XI, vol. As Russell highlights, the idea that the devil actually carries out threats or curses in his name derives from folkloric tradition. See The Devil in the Middle Ages, p. Intention and Free Will The question of free will is another issue upon which significance in relation to Merlin is accumulated through semiosis. Though he cannot force a person to sin, he can provide temptations which allow humanity to exercise its free will; moral choices are therefore entirely within the power of the individual.
The mother and the eldest daughter are killed without having sinned; only Marinaia must struggle against the temptation to give up her belief. Despite the lack of overt moral comment, the fact that she apparently fails to object to the advances of her mysterious lover invites further ambiguity: although it is only suggested that the visitor is a devil, her unquestioning acceptance of him as a lover certainly raises moral questions, even if it fails to answer them.
He makes her a nun, of 56 Anselm of Canterbury, Cur deus homo, I, 7, 2. Migne, Ia IIae, qu. This preference determines that she will only accept a supernatural, non-human partner, implying that she is somewhat responsible for the events that follow. Weiss, p. Essays in Memory of Maureen Fries, ed. The prostitute, therefore, is arguing in favour of desperatio. Migne, PL vol. She has complete free will to choose between them, because, though the devil presents her with the opportunity to sin, he may play no part in forcing her decision.
Firstly, he reduces the power of the devil of the De conflictu is unknown, and it has been attributed to both Augustine and Ambrosius Autpertus. Alexandre Micha Geneva: Droz, , p. This variant, it seems, can most likely be attributed to earlier modifications in the French manuscript corpus; as we have seen, translation and rewriting function as a continuum, in which source and target texts are continually in motion as long as they are copied, edited, and compiled by numerous readers and writers.
Primarily, the youngest sister does not receive religious teachings from Blaise, who only instructs Marinaia. In his Ethica, Peter Abelard argues that sinning per ignorantiam does not merit condemnation, since it is not freely willed by the perpetrator. Quid est enim iste consensus nisi Dei contemptus et offensa ipsius? Luscombe Oxford: Clarendon Press, , p. Luscombe, pp. For what is that consent unless it is contempt of God and an offence against him? Whereas the girl in the Merlin sins out of a careless disregard for her spiritual well-being, connoting the hedonism of religious despair, the girl in the Tuscan version is motivated by charity, albeit severely misdirected.
The Merlin and the Storia, then, once again accrete meanings through the process of translation and rewriting. Though the Merlin recasts this as a scene of rape, rather than a consensual sexual relationship, the incubus only has the power to have sex with the girl if she fails to protect herself against him by making the sign of the cross. The fact that the text makes very direct associations between the sign of the cross and religious belief — hence, the opposite of desperatio — suggests that her rape can only take place if her faith is wavering.
Do you not believe that Our Lord came to earth to save those sinners who believe in baptism and the other sacraments of the Holy Church? These physical gestures represent external signifiers of his previous instructions: the sign of the cross represents faith in the Trinity, a belief which requires hope in the eternal.
Forgetting to make the sign of the cross or leave the lights on, she falls asleep in a state of doel: Et li ramentoit devant le doel de son pere et de sa mere et de son frere et de ses serors. Then she thought about the sister who had just beaten her. She wept with great sadness and anger thinking about all these things, and it was in this state that she fell asleep. The fact that this is manifested in a failure to perform the sign of the cross could also suggest the sin of accidia, which later developed into the vice of sloth, and which was closely related to desperatio.
Accidia is characterised by indifference, a loss of spiritual enthusiasm which leads an individual to abandon self-discipline and become lazy in their religious duties. Dicitur autem accidia, quasi acidia, eo quod opera spiritualia nobis acida reddat et insipida. It is called accidie, as if it were an acid, which makes all spiritual exercises bitter and insipid to us. It is in this sinful state that the devil is able to conceive Merlin.
Joseph Strange, p. Scott and C. Swinton Bland London: Routledge, , p. The French text develops the voluntary relationship with the devil-like visitor in previous versions into a more ambiguous exploration of moral culpability; although the mother does not willingly have sex with the devil, her loss of faith is a sin which makes her vulnerable to the incubus. It is through this confession, penitence, and recognition of her fault that she overcomes her desperatio, exercising instead hope of forgiveness.
Paulino Pieri seems more concerned than most authors with homogenising the moral presentation of the protagonist. Merlin is frequently an ambiguous and paradoxical character; we have already witnessed the way in which conflicting accounts of his birth in the Merlin and the Lancelot sit side by side in many Vulgate Cycle manuscripts. This contradiction between Merlin the divinely inspired prophet and Merlin the diabolical trickster is similarly carried over into the Italian vernacular tradition.
But the transition from ambiguous Merlin to morally-credible Merlin, as we have seen, is not a simple leap of interpretation. From this perspective, the Merlin and the Storia are part of the same textual continuum, the dynamics of which are comparable to the action of a chain of semiosis. But if the Merlin acts as an interpretant in a chain of semiosis, then it is always open to further interpretation; its co-existence with the Lancelot in the same cycle of romances means it is constantly being written over with each reading of a manuscript containing the two conflicting versions.
It is not unlikely that Pieri knew both versions, given the popularity of Lancelot in parts of Italy. This work of rewriting, then, accrues meaning by rejecting the didactic and religious discourses of the Merlin — making them noticeable by their absence — and instead re-engaging with Job as a positive rather than a negative model. Within this survey of classical and Biblical victims of love, we find a familiar name: De Troie, coment ele fu destruite, sevent uns et autres, et de maintes autres terres, et de hauz princes qui sont destruis por amer folement.
Neis Aristotes, li tres saiges philosophes, et Merlins furent deceus par femes, selonc que les estoires nos racontent. Even Aristotle, the very wise philosopher, and Merlin, were deceived by women, according to the stories. Wright London: Heinemann, , pp. She promises Merlin her love in exchange for lessons in magic, and then uses that magic to confine Merlin to a cave, a tomb, or — in the Vulgate Cycle — a magic castle, causing him to withdraw from the main action of the narrative.
