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Masque: Paspe. Henry Wood The Tempest, Z. Overture Timon of Athens, Z. Duet "Hark! How the songsters of the grove" Timon of Athens, Z. Trio "But ah! How much are our delights" Timon of Athens, Z. Chorus "Who can resist such mighty charms" Timon of Athens, Z. Chorus "Come, let us agree" Timon of Athens, Z. Genres classical , baroque.

Edward Purcell 18th century composer, son of Henry. John Blow composer —???? Henry Purcell: An analytical catalogue of his music. VIAF: [ info ]. Q [ info ]. Amintas, to my grief I see, Z. Since the pox or the plague, Z. What hope for us remains now he is gone? Fantasia for strings No. Beati omnes qui timent Dominum, Z. Here's that will challenge all the fair, Z. O all ye people, clap your hands, Z. Welcome, vicegerent of the mighty king, Z. Amintor, heedless of his flocks, Z. How I sigh when I think of the charms, Z. Pastora's beauties when unblown, Z.

When her languishing eyes said 'love', Z. Complete Service in B-flat, Z. Let mine eyes run down with tears, Z. The summer's absence unconcerned we bear, Z. It is a good thing to give thanks, Z. To tell of thy loving kindness. O Lord how glorious are thy works. For thou, Lord, hast made me glad.

Praise Him in His Noble Acts. Praise Him upon the Well-Tuned Cymbals. From hardy climes and dangerous toils of war, Z. Mad Bess of Bedlam, Z. Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion". Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion": I. Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion": II. Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion": IV. Aria Bass, Tenor - Ritornello "If then we've found the want of his rays". Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion": V. Ode, Z "Fly, bold rebellion": VI. Aria Alto - Ritornello " Be welcome then, great Sir". Septet - Chorus "Welcome to all those wishes fulfilled". Rashly I swore I would disown, Z. Song, Z "She Loves and she Confesses too".

Trio Sonata in 3 parts no. Trio Sonata in 4 parts no. Canzona allegro. Allegro - Grave. Trio Sonata of 3 parts no. Adagio, Presto. Largo, Presto. Grave, Adagio. Poco Largo, Allegro. Poco Largo. Grave, Canzona. Grave, Vivace. Canzona, Adagio. Grave, Presto. Young John the gard'ner, Z.

A thousand sev'ral ways I tried, Z. Beware, poor Shepherds, Z. He himself courts his own ruin, Z. In Cloris all soft charms, Z. Let us, kind Lesbia, give away, Z. A health to the nut-brown lass, Z. Cupid, the slyest rogue alive, Z. I was glad when they said unto me version, originally attributed to John Blow; not Z. Love is now become a trade, Z. Musing on cares of human fate, Z. My heart is inditing, Z. She shall be brought unto the King. Symphony; Hearken, O daughter. Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem. My heart, wherever you appear, Z.

Ode, Z "Raise raise the voice": I. Ode, Z "Raise raise the voice": II. Aria Bass - Chorus - Ritornello "Raise, raise the voice". Ode, Z "Raise raise the voice": IV. Ode, Z "Raise raise the voice". Ode, Z "Why, why are all the Muses mute? Aria Tenor - Chorus "When should each soul exalted be". Aria Alto - Ritornello "Britain, thou now art great". Aria Tenor - Chorus "The many-headed beast is quelled at home". Soft notes and gently raised, Z. They say you're angry, Z. While Thyrsis, wrapt in downy sleep, Z. Ye happy swains, whose nymphs are kind, Z.

Sylvia, 'tis true you're fair, Z. The miller's daughter riding, Z. Under this stone lies Gabriel John, Z. Whilst Cynthia sung, all angry winds lay still, Z. Amidst the shades and cool refreshing streams, Z. Cease, anxious world, Z. Hence, fond deceiver, Z. Let formal lovers still pursue, Z. Spite of the godhead, pow'rful love, Z. Thy way, O God, is holy, Z. When first Amintas sued for a kiss, Z. Blessed are they that fear the Lord, Z. Blessed are they that fear the Lord. The Lord thy God from out of Sion.

Blessed is he that considereth the poor, Z. My lady's coachman, John, Z. O Worship the Lord in the Beauty of Holiness. O sing unto the Lord a new song, Z. Phyllis, I can ne'er forgive it, Z. Sylvia, now your scorn give over, Z.

