound to learn the principle conjugations just by listening. When in the regular present tense, using modal verbs is mostly trouble free, as long as you've learned the irregular conjugation. The easy part handy for when you're not sure of the conjugation of another verb is that the other verb is going to be in the infinitive! Let's look at some practical examples. One very common way modal verbs are used is with the impersonal. So far we've been looking at the present tense.

Hope to see you then! But when is the right—or wrong—time to use them? And what are the variations and alternatives? He says buongiorno. If it were after noon technically after 12 noon, but more likely later he would say buonasera "good evening," "good afternoon," or "hello". At the market, Agata is addressing the vegetable vendor with respect and vice versa. Signora buongiorno.

Madam, good morning. Agata and her friend Catena are still at the market. One version of "hello" has a very limited application: pronto. It literally means "ready," and it's how Italians answer the phone:. Salve , vorrei fare un viaggio alla Valle dei Templi ad Agrigento.

As you go about your day, try imagining how you might greet the people you meet if you were speaking Italian. Keep in mind the hour, and how well you know the person—and, remember, when in doubt, there is always salve! A detailed explanation of Forms of Address used in Italian can be found here. Sounding like a native speaker is quite a challenge. Magari maybe is a word that can help your spoken Italian become more natural—almost like magic! Magari can work for all these meanings. He is calling to see how Lara is, and mentions he might magari stop in later. She grabs the phone and tells him so.

Ho detto magari I said maybe , he protests:. No, volevo solamente sapere come sta. Non ci pensare neanche. Oh yes, sure Don't even think of it. Her reply, Magari! Caption 10, Una gita: al lago - Part 3 of 4. Magari is a word that can temper something you say and you can add it just about anywhere in a sentence. In Amiche: Anna e Marika raccontano Caption 31, Amiche: Anna e Marika raccontano Magari is a word that slips off the tongue with ease, and Italians use it often in conversation. As you try talking to yourself in Italian a great exercise! Sometimes magari just adds a little something to the phrase; other times it is essential.

To see more examples of how it is used in conversation, you can do a search of the Yabla videos: Click here and you'll see all instances magari highlighted. You can then go and watch the videos to get a more complete picture. We saw in the last lesson how the verb sentire takes care of several of our senses. As we see in the following example, Italian uses the verb vedere to see to express this. Francesca had been going back and forth about learning to drive. Ma invece adesso sono convintissima, motivata, e non vedo l'ora di cominciare.

But now however I'm totally convinced, motivated, and I can't wait to start. Caption 4, Francesca: alla guida - Part 2 of 4. It so happens that an expression made famous in an Italian TV commercial for a candy bar says just that. Many expressions using vedere to see and occhio eye do indeed coincide with the English use of the sense of sight.

And since we are just one kilometer away, I think that I will go and try to relax all day. Caption 11, Una gita: al lago - Part 1 of 4. Visto che I panini al bar costavano un occhio della testa , vorrei anche vedere se ne compravo uno. Seeing that the sandwiches at the bar cost an arm and a leg , there was no way I was buying one. Practice using the expressions in this lesson until they feel comfortable. Think about all the the things you are looking forward to! Then visit WordReference to see all the modi di dire connected with vedere , and add one or two more to your repertory.

Senti, mi dispiace, io prendo la metropolitana. Objectively speaking, it is late! She is late. Ciao, mamma. Io vado da Flavia. Hi, Mom. I'm going to Flavia's. Can you let me in on what you had to do that was so urgent? Buonsera a tutti.

Ordering Gelato

Ma aspettavate solo me? Good evening everyone. Were you just waiting for me? We will tackle this conundrum in another lesson.

Conjugated verbs have different endings depending on the type of verb, the tense, and the person carrying out the action. Conjugated verbs combine with verbs in the infinitive in different ways. Sometimes a preposition to, at, of is needed and sometimes not. In her last three segments, Daniela discusses those cases where no preposition is needed. But here is a non-modal verb that works the same way.