After this, Merlin either becomes completely absent, or continues to prophesy from inside his tomb, but only to the chosen few who are able to find him. Tauris, , p. Starting with the earlythirteenth-century French Vulgate Cycle, we shall follow the development of the story through the nearly contemporaneous Suite du Merlin, the latethirteenth-century Franco-Italian Prophecies de Merlin, and finally to a fifteenth-century Venetian translation of the latter, the Historia di Merlino. As we have seen, the fact that Merlin both possesses an overview of the narrative, and composes that narrative within the text, already marks him as an authorial character, and by extension, a clerical one.
His shape-shifting and verbal trickery are evidence of demonic tendencies that threaten more sinister devilish associations alongside his divinely-inspired prophetic insights. The literary figure of the clerk is an exclusively masculine identity, an alternative model to the knight-hero characters that otherwise populate Arthurian romance. Simon Gaunt has pointed out that, whereas knights define their masculinity in relation to women, clerks define themselves in relation to other men — specifically, other authors and thinkers.
Because women are regarded as fickle and unpredictable, the clerkly authors of romance posit their own model of rational masculinity as a more stable alternative. Corbellari, La Voix des clercs, p. Lundt, Melusine und Merlin, pp. Lundt, Melusine und Merlin, p. They also tend to appear in texts where the Dame du Lac is less of a malevolent figure, perhaps in an attempt to clarify that although she is not outright evil, the ambiguity surrounding her gender identity is suspicious nonetheless.
By painting her as a typical deceitful woman, such comments may also seek to re-establish the gender boundaries that the Dame du Lac defies by dabbling in clerical activities. Bone fame et male fame, ce dit Salemon, se doit tenir em pouair, et bon cheval et mal cheval aussi. Solomon said: good women and bad women, they must all be held in subjection by fear, just as both good and bad horses are. The horse requires the spurs, and the woman, the stick.
Although Merlin continues to speak and prophesy from within his enclosure, his voice is accessible only to a privileged few, and the majority of attempts to locate his tomb or magic castle are met with failure. In such circumstances, he is unable to carry out his role as pseudo-author of the text, advising Arthur in the Vulgate Cycle, and composing his book of prophecies in the Vulgate Cycle and the Suite du Merlin.
Having an overview of both Latin and the vernacular, the clerk decides what will be carried through into the translation, and what information will be sacrificed. The Vulgate Estoire de Merlin: A conflict of mastery The Estoire de Merlin and its successors represent later elaborations of the prose Merlin material as it came to be absorbed into the large prose cycles which characterised Arthurian literature of the early thirteenth century — though their popularity endured for at least another two centuries. Thought to have been completed between and , it is generally argued that the Cycle was the work of a number of different authors, perhaps collaborating.
These source texts were revised and integrated together, finally, into large manuscript compilations. When the prophet falls in love, however, his authorial control over the narrative is directly challenged. Merlin begins to frequent the home of a young girl called Viviane — the future Dame du Lac — who promises Merlin her love in exchange for lessons in magic. He becomes so enamoured of her that he progressively loses control over his intellectual reason, until she is able to confine him to a magic castle using one of his own spells.
In doing so, Viviane deprives the narrative of its organisational force. The knight is incredulous as to how Merlin, in all his wisdom, could have fallen into such a trap: 16 Elspeth Kennedy ed. Pickens, Karen Pratt, and Andrea M. Glynn S. Carol Dover Cambridge: D. The Estoire clearly exploits aspects of the wise-man-in-love motif, drawing attention to the binary opposition between reason and the senses.
This opposition is reducible to the body—soul dichotomy that already exists within Merlin as a human—devil hybrid, and which always threatens to destabilise his identity as a prophet. My italics. And he thought to himself in his heart that he would be mad if he fell asleep in his sin, and if he lost his sense and his knowledge for the pleasure of having a woman, shaming her and losing God.
Medieval concepts of gender were conceived in metaphysical terms, which derived ultimately from Neoplatonic and Aristotelian philosophy, via the Church Fathers. Lisa M. Clerks were expected to establish their intellectual authority in terms that were aggressive: they must exercise mastery over their students, who compete with their masters for the intellectual upper hand, and just as they must gain mastery over a text by interpreting it.
The wise-man-in-love motif problematises this mastery by confronting it with the feminine. He will be so enthralled by her, as soon as he sees her, that he will have no power to act against her wishes. In the first instance, she appropriates a clerical identity that paints her as a distorted mirror image of Merlin himself, and which subverts the inherent masculinity of that identity.
The term clergie, which has Solterer, The Master and Minerva, p. Solterer, The Master and Minerva, p. Lors li enquist la damoisele que il li apresist une dame a endormir. Then she asked him how to make a lady fall asleep. Jennifer Looper has argued that Viviane uses this written knowledge to evade masculine control over her body and sexuality. She uses the spells she learns to elude the authority of her father, who would disapprove of the nature of her contact with Merlin, and Merlin 28 Karras, From Boys to Men, pp. Viviane channels her sexuality through this written knowledge; her communion with Merlin is displaced onto the act of learning through writing and dictation, in place of sexual contact.
The way in which Viviane distorts these boundaries recalls E. The binary logic which defines reason, the mind, and the soul as masculine, in relation to a feminised body and senses, also advocates the necessity of subjugating matter to the mind.
In doing so, she subverts these oppositions, which exist within the binary logic of masculine discourse; it allows her to escape the control of her parents, and dominate Merlin while preserving her virginity. Burns, Bodytalk, p. Augustine, Confessions, ed. James J. The tower is phallic, but it is she who controls it.
La Suite du Merlin: Untranslatable paradoxes The Suite du Merlin, a rewriting of the Vulgate Cycle composed sometime between and ,35 provides an alternative interpretation of the Dame du Lac, but one which interacts with the rhetorical paradoxes embodied by the same character in the Vulgate Cycle. It streamlines the scope of the narrative and redirects the focus towards the actions of individual heroes within a more courtly frame; yet the accumulation of meanings and textual interactions in the semiotic process of rewriting is such that it combines this with the historiographical connotations of prose, in addition to the teleological orientation inherited from its immediate source.