The Lord is King, the earth may be glad, Z. Dido and Aeneas, Z. Ritornelle - "Thanks to these lonesome dales". Henry Wood. Now does the glorious day appear, Z. Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem, Z. See how the fading glories of the year, Z. Suite of Five Pieces: IV. When I am Laid in Earth. I gave her cakes and I gave her ale, Z. My song shall be alway, Z. My song shall be alway of the loving-kindness of the Lord. God is very greatly to be feared. Lost is my quiet forever, Z. Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn". Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": I.

Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": II. Aria High Tenor - Chorus "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn". Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": IV. Duet Alto, Bass "Welcome as when three happy Kingdoms strove". Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": IX. Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": V. Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": VI. Aria Soprano - Chorus "My Pray'rs are heard". Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": X. Aria High Tenor "Whilst undisturb'd his happy Consort reigns". Ode, Z "Welcome, welcome, glorious morn": XI.

Aria Tenor - Chorus "Sound, all ye Spheres". Why, my Daphne, why complaining? Corinna is divinely fair, Z. Oedipus, King of Thebes, Z. On the brow of Richmond Hill, Z. The Fairy Queen, Z. Now join your warbling voices all". May the god of wit inspire". They shall be as happy". Celebrate This Festival, Z. Let each gallant heart, Z. O give thanks unto the Lord, Z.

O give thanks unto the Lord. Who can express the noble acts of the Lord. Remember me, O Lord. That I may see the felicity. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel. Of all the instruments that are, Z. Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, Z. Ask me to love no more, Z. Come, ye sons of Art, come away. Sound the Trumpet. See Nature, rejoicing. Strike the viol. The day that such a blessing. Bid the Virtues. These, are the sacred charms.

Distress'd Innocence, Z. Slow Aire.

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  7. The Life and Sort of Death of Eric Argyle (Modern Plays).

Distress'D Innocence, Z. Distressed Innocence, Z. I Lov'd Fair Celia, Z.

Well Tempered Clavier – Book One – Angela Hewitt

Sawney Is a Bonny Lad, Z. We praise thee, O God. The father of an infinite majesty. When thou took'st upon thee to deliver man. O Lord, save thy people. Glory be to the father. Vouchsafe, O Lord, to keep us this day without sin. O be joyful in the Lord, all ye lands. Be ye sure that the Lord he is God. For the Lord is gracious. Te Deum and Jubilate Deo, for St. The Virtuous Wife, Z. Song Tune. Slow Air. Minuet I. Minuet II. The way of God is an undefiled way, Z. Timon of Athens, Z. Solo "Return, revolting rebels" Bacchus Bass.

Love, thou canst hear, tho' thou art blind, Z. Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary, Z. Pausanias, the Betrayer of his Country, Z. Pious Celinda goes to pray'rs, Z. The Queen's Epicedium, Z. Who can behold Florella's charms? Who can from joy refrain? The father brave. Bonduca, or the British Heroine, Z.

Gavotte Almond in D-sol-re , ZD. A Prince of Glorious Race Descended. Amphitryon, Z. Scotch Tune. Amphitryon: Fair Iris and her swain. An Evening Hymn Upon a Ground. An Evening Hymn, Z. As Roger last night to Jenny lay close, Z. Aureng-Zebe, Z. Awake, and with attention hear, Z. Awake, put on thy strength, Z. Bacchus is a pow'r divine, Z. Begin the song, and strike the living lyre, Z. Behold now, praise the Lord, Z. Behold now, praise the Lord.

Glory be to the Father. Behold, I bring you glad tidings, Z. Beneath a dark and melancholy grove, Z. Beneath a poplar's shadow. Benedictus in B-flat, Z. Blessed be the Lord my strength, Z. Blessed is he Whose Unrighteousness is Forgiven, Z. Blessed is the man that feareth the Lord, Z. Blow up the trumpet in Sion, Z. Bow down thine ear, O Lord, Z. Celestial Music: When Orpheus sang. Chacony in G minor arranged by Britten.

Chacony in G minor arranged by Talbot. Chacony in G minor for 2 violins, viola and continuo, Z. Chiding Catch "Fie, Nay". Christ is made the sure foundation. Cibell for trumpet, strings, and basso continuo in C major, Z. Circe, Z. Magicians' Dance. Close thine eyes and sleep secure, Z. The Triumphing Dance. Dance interstitial, unnumbered. Guitar Dance interstitial, unnumbered. Echo Dance of Furies. Gittar Ground a Dance interstitial, unnumbered. Dido and Aeneas: Act II.