The following are some examples of the two different formulas Daniela has explained. Non ho potuto camminare fin qui senza stancarmi. A user wrote in with a question about these two words. Is there a difference? And this adjective has come to take on the job of an adverb in certain contexts, as Marika mentions in her lesson on adverbs. Don't beat around the bush.

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It gets the message across very clearly. It implies not using flowery language, wasting words, or trying to be too polite. Doing a search on the video tab will give you plenty of examples. This week on Yabla, we take a first look at the city of Florence. Arianna has a map to help her figure out how to get around. As she thinks out loud, she uses a common phrase:. We might also translate it as:. Non deve essere troppo salata, non It shouldn't be too salty, not Can you recognize their conjugated forms in the video?

A couple of these verbs are irregular, but super common. Why not take the opportunity to review the other conjugations of these verbs? Links are provided to a conjugation chart for each verb. But then it gets a bit more peculiar. Here is Arianna telling us where she is: where she finds herself. Here I am. She just wants to know where Sardinia is. The port of Maratea is a tourist seaport. This is a bit tricky. Italian Lessons Topics. Sapere sapere sapere Sapere sapere sapere.

Topics Grammar Vocabulary. Signup to get Free Italian Lessons sent by email Sign up. Bookmark Bookmarked. Taste and Smell - Sapere Part 2 Sapere - Part 1 Italians have a great word that encompasses four of our five senses all but sight , and covers general sensory perception as well: sentire to perceive. The first, avere to have , we use when talking about what tastes or smells good or bad, certainly of utmost importance when choosing a truffle, for example: ll tartufo deve avere un buon profumo. The truffle should have a good smell.

Manuale Edises - Lingua Inglese Nella Scuola Secondaria

Caption 69, Tartufo bianco d'Alba: Come sceglierlo e come gustarlo Our second option is the all-encompassing sense word, sentire to perceive , used when talking about our perception of a taste or a smell. These scenarios should help you get the idea: You look in the fridge and open a jar of jam. Questa marmellata sa di muffa. This jam smells like mold. You think someone is trying to give you a bum deal on a used car. This deal smacks of a ripoff. Sapere Part 1 and say: Mi sa che avevo ragione! I guess I was right! Learning suggestion: Now that you have some new insights on the world of tastes and smells, get a feel for how Italians talk about food by watching or re-watching Yabla videos on the subject.

And se te la senti if you feel up to it This example employs the different meanings of sapere. Can you tell them apart? Topics Vocabulary. Tartufo bianco d'Alba - Come sceglierlo e come gustarlo. I Have This Feeling Anna is deciding which of the tantalizing Roman pasta dishes to order. Look, I think I'll go with the, uh, linguini with cheese and pepper. Lara comments dryly: E da quanto vedo, mi sa che io e te siamo le uniche due sceme che non l'hanno conosciuto. Oh OK, perfect. So maybe I am better off with that.

Learning suggestion: 1 To practice this new modo di dire , follow along with the transcript of a given video, selecting one with conversation. Passeggiando per Roma - per Roma Part 3. Anna e Marika - Un Ristorante a Trastevere.

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To the west of this district lies the Bristol Channel, while the other boundaries of the county of Somerset are along chains of hills that were once exploited for their mineral deposits. These natural features have all influenced the evolution of the transport network. Roads and railways either followed the hills, or needed causeways to cross the Levels.

Harbours were developed, rivers improved, and linked to sources of traffic by canals. Railways were constructed throughout the area, influenced by the needs of the city of Bristol, which lies just to the north of Somerset, and to link the ports of the far south-west with the rest of England. Today, the trunk road and rail routes to the south-western counties of Devon and Cornwall pass through Somerset. This gives the county good connections to Wales, London, and the north of England.

A major port and an international airport are situated in the north of the county. Older infrastructure, such as canals and defunct railway lines, have been adapted to serve present day demands for leisure use. Analysis of the timbers has enabled very precise dating, showing it was built in the spring of BCE. It extended across the marsh from what was then an island at Westhay, to the Polden Hills at Shapwick. Named after Ray Sweet, who discovered it while cleaning ditches, it is just one of a network of at least 43 tracks that once crossed the Levels.