However, the revised moral logic of the Suite shifts responsibility from Merlin, as architect of the plot in the Estoire, to individual characters. He records, rather than dictates, the action. The story of the entombment itself engages with both of the versions in the Vulgate Cycle, but draws more closely on the details of the account as given in the Lancelot: here, the Dame du Lac, a virtuous virgin, learns magic to be able to dispose of a lascivious Merlin who she fears will attack her.
The Suite du Merlin replaces Viviane, the bone clergiesse, with the similarly named Niviene, who is instead characterised as la damoiselle cacheresse. Gilles Roussineau Geneva: Librairie Droz, Thelma S. Fenster London: Routledge, , pp. Jeffrey Henderson, trans. The Diana we see here is not the classical goddess, however, but a decidedly unchaste courtly lady, who decides to murder her lover, Faunus, to be with her new ami.
And nevertheless, he greatly desired to be with her and to have carnal knowledge of her, and to do all the things that men do with women. He teaches Niviene magic to please her, and once she knows enough, she uses this magic to prevent Merlin from foreseeing her role in his own entombment. He never uses his magic against her, or gives into his desires as she believes he will. This association is reinforced by another story of entombment, where Merlin defeats two sorcerers who use magic harps to make any passing travellers fall into an enchanted sleep. They rape any women who come under their power, and kill any men; their victims are buried in graves all around the forest.
Just as the Dyane and Faunus tale drew explicit parallels between Niviene and Dyane, this narrative proposes a series of connections between the sorcerers and Merlin. This episode, then, contradicts the moral orientation of the Dyane narrative, which implies that Merlin is a victim. The sorcerers are doubles of Merlin, and their story highlights both his devil side and the sexual crimes of his father; Niviene, by extension, is associated with the women the sorcerers had raped.
The final entombment narrative is conversely utopian: arriving at the cave where Niviene will entomb him, Merlin recounts the story of Anasten, a prince who ran away from his kingdom to be with his lover in this very cave. The cave was the home of Anasten and his lover while they were alive, before becoming the place of their burial; it is in their joint tomb that Niviene will trap Merlin.
But despite its idealistic character, the story of Anasten reinforces the link between sexuality and violence. The entombment, in this way, is a completely ambiguous sexual encounter. Merlin desires the tomb as a substitute for Niviene; Niviene entombs him to protect her virginity from sexual violence, yet the entombment itself suggests the very rape she fears, inverted and turned upon Merlin. These implications play upon the network of ideas created by the foregoing entombment narratives, each of which link sexuality with death.
The connection between sexuality and death suggested by the Anasten story may be what Merlin desires, but Niviene perverts this desire in a manner reminiscent of both Dyane and the sorcerers, who murder in order to achieve sexual gratification. Both Merlin and Niviene, through this network of doubles, are alternatively villain and victim; each displacement evokes a different moral position that contradicts the other.
See also Patricia B. Because each metaphorical entombment presents a different ethical perspective, the guilt or innocence of Merlin and Niviene is never truly established. The translation of material from a different time, place, and culture is impossible without making linguistic and cultural adaptations that make the text intelligible in its new form. Stahuljak, Bloodless Genealogies, pp. Like his omniscience, they create a remainder, an untranslatable paradox within the text. Merlin is both human and devil, and neither human nor devil — therefore his entombment by Niviene is simultaneously a just punishment and a cruel injustice.
Stahuljak, Bloodless Genealogies, p. The work was long considered as a derivative and even illegible mishmash of borrowings from other cycles, but its reputation has recently been rehabilitated by the work of Nathalie Koble. Koble has convincingly argued that, although the vast scope of the Prophecies may seem chaotic to a modern reader, it has an internal logic and coherence which uses a complex interlaced structure to organise the material.
Alongside polemical predictions about real-life events in the turbulent political landscape of the Veneto in the thirteenth century, Merlin refers to a wider network of Arthurian texts, prophesying a number of well-known events that are not covered by the text itself for example, the affairs of Lancelot and Guinevere, the grail quest. The encyclopaedic scope of the Prophecies demonstrates fluid boundaries between different Arthurian branches, Arthurian and non-Arthurian literature, literary and historical writing; it accumulates and absorbs varied semiotic information associated with Merlin and redirects it in accordance with the tastes and expectations of Venetian readers who, by the late thirteenth century, would have already been familiar with events of the larger prose romance cycles.
In this sense, it also proves particularly interesting as a work of cross-cultural adaptation. The Prophecies is a Venetian reception of French Arthurian prose romance, remodelled according to local tastes and interests, and then re-imported back into northern France and the Netherlands, where it continued to be read and transcribed, undergoing further adaptations.
Merlin will continue to prophesy from inside the tomb, his spirit being trapped inside there until Judgement Day. The Dame du Lac here has a moral ambiguity not unlike that of her predecessors. Koble has argued that the Bodmer manuscript represents the most comprehensive version of the text; nevertheless, I will cite other manuscripts where variants are relevant to the argument.
See also Prophecies, ed. In this sense, she reflects the 63 Venice, Marciana, Str. And you will know it, lord knights, if you have ever been acquainted with a woman, whether she be a lady or a maiden, who is always refining her trickery. I will show you this to you clearly]. And I avoid at all costs having anything to do with virgins. The reader, with his or her likely knowledge of Arthurian material, would have known that Merlin is referring to the Dame du Lac; as the Dame du Lac later explains, she has been casting a spell upon him each time he believes he has slept with her, causing him to fall asleep instead.
He taught her to understand the virtues of precious stones, herbs, and the power of words so cleverly, that she was able to join together the three arts so marvelously that she commanded all the terrestrial forces]. While other characters in the text are only able to access the future through obscure language which will be explored further in Chapters 3 and 4 , Merlin understands his prophecies on all semiotic levels. Like the other characters in the text, he becomes temporarily restricted to a perspective that is semiotically limited: he understands only the symbolism, not the meaning.