Draw near, you lovers, Z. Early, O Lord, my fainting soul, Z. Fantasia for strings upon one note, Z. Fantasia on a Ground and Two Pavans. Fantasia, 3 parts on a Ground for three recorders, Z. Five Songs: Hark the ech'ing air. Five Songs: How blest are Shepherds. Five Songs: I attempt from Love's sickness to fly.

Five Songs: I take no pleasure. Five Songs: Take not a woman's anger ill. Full of wrath, his threatening breath, Z Go tell Amynta, gentle swain, Z.

Programme Notes

God is gone up with a merry noise Canon a 7 Z Hark how the wild musicians sing, Z. Harpsichord Suite in C major, Z. Harpsichord Suite no. Hear me, O Lord, the great support, Z Hear my prayer, O God, Z. Hornpipe in B-flat major, ZT. Hornpipe, ZT. How long, great God? How pleasant is this flowery plain and grove! Hymn, Z "Hosanna to the highest". I came, I saw, and was undone, Z. I was glad when they said unto me, Z.

I will give thanks unto the Lord, Z. I will give thanks unto thee, O Lord, Z. I will give thanks unto thee, O Lord. All the kings of the earth shall praise thee, O Lord. I will love thee, O Lord, ZN I will sing unto the Lord as long as I live, Z. If ever I more riches did desire, Z. If pray'rs and tears, Z. In all our Cynthia's shining sphere, Z. In Nomine in 7 parts, Z. In the black dismal dungeon of despair, Z. In thee, O Lord, do I put my trust, Z. In these delightful pleasant groves. Air in D. Air in G. Air in g. Minuett in G. Jigg in g. Intro Funeral March for Queen Mary.

Jehova, quam multi sunt hostes mei arr. Jehova, quam multi sunt hostes mei, Z. King Arthur Suite: Adagio - Allegro. King Arthur, Z. Chorus "See, see". Duet "Sound a parley". The Frost Scene. Passacaglia "How happy the lover". Trumpet Tune. Kyrie eleison in B-flat, Z. Let mine eyes run down with tears. We acknowledge, O Lord, our wickedness. Do not abhor us, for thy name's sake. Let Monarchs Fight for Power and Fame. Let the dreadful engines of eternal will. Let the night perish, Z. Lord, how long wilt thou be angry, Z. Lord, I can suffer thy rebukes, Z.

Lord, not to us, but to thy name, Z. Lord, who can tell how oft he offendeth? Lovely Albina's come ashore, Z. Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in G minor, Z Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in G minor, Z Magnificat. Magnificat and Nunc dimittis in G minor, Z Nunc dimittis. Magnificat in B-flat, Z. Music for a While arrangement by That Joe Payne. My beloved spake, Z. And the time of the singing of birds is come. My beloved is mine and I am his. My heart is fixed, O God, Z Nicene creed in B-flat, Z. No, to what purpose should I speak, Z. Nunc dimittis in B-flat, Z.

O consider my adversity, Z. O dive custos Auriacae domus, Z. O God the King of Glory, Z. O God, thou art my God, Z. O God, Thou hast cast us out, Z. O Lord, grant the King a long life, Z O Lord, our Governor, Z. O Lord, rebuke me not, Z. O Lord, Thou art my God, Z. O praise the Lord, all ye heathen, Z O, I'm Sick of Life, Z. Ode for Queen Mary's Birthday, Z.

Olinda in the shades unseen, Z. The Caprice in G opens the second suite. It is in two sections, the first is lush and chromatic while the second is a brilliantly virtuosic fugue. The three pieces in D major come from the middle of the first suite. The Allemande, which was no longer dance music in France by the eighteenth century, moves between grandeur and tenderness. The Sarabande features luscious soaring lines and the Petit Paysane is a short, rousing vignette depicting a country festival. The combination of three bass viols is uniquely sonorous and Marais demonstrates his mastery of writing for the instrument throughout these pieces.

The 14th-century madrigal, favored by composers like Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini, referred to the poetic form that many of their pieces followed. The madrigals of the 16th century were settings of secular poetry for three to six voices. These pieces employed polyphony, imitation, and later, chromaticism to emphasize the meaning of the text.