Many of these ancient routes are still in existence across farm land as bridleways and public footpaths, such as that at Midford which links the Pack Horse bridge to the villages of Combe Hay and Twinhoe. Early trackways were limited in use by the conditions of the underlying soil. The temperate Climate of south-west England can be very erosive to any manmade structures. During winter in particular, whilst a horse and rider could cover a significant distance in a day, any attempt to convey heavy goods such as building materials could be extremely difficult and time consuming.

After the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE they built a number of forts to impose their authority. They included one built inside the earlier Iron Age hill fort at Ham Hill, one at Charterhouse on the Mendip Hills, and probably another at Ilchester where a settlement developed around an important crossroads and river crossing. While earlier trackways continued to be used, a number of relatively straight, well drained Roman roads were built to facilitate communications between the forts and allow the rapid movement of troops.

From Bath the route is now used by parts of the A road through Radstock and Stratton-on-the-Fosse. It then crosses open country along farm tracks and minor roads, passing through the eastern suburbs of Shepton Mallet to Cannard's Grave. After passing through the town the route then follows a section of the A under the ramparts of the fort at Ham Hill.

The Dorchester Road ran south-eastwards from Ilchester, following the line of the present-day A37 through Yeovil. Another road ran westwards along the Polden Hills to Crandon Bridge near the mouth of the River Parrett, a district important at the time for its salt production. The Fosse Way was crossed at Beacon Hill north of Shepton Mallet by a road that linked lead and silver mines at Charterhouse with a harbour at Southampton.


Hot springs were discovered near where the Fosse Way crossed the River Avon and the town of Aquae Sulis now the city of Bath developed there. The waters of the Bristol Channel and rivers such as the Avon were used for transport. The small vessels in use at that time could navigate quite some distance upstream, indeed the River Yeo shows evidence of being straightened near Ilchester.

Over time new settlements were established, often related to crossing points on rivers such as Highbridge, Bridgwater and Taunton. When Daniel Defoe surveyed the county in he reported that there were two routes between Taunton and Bristol. A causeway was created across the flood plains at Mark on the route between Highbridge and Wells.

Unlike today's mechanical transport, the long journeys at this time used animal power and were undertaken in small stages, fresh horses were required at intervals, hence the name 'stage' coaches. Coaching inns provided travellers with refreshments and overnight accommodation required. It was built in the 14th or 15th century, and to accommodate travellers and merchants coming to the annual wool fairs that were held in the village from the late 13th century until In the 15th century the timber-framed upper floors were added.

The inn became part of the stage coach route between London and the South West. On 12 June the noted diarist Samuel Pepys, with his wife and servants, passed through the village on their way to Bath from Salisbury. From the eighteenth century a number of turnpike trusts were set up to build and maintain roads. For instance, the Taunton Turnpike Trust was established in to improve the roads around that town. Before the end of the century the time taken by the mail coach from Taunton to London had been halved from four to just two days; by the journey took just 23 hours.

The turnpikes were funded by tolls charged on users. Some individuals also had powers to charge road users, often where bridges replaced ferries across rivers. An example of a toll road which has survived into the twenty-first century is between the villages of Bathampton and Batheaston across the river Avon. This was built to replace a man-powered cable supported punt ferry in The early roads were improved by the use of tarmacadam construction in the early 20th century. A feature of the M5 motorway south of Taunton, built in the s, is the use of concrete "rafts" to overcome the water-logged soil in that area.

The waters of the Bristol Channel are a natural highway and several of the county's rivers used to be navigable to small vessels. A small harbour was established in Roman times at Uphill at the mouth of the River Axe. The river was navigable to the settlement at Weare and overseas trade was carried out from the wharf at Rackley during the Middle Ages, although this village is no longer on the river as the course has been diverted. By Thomas Tanner of Wells was exporting cloth and corn from Rackley to Portugal, and receiving iron and salt in exchange.

Slate was imported through this route at a later date, but an Act of Parliament in authorised the drainage of the Axe and installation of a flood gate at Bleadon, which is now the tidal limit on the river. A ford, usable only at low tide, and later a ferry operated across the mouth of the river at Combwich, it is thought, since Roman times. The crossing lay on the route of a Saxon herepath; and in the 15th century was regarded as part of the King's Highway.