The Dame du Lac, therefore, interrupts the overview of time and knowledge that allows Merlin to effectively translate his prophecies into earthly speech. This prophecy has come true, as you can see, just as you have prophesied many times. As we have seen, clerks regarded themselves as the curators of obscure texts and language; they had the sophistication to interpret and explain meaning for a less skilled audience. This activity often involved translatio, both in the literal sense of explaining a Latin text in the vernacular, and the figurative sense of explaining the literal meaning of an allegory or metaphor.
It is she who performs the translatio from figurative to literal, and it is she who must explain to Merlin why his reading of the blanche serpente symbolism is flawed. The Dame du Lac here crosses medieval gender divisions in terms of the semiotic properties of masculinity and femininity, and their respective relations to language and metaphor.
While she is able to gloss obscure meanings, like a man, she also marks the moment at which Merlin loses sight of the semiotic totality of his omniscience, which is associated with femininity in medieval semiotics. Howard Bloch explains, women are associated with the birth of symbolism in Patristic Biblical commentary. At the same time, the Bible itself needed glossing from that point in the text onwards. In this way, she is simultaneously the feminised source of translatio and the masculinised custodian of it; she once again expresses a rhetorical paradox which is closely associated with clerical gender discourses that are distorted by Viviane in the Estoire de Merlin.
Merlin even compares the Dame du Lac directly to Eve immediately after realising he is trapped in the tomb, drawing parallels between his own loss of literal understanding and that of humankind as a whole: 68 69 70 Solterer, The Master and Minerva, p. Eco, A Theory of Semiotics, p. Bloch, Medieval Misogyny, pp. Her virginity is the source of both her virtue and her treachery, expressed in the juxtaposition of vice and virtue inherent in the symbol of the white snake.
Merlin fails to comprehend the symbol, because he cannot entertain both possibilities at once; within the logic of his discourse when it is converted into time and language, one must displace the other. The Historia di Merlino: shaping the book of prophecies If the Prophecies de Merlin represents a linguistic and cultural hybrid of French and Italian Arthurian literature and themes, then aspects of this hybridity are absorbed into later versions of the Prophecies into Venetian dialect.
The Historia claims to have been based on a text composed in Venice in ; however, no earlier manuscript copies of this version have been identified. The translation contains, however, two original books of prophecies: one of which is transcribed by Blaise, and which is interpolated into the Merlin en prose translation, and one transcribed by the Dame du Lac.
Prophecies deriving from the Prophecies de Merlin tend to focus on the history of the Veneto area, leading Oriana Visani to conclude that the translator may have been of Lombard origin, despite the fact that both manuscripts and the early printed editions originate from around Venice. As such, it reflects what Koble identifies as the short redaction of the Prophecies, which removes any extraneous detail and focuses exclusively on the prophetic material. While her ability to write is by no means a new addition to the character, the fact that she transcribes his prophecies, rather than his lessons in magic, allows her to participate in an area of discourse which was hitherto exclusively masculine.
The Historia di Merlino, as we have seen, strips down the narrative of the Prophecies de Merlin to just focus on storylines directly concerned with the prophecies themselves. Nathalie Koble has discussed the ways in which the production and reception of books, in the parts of the narrative that also appear in the translation, reveal the story of Merlin non-chronologically.
Et ancor ne scrisse alcune Maestro Ptolomeo. Dopo elquale io ne scrisse assai. Et el sancto romito Elia de la foresta de Nartex ne misse in scripto molte lequale Princivale me adusse, et io le missi apresso lealtre. La donna delo lago ancora me ne adusse molte lequale Merlino li havea facto meter in nota. Et le ultime prophetie che Merlino fece scriver funo quelle che mi adusse Meliadus, amico dela dicta dama delo lago.
Lequale tute prophetie dicte per la boca del savio Merlino io ho in uno libro serrato in quel mio scrigno. Master Ptolomy also wrote some down, and I wrote down a number of them after him. The saintly hermit Helias, of the forest of Nartres, wrote many of them down; they were brought to me by Perceval, and I put them with the others.
The Dame du Lac brought me many that Merlin had asked her to note down. The final prophecies that Merlin had written down were brought to me by Meliadus, the lover of the said Dame du Lac. I have all these prophecies that were spoken by the wise Merlin in a book, which is locked in my chest. But, she argues, the breadth of both the book of prophecies, and the romance itself, allude to wider network of discourses that exists beyond them, and which they can never fully encompass.
Merlin does not simply dictate prophecies unprompted, but is asked questions about the future by whoever is writing his prophecies down. As we have seen, the clerical scribes ask Merlin about religious, scientific, and political matters, while Meliadus asks about chivalric episodes that derive from the other romances. In this way, her maternal interests in relation to the future provides an additional dimension to the final book of prophecies, one that is not covered by the chivalric interests of Meliadus or the political and scientific questions of the clerical scribes.
Her perspective is feminine, which encroaches upon the otherwise masculine monopoly over prophetic knowledge and translatio which has existed in the corpus thus far. Likewise, the additional material she brings to the book of prophecies — aspects of the story of Lancelot and Guinevere, and Lionel and Bors from the Vulgate Cycle — expands the encyclopaedic range of the book, yet also proliferates the number of sources that cannot be included in their entirety.
By encompassing and layering over information from previous versions, rather than simply displacing them, the Venetian translation inherits the Dame du Lac as a paradoxical figure, whose participation in the act of translatio automatically comes with controversies and contradictions. The result of this translation is the destruction and fragmentation of the original — Merlin — which, as the reasoning of translatio dictates, cannot be transferred whole into a different signifying system. The Dame du Lac exhibits the need for these restrictions by demonstrating the chaotic presence of co-existing contradictions, and their disruptive effect on the harmony and coherence of the narrative.
As we have seen, these shifts in perspective do not necessarily overwrite the previous versions, but absorb and build upon the same rhetorical contradictions. In order to prove the prophet wrong, the baron comes to Merlin on three occasions, each time in a different disguise, asking to know the cause of his death.
When he receives a different answer each time, the baron believes that he has exposed Merlin as a fraud: he is told firstly that he will break his neck, secondly that he will be hanged, and thirdly that he will be drowned. A short time later, however, he is killed when he falls from his horse over a bridge. His prophecies are in future only to be understood once they become a reality. We have already seen the way in which the co-extensive processes of translation and rewriting are influenced by the semiotic systems into which signs and motifs surrounding Merlin are received, and how the accumulation of interactions between different versions, different intertexts, and different cultural discourses influences interpretation.