As composers explored more daring ways of emphasizing text meanings, the madrigal shifted from a popular form of entertainment among amateur musicians to a complex repertoire reserved for professionals. The first madrigals appeared in Florence in the early 16th century. By the late 16th century, composers were beginning to experiment with more extensive word-painting and unusual chromatic relationships. In the early 17th century, the madrigal continued to be popular, but it had diverged into several forms.

Madrigals in the familiar polyphonic style continued to be an important genre and compositional exercise for Italian composers and all who came to study composition in Italy. Our program features madrigals from the early 17th century that are in the older polyphonic style but show clear influences from other forms that were beginning to take hold. Claudio Monteverdi entered the service of Vincenzo I, Duke of Mantua as a viol player and singer in He would remain at the Gonzaga court in Mantua for the next 22 years, eventually becoming the maestro di cappella.

After the death of the duke in , Monteverdi moved to San Marco in Venice, where he restored the musical institution that had been failing since the death of Giovanni Croce in Although he is often viewed as the transition between the renaissance and baroque, it is important to remember that he was one of many composers who wrote fluently in both older renaissance and newer baroque styles, as any successful composer in this time would have done.

This emphasis on using music to intensify textual meanings drew criticism from Giovanni Maria Artusi, a conservative music theorist. One was prima pratica , or the older polyphonic style of the 16th century, which was characterized by strict counterpoint, prepared dissonance, the equality of voices, and the predominance of music over the text. The other was seconda pratica , or the use of free counterpoint and the use of dissonance in unusual ways so the text ruled the music. While effective for silencing the critics, for giving composers a defense for their daring new practices, and also for giving music theory students something to memorize for exams, this explanation implied a strict division where none really existed.

The move from older polyphony into the new more expressive styles was a gradual transition during which composers wrote in a wide range of styles concurrently, depending on their needs and desires at the time. A sestina is a set poetic form consisting of six stanzas, each with six lines, followed by a stanza of three lines. There is no set rhyme scheme, but instead the final words from each line of the first stanza are used as the final words for each subsequent stanza, rotated in a set pattern. Traditionally attributed to the 12th-century troubadour Arnaut Daniel, the form was popular in Italy by the 13th century and continues to be used by contemporary poets.

Historically, sestinas were written as a lament or a complaint, since the repetition of words can serve to emphasize and intensify feelings, usually those of anguish or grief. Some believe that it was written for his wife, while others suggest it was written for a favored singer, or merely written out of duty and not with any particular attachment. Tragedy continued to plague him when Catarina Martinelli, the young singer for whom the title role of Arianna was written, died of smallpox just weeks before the premiere.

Monteverdi again retreated to Cremona and refused to return to Mantua for quite some time. The music composed during this period, including the sestina, reflects his emotional state with the use of intense dissonance and vivid depiction of anguish and loss. The first stanza sets the stage for an exploration of grief in the moment when a lover bends over the grave of their beloved. The third and fourth stanzas feature duets and trios as the lover expounds upon his grief and appeals to nature, to the heavens, and to anyone who will listen. Then the final stanza arrives in the shape of monody-influenced homophony, almost as if the speaker is too exhausted for any more grief, and the sestina ends in dry-eyed calm.

By , when he published his first book of madrigals, he was in Mantua, where he may have met Monteverdi. In , he was in Florence, where he sang alongside, and earned the admiration of two of the most celebrated singers at this time — Giulio Caccini and Vittoria Archilei. In , he was appointed director of chamber music at the court of Emanuele I, Duke of Savoy, in Turin. He remained there until , when he was forced to leave by vicious gossip or to avoid a scandal, depending on which account one reads. His later years are as shrouded in mystery as his early life.

He was given an appointment to the court of Maximilian I of Bavaria, but died before assuming the post. His extensive travels throughout Italy gave him a thorough understanding of most of the major styles present in Italy at the beginning of the 17th century, and his masterful synthesis of these styles is apparent in his compositional output. He wrote in most of the major vocal forms of the time, including monody, polyphonic madrigals, concerted madrigals, and sacred motets.