This encompassed 80 miles km of the Somerset coast line, from the Devon border to the mouth of the River Axe. Goods arriving by sea were trans-shipped into barges that could navigate the River Parrett to Langport and, by using the River Yeo, to Ilchester. Barges could also reach Taunton by using the Bridgwater and Taunton Canal after it opened in Combwich Pill, a small creek near the mouth of the river, has been used for shipping since the 14th century; and the wharf in the 18th century was used for the unloading of coal and tiles. From the s, with the development of the brick and tile industry in the Bridgwater area, it was used by two brickyards to import coal and to export tiles to other harbours on the Bristol Channel.

This traffic ceased in the s but in the wharf was taken over by the Central Electricity Generating Board to bring in materials for the construction of Hinkley Point nuclear power station. Following the passing of the Port of Bridgwater Act in all river traffic between the mouth of the River Parrett and the first bridge fell under the jurisdiction of the Port of Bridgwater. In Sedgemoor District Council took over the pilotage services for the river which had previously been operated by Trinity House. On the northern edges of the county, the River Avon provided a route from the Bristol Channel through Bristol to Bath.

An Act was passed in to 'clearing, making and effecting a passage for boats, lighters and other vessels', although work did not start until At Bath the river linked with the Kennet and Avon Canal. This was completed in and, enabling narrow boats to work through to London. The Somerset Coal Canal was surveyed under the supervision of John Rennie, in June a tender from Houghton and Son was accepted and the first work started at Gooseyard bridge near Paulton. In the first delivery of coal from Dunkerton to Bath took place.

It was built in the early 19th century to reduce the cost of transportation of coal and other heavy produce. It was one of the few canals in England to become economically viable, and was eventually sold to the Great Western Railway Company in The first 16 kilometres 10 mi , from a junction with the Kennet and Avon Canal at Dundas Aqueduct to Paulton, was in use by together with several tramways. A feature of the canal was the variety of methods used at Combe Hay to overcome height differences between the upper and lower reaches of the canal. This was initially done by the use of Caisson locks.

These failed and were replaced by an inclined plane and then by a flight of 22 locks. A branch to Radstock was started but instead a tramway was laid along its towing path. Steam ships were operating in the Bristol Channel and calling at Portishead in the s. Pleasure trips for passengers were being operated from the harbours at Minehead, Watchet and Weston-super-Mare in the s. The construction of piers at Weston-super-Mare in and Clevedon offered further landing places for a number of steamer operators for more than a century.


The arrival of railways on the Somerset coast brought new traffic to its harbours. A siding from the Bristol and Exeter Railway to Dunball Wharf opened in , and a branch was opened to the docks at Bridgwater the following year. In the Somerset Central Railway opened as part of a project to link Wales with France by way of a jetty near Burnham-on-Sea railway station. The railway also used a wharf near Highbridge railway station.

The period of canals as an important transport network was short-lived. A branch line to Wells Priory Road was added the following year. The Light Railways Act made it easier to build railways cheaply. At first they were often operated by the railway companies as a way of offering services to new destinations, but after World War I the tramway companies and private individuals gradually offered more and more routes.

On 1 January the railways that were still operating were nationalised to become British Railways. This didn't stop the closures: the Burnham-on-Sea branch closed in , the line from Bristol to Radstock and Frome in , Taunton to Chard in , and Yatton to Cheddar and Witham in The Reshaping of British Railways report was announced on 27 March , proposing massive cuts to lines and services. Thousands of people, many in remote rural areas, were shocked at losing their local services and mounted opposition to the closures.

This had little effect as the Taunton to Yeovil branch and the Portishead branch in The Taunton to Minehead line was kept open until January but was reopened as a heritage railway by the West Somerset Railway in , although trains now start from Bishops Lydeard rather than Taunton. A short section of the East Somerset Railway was similarly reopened in In January , it was announced that Network Rail is to carry out a feasibility study on re-opening the line.