The temporal dimensions of prophecy cannot help but be subjected to the temporal dimensions of rewriting, whether this involves writing backwards from the end, as in the French Cycles, or, as in the Italian tradition, including prophecies that relate to the contemporary reality of the reader — a contemporary reality which recedes further into the past as the text is rewritten and translated.
Looking firstly at prophecies in the Estoire de Merlin branch of the Vulgate Cycle and the Suite du Merlin, and secondly at those of the Prophecies de Merlin and its Italian vernacular translations, the next two chapters will elucidate the way in which translation and rewriting play an important role in the co-ordination of semiotic systems within the texts themselves across the French and Italian Merlin corpus.
Texte, image, histoire : la question des sources, ed. Lausanne: BSN Press, pp. The Suite preserves a number of major events from the Vulgate Cycle and its other sources — the Dolorous Stroke, the advent of Mordred, and the fall of Arthur — and rewrites the causes and narratives leading up to them in a similarly retrospective fashion.
Though still working retroactively, it reinterprets more freely the metaphysics of this causality to produce a different conception of fate; its moralised structure of cause and effect means that the protagonists generate future outcomes with their mistakes or unethical decisions in the present. His prophecies are not intended for the enlightenment of the protagonists, because foreknowledge of the future could endanger its successful outcome.
Like the writer of a text, Merlin does know the story in its entirety, but unlike Sunderland, Old French Narrative Cycles, p. Certain events are presented as unchangeable: for example, Merlin tells Arthur on separate occasions that he should not be perturbed by prophecies about his own death, because it is predestined to happen in a certain way: Ensi estuet que les choses aviegnent comme Nostre Sires le a ordonees. The Glass Menagerie Tennessee Williams. No play in the modern theatre has so captured the imagination and heart of the American public as Tennessee Williams's The Glass Menagerie.
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The classic bestselling war memoir by the most decorated American soldier in World War IIOriginally published in , To Hell and Back was a smash bestseller for fourteen weeks and later became a major motion picture starring Audie Murphy as himself. More than fifty years later, this classic wartime memoir is just as gripping as it was then.
Desperate to see action but rejected by both the marines and paratroopers because he was too short, Murphy eventually found a home with the infantry. He fought through campaigns in Sicily, Italy, France, and Germany. Although still under twenty-one years old on V-E Day, he was credited with having killed, captured, or wounded Germans. He emerged from the war as America's most decorated soldier, having received twenty-one medals, including our highest military decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor.
The dramatic real-life stories of four young people caught up in the mass exodus of Shanghai in the wake of China's Communist revolution. Shanghai has historically been China's jewel; its richest, most modern, and westernized city. The bustling metropolis was home to sophisticated intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and a thriving middle class when Mao's proletarian revolution emerged victorious from the long civil war. Terrified of the horrors the Communists would wreak upon their lives, citizens of Shanghai who could afford to fled in every direction.
Benny, who as a teenager became the unwilling heir to his father's dark wartime legacy, must decide either to escape to Hong Kong or navigate the intricacies of a newly Communist China. The resolute Annuo, forced to flee her home with her father, a defeated Nationalist official, becomes an unwelcome exile in Taiwan. The financially strapped Ho fights deportation from the US in order to continue his studies while his family struggles at home.
And Bing, given away by her poor parents, faces the prospect of a new life among strangers in America. The lives of these men and women are marvelously portrayed, revealing the dignity and triumph of personal survival. First published in and praised in The New York Times Book Review as "a trenchant book, full of vigor and bite," A Sand County Almanac combines some of the finest nature writing since Thoreau with an outspoken and highly ethical regard for America's relationship to the land.
Written with an unparalleled understanding of the ways of nature, the book includes a section on the monthly changes of the Wisconsin countryside; another part that gathers informal pieces written by Leopold over a forty-year period as he traveled through the woodlands of Wisconsin, Iowa, Arizona, Sonora, Oregon, Manitoba, and elsewhere; and a final section in which Leopold addresses the philosophical issues involved in wildlife conservation.
To maintain order and profits, they turned to Willis V. McCall, a violent sheriff who ruled Lake County with murderous resolve. When a white seventeen-year-old Groveland girl cried rape, McCall was fast on the trail of four young blacks who dared to envision a future for themselves beyond the citrus groves. By day's end, the Ku Klux Klan had rolled into town, burning the homes of blacks to the ground and chasing hundreds into the swamps, hell-bent on lynching the young men who came to be known as "the Groveland Boys.
Advances in Gender and Cultural Research in Business and Economics
Civil Rights," and the most important American lawyer of the twentieth century, into the deadly fray. Associates thought it was suicidal for him to wade into the "Florida Terror" at a time when he was irreplaceable to the burgeoning civil rights movement, but the lawyer would not shrink from the fight--not after the Klan had murdered one of Marshall's NAACP associates involved with the case and Marshall had endured continual threats that he would be next. Drawing on a wealth of never-before-published material, including the FBI's unredacted Groveland case files, as well as unprecedented access to the NAACP's Legal Defense Fund files, King shines new light on this remarkable civil rights crusader, setting his rich and driving narrative against the heroic backdrop of a case that U.
Supreme Court justice Robert Jackson decried as "one of the best examples of one of the worst menaces to American justice. The Miracles of Your Mind: Are you ready to unlock your true potential? Joseph Murphy. Man has only one mind, but he has two distinct phases or functions of the one mind.
Volume 3 "Italian issue" (2013)
Each phase is characterized by its own phenomena, which is peculiar to itself. Each of these minds is capable of independent action as well as synchronous action. We call one the objective mind because it deals with external things, and the other is the subjective mind. The subjective mind is amenable and controlled by suggestion of the objective or conscious mind. The objective mind takes cognizance of the objective world. In this work Dr. Joseph Murphy expands on his theory that the latent powers inherent in our subconscious can improve our lives.