While he never ventured into the world of opera, his extended monodic laments can easily be considered dramatic scenes. He followed in the traditions of the monody composers in Florence, writing five books of monody for one or two voices and continuo, and introducing into monody the chromaticism that was well established in the polyphonic madrigal. He wrote monody and polyphonic madrigals side by side, believing monody to be incapable of everything the polyphonic madrigal excelled at. For much of the 17th century, monody and the forms that followed aria and cantata focused on the importance of a single line and a clearly expressed text.

Hildegard von Bingen was a nun who lived She was a scientist, philosopher, political figure, and all sorts of things that women weren't really allowed to be, and she had crazy visions and composed music based on her visions. She also is responsible for writing the Ordo Virtutum - a musical morality play a play that tells a story with a moral, like Aesop's fables.

The Ordo Virtutum is the story of the journey of the soul "Anima" and the battle between the Virtues and the Devil over the final destination of the soul. In the original version, there are 17 virtues all sung by women , a chorus of men representing the Patriarchs and Prophets, a chorus of women representing other souls, and the Devil a spoken male role. What makes the Ordo unique is that it is the earliest morality play by at least a century , and it's the only Medieval music drama for which we know who wrote the music AND the words. Basically, it's really cool in a nerdy sort of way.

The Story? Here's the easy version The Virtues show up and announce that they've arrived. The Patriarch and Prophet give them all high fives. The Souls wander in, lost as usual. Anima starts to realize that life kinda sucks. The Devil tempts Anima, somewhat successfully. The Virtues get frustrated when Anima gives in to the Devil.

Then Anima comes back to the Virtues, admitting that she blew it and asking for help. The Virtues give Anima a serious pep talk. Anima finally stands up for herself and tells the Devil she's not into him anymore. Then finally Humility she's in charge tells Victory the hit wo man that she can go kick the Devil's butt.

The Devil is bound and everyone led by Victory and Knowledge of God rejoices. Then Chastity and the Devil get into a spat, which Chastity wins. Because Jesus was born of a virgin. Make sense? Enough background - on to the action Even with the shortened cast of characters which also meant a shortened play , it was an hour long production. Of chant. Usually when you set out to memorize something as a singer , the accompanying music helps cue you on what comes next.

Such is not the case with chant. There isn't necessarily accompanying music more on that in a minute. When you don't have music to memorize, you have to memorize the words. Like a monologue. Except in Latin. So, I made flash cards. I transcribed the 19 different chants I had to learn, cut them up, and started working through them. In order to make sure I learned them in the right order, I practiced singing them in order.

Even if I would work on them out of order, I always ended my practice sessions by singing the whole thing, in order. Then I realized that I had to know which character and which line immediately preceded my responses. So I wrote the character's name and final 3 words on the back of each piece of chant.

It was a good system! If I ever have to memorize an hour of chant again, there's the system! Rehearsals started on March 17th. We had 6 rehearsals 4 hours each , plus two dress rehearsals 4 hours each , and 3 performances. It was an amazing amount of work to get done in a small amount of time, but it really came together! Everyone came prepared with their chant all learned and partly memorized full memorization was the goal, but it was just too much for all of us. We had a fantastic leadership team who gave us just the right amount of direction and free license with our characters. We even got to dance!

And amazingly, after all those hours of rehearsal and repeating little bits of chant over and over and over and over again, it all came together! That's nice. Why is "Victory" a "virtue"? Some of Hildegard's "virtues" make total sense. Those are reasonable character qualities for someone to want to develop. Some of the other ones make a little less sense. I can kinda get it, but it's not so obvious. And then there is Victory. As far as I can tell, Victory exists in the Ordo for one purpose - to step in as a "military" leader and conquer the Devil.

She doesn't say much, though when she does it's awesome, high, and pretty much can bring the whole thing to a halt. She also doesn't get to act on her own. She doesn't get to decide when it's time to conquer the Devil. Humility has to tell her when it's time. So basically, she functions as Humility's hit wo man. And in that context, it all makes sense. Victory is the "virtue" of conquering. Of not being afraid and of taking charge of what needs to happen. Victory is the "virtue" of kicking butt in the proper time and context. Victory isn't warm and fuzzy. She won't hug you and tell you it's ok.

Victory just waits until everyone has had enough and then goes and beats him up. Victory doesn't rationalize or explain. She just does what needs to be done. She throws it down. She gets the last word. She's dangerous. And as one of the directors mentioned to me, she may still be covered in gore and hasn't wiped her sword off yet. As awesome as Victory is, that's something that can be hard to display on stage. She doesn't say much. It's all in her attitude.