The service was withdrawn for two months in while the track was improved; the original six double-deck cars were replaced at the same time by six single deck cars. A short extension beyond the station to Rowbarton was opened in making the line 1. The main route ran from Birnbeck Pier along the sea front to the Sanatorium now Royal Sands ; a branch line ran to the railway station and on to the tram depot in Locking Road.

The Weston-super-Mare fleet originally consisted of 12 double deck cars and 4 open-sided "toast rack" cars. The following year a number of services were tried that radiated from Bridgwater, but all had been withdrawn by the end of National extended northwards to Weston-super-Mare in response to competition from Bristol Tramways. On 1 January National transferred its Somerset operations to two joint venture companies.

Both companies were acquired by Bristol Tramways in From to most bus services in Somerset were run by Bristol Tramways renamed Bristol Omnibus Company in in the north, by Western National in the south and west, and by Southern National until when it was merged into Western National in the south-east. In the south-east of the county three independent companies survived for many years. Hutchings and Cornelius of South Petherton operated from Hutchings from and Cornelius from until Safeway, also based in South Petherton, operated from until In , the Somerset operations of Western National were transferred to a new subsidiary company, Southern National, and in Bristol's Somerset services were transferred to a subsidiary company called Badgerline.

In the services in the south and west of the county were rebranded as The Buses of Somerset. First now has a monopoly in most of the county, although there are some independent operators. In the north Abus has operated routes from Bristol into Somerset since , Webberbus operated some services in south west Somerset and Weston-super-Mare until while between 20 Nippy Bus operated a small network around Yeovil.

Stagecoach South West has also started operations in Somerset. It won some council tenders and opened a depot in Yeovil in , and in purchased Cooks Coaches of Wellington, which operated buses in the Taunton area. The nearest east—west motorway is the M4 from London to Wales which runs just beyond the northern boundary of the county. The equivalent A4 passes inside the county boundary through Keynsham and Bath. This includes 5 miles 8 km of bus lanes and improved bus stops.

The county has one of the first National cycle routes created in Britain 3, 4 and 24 provide cyclists with ways to minimise contact with motor traffic. The path consists of a 3-m-wide tarmacked surface, and was used for 2. Most services and stations are operated by Great Western Railway.

Most stations have car parking and easy connections to bus services serving local towns and villages, with "Plus Bus" ticketing valid on both buses and trains in many areas. The larger stations have a staffed ticket office but elsewhere they can be purchased from ticket vending machines or from the conductor on the train. The busiest stations are Bath Spa, with more than four million passengers each year, and Taunton and Weston-super-Mare with around one million.

The other principal port in the county is the Port of Bridgwater. Sedgemoor District Council acts as the Competent Harbour Authority for the port and provides pilotage services for all boats over 98 feet 30 m using the River Parrett, A roll-on roll-off berth at Combwich is used occasionally for the transfer of heavy goods for the nuclear power stations at Hinkley Point. A number of privately run air strips and airfields exist, but none are licensed for commercial flights, or flight training.

Henstridge Airfield near Henstridge, south east of Wincanton, was commissioned in The dominance of the car, and the convenience it offers: local authorities in Somerset have various proposals in place to try to ease the current "gridlock" that is now occurring on the roads throughout the county. The removal of traffic from city centres has now become a priority in Somerset, due to the antiquity of many of its towns and cities. These were originally designed for the movement of people, not large metal boxes on wheels.

Manuale Edises - Lingua Inglese Nella Scuola Secondaria

Since the privatisation of many areas of public transport, cities like Bath have many large buses, which in the s would have been full of passengers; these can now be seen in conveying only a small number of people at a time. One outcome that was not foreseen as a result of the closure of many branch lines in the s was the loss of public access to those rights of way established by the various railway companies. Those structures of level ground upon which so much energy and labour was expended, could have been put to good use in the past, e.

The loss of continuity in the system as a whole, means that what remains of these rail trackways are now the subject of competition between human power and motorised rapid transit solutions. Taunton metro rail TMR is a proposed light rail network using a combination of existing rail infrastructure and the construction of new infrastructure in the area of Taunton.