Murphy provides specific steps to nourish your conscious mind with the tools and attitudes that will open up the infinite power of your subconscious mind. Whether you wish to conquer a bad habit, be more successful, obtain harmony in your family, or achieve goals that have thus far been unattainable, you will be given guidelines to put you on the right path.
About the Author:Joseph Murphy was born in Ireland, the son of a private boy's school headmaster and raised a Roman Catholic.
1990s interactive fiction
He studied for the priesthood and joined the Jesuits. In his twenties, an experience with healing prayer led him to leave the Jesuits and move to the United States, where he became a pharmacist in New York having a degree in chemistry by that time. A meeting with Divine Science Association president Erwin Gregg led to him being reordained into Divine Science, and he became the minister of the Los Angeles Divine Science Church in , which he built into one of the largest New Thought congregations in the country.
In the next decade, Murphy married, earned a PhD in psychology from the University of Southern California and started writing. After his first wife died in , he remarried to a fellow Divine Science minister who was his longstanding secretary. He died in Joseph Murphy, ebook, Shane Jack Schaefer. I had lain in my bed thinking of our visitor out in the bunk in the barn. It scarce seemed possible that he was the same man I had first seen, stern and chilling in his dark solitude, riding up our road.
Something in father, something not of words or of actions but of the essential substance of the human spirit, had reached out and spoken to him and he had replied to it and had unlocked a part of himself to us. He was far off and unapproachable at times even when he was right there with you. The Starrett family's life forever changes when a man named Shane rides out of the great glowing West and up to their farm in Young Bob Starrett is entranced by this stoic stranger who brings a new energy to his family.
Shane stays on as a farmhand, but his past remains a mystery. Many folks in their small Wyoming valley are suspicious of Shane, and make it known that he is not welcome. But dangerous as Shane may seem, he is a staunch friend to the Starretts--and when a powerful neighboring rancher tries to drive them out of their homestead, Shane becomes entangled in the deadly feud. This classic Western, originally published in , is a profoundly moving story of the influence of a singular character on one boy's life. To Hell and Back Audie Murphy. The classic bestselling war memoir by the most decorated American soldier in World War II, back in print in a trade paperbackOriginally published in , To Hell and Back was a smash bestseller for fourteen weeks and later became a major motion picture starring Audie Murphy as himself.
Events of News for every day of the year Hugh Morrison. This fascinating illustrated booklet gives a brief day-by-day summary of the top news stories of , showing an important event for every day of the year. Read about key events in pop and politics, technology and travel, arts and entertainment, and famous births, deaths and marriages.
This pocket volume will make a great little present for a birthday, anniversary or reunion, or for anyone who just wants a stroll down memory lane. A multi-purpose Bible study resource tool. All the essentials you need to study the biblical text without having to know Hebrew or Greek. Provides definition, explanation, and concordance entries. James Strong, formerly professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary, spent more than thirty-five years preparing his landmark concordance.
First published in with the help of more than one hundred colleagues, Strong's remains the definitive concordance compiled on the King James Version of the Bible. Vine, M. Recognized internationally for his outstanding Greek scholarship, his Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, first published in , represents the fruit of his lifetime labors and is an unsurpassed classic in its field. In one of the most beloved Little Golden Books of all time, Fuzzy Duckling learns to count and explores a busy farm!
Early one morning, a small fuzzy duckling goes for a walk around the farm. Who will he meet along the way? Two frisky colts, three baby calves. Little readers everywhere will love following the duckling and counting his new animal friends. Simple words and adorable, classic illustations from the legendary Alice and Martin Provensen make this book as perfect a gift today as it was when it was first published in Little Golden Books have been loved by children for over 75 years. When they were first published in , high-quality books for children hadn't been available at a price most people could afford.
Little Golden Books changed that! Priced at just 25 cents and sold where people shopped every day, they caused an instant sensation and were soon purchased by the hundreds of thousands. Created by such talented writers as Margaret Wise Brown author of Goodnight Moon and Richard Scarry, Little Golden Books have helped millions of children develop a lifelong love of reading.
Today, Little Golden Books feature beloved classics such as The Poky Little Puppy and Scuffy the Tugboat, plus new, original stories--the classics of tomorrow--ready to be discovered between their sturdy cardboard covers and gold-foil spines. Now she wants him back.
Germany, - Henrietta Ackerland, a Jewish mother in Nazi Germany, makes a heart-rending decision. She gives her infant son to a friend who is fleeing Germany to Israel. Israel, - Henrietta finally arrives in Israel but she can't find her son. She hires private investigator Adam Lapid to find him for her. Adam Lapid knows it will take a miracle to find Henrietta's missing child.
And Adam doesn't believe in miracles. Not after experiencing the horrors of Auschwitz. Not after losing his family in the Holocaust. But he can't refuse to help a mother searching for her lost son. What Adam doesn't realize is that this missing person's case will soon land him in a heap of trouble. For what starts as a hunt for a missing child soon turns Adam into prey - and of more than one hunter.
You will love Ten Years Gone because it's a gripping mystery novel full of suspense, riveting characters, shocking twists, and heart-wrenching moments. Get it now. Heppner"Ten Years Gone is a great read. Gilbert"Absolutely loved this book. Lane"I highly recommend reading Ten Years Gone. Did you know Warren Buffett, the world's wealthiest stock investor, is quoted as saying three books have shaped his investment philosophy? The three books that gave him this wisdom are: The Wealth of Nations pub. In fact, Benjamin Graham was Buffett's professor at Columbia and the most influential financial advisor he ever had.
So, have you ever tried reading Graham's books? It is time we fixed that. Instead of keeping these billion-dollar secrets hidden behind thousands of pages of financial jargon, I wrote one simple guide - Warren Buffett's Three Favorite Books. If you're looking for a guide that explains how the wealthy really think and buy assets, you're in the right place. This isn't a get-rich-quick book.
Instead, this is where your investing techniques take a turn in the road. This book will teach you how to accumulate assets and become very wealthy over decades of wise decisions and proper asset valuation. The best part about the book is the methods are taught in an easy-to-follow and understandable scenario for all to enjoy! A visual guide to the most iconic classic cars of every decade from the s to the s, featuring more than 1, photographs and two prints suitable for framing. Virtual tours offer close-up views of iconic models, and comprehensive catalogs showcase key features with detailed profiles and specifications.
- The Medieval Merlin Tradition in France and Italy: Prophecy, Paradox, and Translatio?
- Flessibilità nel lavoro autonomo (Riforma del lavoro & pensioni) (Italian Edition).
- Let This Voice Be Heard: Anthony Benezet, Father of Atlantic Abolitionism.
- Tale Of The Seven Seas?
- 4th IPAZIA Workshop on Gender Issues 2018, Rome, Italy?
- Abundant Variations?
Double-page-spread images add flavor by showing the classics in action, and the two prints star a Chieftain Convertible and a Shelby Cobra. Reference the classic car glossary and the international directory of museums and collections to learn more about antique automobiles. To tell the complete story of classic cars, this book also profiles famous designers and manufacturers, like Ferdinand Porsche, and places the cars into a wider cultural context by charting their enduring legacy as symbols of luxury and objects of desire. Classic Car is a complete celebration of classic cars and a must-have for all classic-car collectors and enthusiasts.
Steve Hodel. As far as I'm concerned, the case is closed" Michael Connelly. In , the brutal slaying of twenty-two-year-old Elizabeth Short resulted in the largest manhunt in Los Angeles history. The killer's identity remained a mystery. Decades later, private investigator and former LAPD homicide detective Steve Hodel launched his own investigation into the most tantalizing unsolved case of the last century.
It led to a shockingly unexpected perpetrator: Hodel's own father. Next came an equally blindsiding discovery. The Black Dahlia was not a standalone crime. Between and , the cold-case "Lone Woman" serial murders haunted the Southern California area. All of them, Hodel believes, committed again by a one real-life Jekyll and Hyde: Dr. George Hill Hodel. In Black Dahlia Avenger, Steve Hodel "paints a chilling, detailed, week-by-week, year-by-year portrait of his father as an intellectual giant driven to serial killing by his arrested emotional development, his hatred of women and his obsessions with money, power and sex" Los Angeles Times.
Including never-before-published forensic evidence, photographs, previously unreleased documents, and the author's own intimate perspective of a terrifying family psychodrama, Hodel "has written one of the most compelling true-crime books of all time. A new edition of the groundbreaking spiritual treasure, with a foreword by bestselling author Marianne Williamson. Since its original publication in , In Search of the Miraculous has been hailed as the most valuable and reliable documentation of G.
Gurdjieff's thoughts and universal view. This historic and influential work is considered by many to be a primer of mystical thought as expressed through the Work, a combination of Eastern philosophies that had for centuries been passed on orally from teacher to student.
Oreste at the Venice Biennale by Giancarlo Norese - Issuu
Gurdjieff's goal, to introduce the Work to the West, attracted many students, among them Ouspensky, an established mathematician, journalist, and, with the publication of In Search of the Miraculous, an eloquent and persuasive proselyte. Ouspensky describes Gurdjieff's teachings in fascinating and accessible detail, providing what has proven to be a stellar introduction to the universal view of both student and teacher. It goes without saying that In Search of the Miraculous has inspired great thinkers and writers of ensuing spiritual movements, including Marianne Williamson, the highly acclaimed author of A Return to Love and Illuminata.
In a new and never-before-published foreword, Williamson shares the influence of Ouspensky's book and Gurdjieff's teachings on the New Thought movement and her own life, providing a contemporary look at an already timeless classic. Now a New York Times Bestseller!
The incredible story of the young women of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, who unwittingly played a crucial role in one of the most significant moments in U. The Tennessee town of Oak Ridge was created from scratch in One of the Manhattan Project's secret cities, it didn't appear on any maps until , and yet at the height of World War II it was using more electricity than New York City and was home to more than 75, people, many of them young women recruited from small towns across the South.
Their jobs were shrouded in mystery, but they were buoyed by a sense of shared purpose, close friendships--and a surplus of handsome scientists and Army men! But against this vibrant wartime backdrop, a darker story was unfolding. The penalty for talking about their work--even the most innocuous details--was job loss and eviction. One woman was recruited to spy on her coworkers. They all knew something big was happening at Oak Ridge, but few could piece together the true nature of their work until the bomb "Little Boy" was dropped over Hiroshima, Japan, and the secret was out.
The shocking revelation: the residents of Oak Ridge were enriching uranium for the atomic bomb. Though the young women originally believed they would leave Oak Ridge after the war, many met husbands there, made lifelong friends, and still call the seventy-year-old town home. The reverberations from their work there--work they didn't fully understand at the time--are still being felt today. Like The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, this is history and science made fresh and vibrant--a beautifully told, deeply researched story that unfolds in a suspenseful and exciting way.
She opens with The Lottery , Jackson's only collection of short fiction, whose disquieting title story-one of the most widely anthologized tales of the 20th century-has entered American folklore. Also among these early works are "The Daemon Lover," a story Oates praises as "deeper, more mysterious, and more disturbing than 'The Lottery,' " and "Charles," the hilarious sketch that launched Jackson's secondary career as a domestic humorist.
Here too are Jackson's masterly short novels: The Haunting of Hill House , the tale of an achingly empathetic young woman chosen by a haunted house to be its new tenant, and We Have Always Lived in the Castle , the unrepentant confessions of Miss Merricat Blackwood, a cunning adolescent who has gone to quite unusual lengths to preserve her ideal of family happiness. Rounding out the volume are 21 other stories and sketches that showcase Jackson in all her many modes, and the essay "Biography of a Story," Jackson's acidly funny account of the public reception of "The Lottery," which provoked more mail from readers of The New Yorker than any contribution before or since.
The Library of America series includes more than volumes to date, authoritative editions that average 1, pages in length, feature cloth covers, sewn bindings, and ribbon markers, and are printed on premium acid-free paper that will last for centuries. Just before beginning his first term on January 20, , President-Elect Clinton made a very strange request to close family friend and lawyer Webster Hubbell: "If I put you over there in justice I want you to find the answer to two questions for me: One, who killed JFK.
And two, are there UFOs. In John F. Kennedy was a guest of Navy Secretary James Forrestal, where he personally witnessed technological secrets that have still not been disclosed to the world. These secrets stemmed from extraterrestrial technologies that Nazi Germany had acquired and were attempting to use in their weapons programs. In searching for answers to who killed President Kennedy we need to start with the death of his mentor, James Forrestal in Forrestal became the first Secretary of Defense in , a position he held until March, Forrestal was a visionary who thought Americans had a right to know about the existence of extraterrestrial life and technologies.
Forrestal was sacked by President Truman because he was revealing the truth to various officials, including Kennedy who was a Congressman at the time. Forrestal's ideals and vision inspired Kennedy, and laid the seed for what would happen 12 years later. After winning the Presidential election, Kennedy learned a shocking truth from President Eisenhower. The control group set up to run highly classified extraterrestrial technologies, the Majestic Group, had become a rogue government agency.
Eisenhower warned Kennedy that MJ had to be reined in. It posed a direct threat to American liberties and democratic processes. Kennedy followed Eisenhower's advice, and set out to realize James Forrestal's vision. The same forces that orchestrated Forrestal's death, opposed Kennedy's efforts at every turn. When Kennedy was on the verge of succeeding, by forcing the CIA to share classified UFO information with other government agencies on November 12, , he was assassinated ten days later.
Kennedy's Last Stand is the story of how an American President tried to realize his friend and mentor's vision of a world where humanity openly knows about extraterrestrial life; and of the government officials responsible for denying that vision. The police don't want to catch the murderer. So he'll have to. It's , and a killer roams free in Israel.
A young Arab woman has been murdered and no one seems to care. The newspapers won't report it. The police won't investigate. The victim has been forgotten by everyone If justice is to be served, private investigator Adam Lapid must find it himself. His investigation will plunge him into a sordid underworld of crime and depravity.
And if he's not careful, he'll be the one who ends up dead next. To solve the mystery, Adam must come face-to-face with true evil that will stop at nothing to keep its deadly secret. Will Adam catch the killer? Or will he become another victim? You will love The Dead Sister because it's a page-turning mystery with plenty of action and unforgettable characters. A: I wanted to write a murder mystery series that takes place in the early days of the State of Israel, right after Israel became independent.
As far as I know, there is no other mystery series that takes place in Israel at that time. Adam Lapid, the Jewish detective who's the hero of this series, is a private investigator like no other. Tough, smart, dedicated, and with a sense of justice uniquely his own. Throughout the books, Adam Lapid solves crimes and also attempts to rebuild his life after losing his entire family in Auschwitz.
So you can expect an emotional and exciting reading experience, one that will stay with you long after you turn the last page. Q: Do I need to read the books in a specific order? A: Each book in the Adam Lapid series is a standalone mystery. You can pick any book you feel like and get started. That being said, you may find it better to read the books in chronological order. A: If you like murder mysteries, crime fiction, or private investigator novels, you will love The Dead Sister.
If you have a particular interest in Jewish fiction, Israeli history or historical thrillers, this is definitely the book for you. The Dead Sister is a thrilling murder mystery with plenty of action, nasty villains, and a memorable hero that you'll root for from page one to the very end. You will love it! Many L'Amour fans believe the original versions are tighter, with stronger impact and more authentic flavor.
Rampage Bloodlands collection Harold Schechter. In , things like this just didn't happen: A quiet New Jersey resident took a morning walk with a 9 mm Luger pistol. In twelve minutes he murdered thirteen neighbors Howard Unruh went from obscurity to infamy overnight. Even after his obsessive diaries were discovered--a catalogue of simmering rage, petty grievances, and sexual repression--the anomalous crime seemed incomprehensible.
Succeeding decades would confirm that Unruh's "Walk of Death" was just the beginning. The prototype for the modern mass murderer, he would usher in a new age of violence in America. Rampage is part of Bloodlands, a chilling collection of short page-turning historical narratives from bestselling true-crime master Harold Schechter. Spanning a century in our nation's murderous past, Schechter resurrects nearly forgotten tales of madmen and thrill-killers that dominated the most sensational headlines of their day.
One Good Deed David Baldacci. The 1 New York Times bestselling author David Baldacci introduces an unforgettable new character: Archer, a straight-talking former World War II soldier fresh out of prison for a crime he didn't commit. It's When war veteran Aloysius Archer is released from Carderock Prison, he is sent to Poca City on parole with a short list of do's and a much longer list of don'ts: do report regularly to his parole officer, don't go to bars, certainly don't drink alcohol, do get a job--and don't ever associate with loose women.
The small town quickly proves more complicated and dangerous than Archer's years serving in the war or his time in jail. Within a single night, his search for gainful employment--and a stiff drink--leads him to a local bar, where he is hired for what seems like a simple job: to collect a debt owed to a powerful local businessman, Hank Pittleman.
Soon Archer discovers that recovering the debt won't be so easy. The indebted man has a furious grudge against Hank and refuses to pay; Hank's clever mistress has her own designs on Archer; and both Hank and Archer's stern parole officer, Miss Crabtree, are keeping a sharp eye on him. When a murder takes place right under Archer's nose, police suspicions rise against the ex-convict, and Archer realizes that the crime could send him right back to prison.
The most authoritative life of the Chinese leader every written, Mao: The Unknown Story is based on a decade of research, and on interviews with many of Mao's close circle in China who have never talked before -- and with virtually everyone outside China who had significant dealings with him.
It is full of startling revelations, exploding the myth of the Long March, and showing a completely unknown Mao: he was not driven by idealism or ideology; his intimate and intricate relationship with Stalin went back to the s, ultimately bringing him to power; he welcomed Japanese occupation of much of China; and he schemed, poisoned, and blackmailed to get his way.
After Mao conquered China in , his secret goal was to dominate the world. Forgotten your password? Log In Via Your Institution. Related Content Search Find related content. Most Read Most Cited No results returned.