The most hilarious part, and yet probably also the most helpful part of Victory's journey came when someone Matt was watching me get ready for a dress rehearsal and started quoting Cool Runnings to me. If you haven't watched Cool Runnings, do it. It's worth it. I see power! I see a bada-- mother who don't take no crap off nobody! Pretty much. So why care about a medieval music drama?

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Well, on a purely nerdy level, it's a really cool thing that it still exists and it's very seldom performed. And Hildegard is awesome and so is her music. Also, the production was really well done. The singers were amazing and the instrumentalists There is no written accompaniment for the Ordo Virtutum. Just the lines of chant for the singers and dialogue for the Devil.

So, the amazing instrumentalists improvised the whole thing. It's modal, so they just played things in the same mode as the chant lines and it all worked out. I make it sound way simpler than it actually was. They deserve a ton of credit for bringing the whole thing together and creating a sound world that made the singers' job SO much easier. It's still an hour of chant that's years old.

Well yes. You can't really pretend it's anything else. But years isn't really that long when you consider how relevant the material is. Yes, it's a morality play steeped in Catholic imagery. Hildegard was a nun, so duh. But think about the action Anima makes dumb choices. We all make dumb choices. The Souls are generally confused. We've all been generally confused. Anima finally decides to start making good choices but discovers that it's hard.

We've all been there too. Anima stands up to the Devil but realizes she can't do it on her own and asks for help. This is such a good lesson to all of us.

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We all need help from time to time. And as far as the Virtues go The virtues can talk to the soul, but she makes her own choices. They can't act until she asks for help. That's kind of like life too. You can't help someone who doesn't want to be helped. You can't change someone who doesn't want to change.

Don't hesitate. Just throw it down. Because I am studying something a little more "off the beaten path", I often have to explain what early music is as opposed to not-early music and justify why one would even want to do it. Explaining this to other musicians is certainly an interesting task, but explaining it to non-musicians baffled me for quite a while. Finally I think I have found an explanation that works for everyone.

Music has performers. Movies have actors. Movies come in different genres action, horror, romance, comedy, sci-fi, etc. Music can come in different genres based on instrumentation and form orchestral, solo, vocal, instrumental, etc. Movies can involve many different actors or groups of actors. Music can involve many different performers or groups of performers.

In movies, you do not always assume that an actor who is good in one genre of film would be good in another. For example, many people are fans of Adam Sandler's comedy work, but somehow I don't think he would thrive as well in a serious drama. There are always exceptions to the rule, of course. Robin Williams' comedy brilliance is well known, and his dramatic roles are also always excellent.

The reason this works, though, is that he doesn't use the same delivery in a comedy that he does in a drama. The techniques of acting that he employs in Mrs. In music, it should be the same, but it isn't always. For some reason, some musicians expect to play every piece in the same style, regardless of genre. Obviously, techniques appropriate to jazz do not always transfer to Beethoven piano sonatas, or vice versa.

Fortunately, many musicians are wiser than this and recognize that each piece should be played in its own style with its own unique characteristics. Ladies and gentlemen - this is the premise of early music. As I have often explained to my vocalist friends in other departments, one would never dream of singing Mozart and Wagner in the same style. Obviously, solid technique is a must for both, but the stylistic characteristics and costumes!

Early vocal music often gets a reputation for being an excuse for bad technique, but this is such a misconception. Bad singing is bad singing, no matter what is being sung. There have been performances and recordings made of any and every piece of music with bad technique.

That is not a phenomenon unique to "early" music. Good singing is good singing, no matter what the repertoire is. Honestly, some "early" repertoire is so outstandingly difficult that it is impossible to sing without solid technique. Early music isn't about good technique or bad technique any more than any other musical genre. I sing with just as much power and support as my opera colleagues. I sing with vibrato.

I use different articulations and ornaments for colors and effects. Obviously, when I'm performing with a lute, my volume level is lower to accommodate the softer sound of the lute.

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  • When I'm singing a recitative as I did this summer accompanied by six harpsichords, an organ, a clavicytherium, and cello, more volume and power is required. Early music is about performing music before or so, depending on who you talk to and performing it in the proper style and, in many cases, on the proper instruments. But back to the point about actors sometimes only being successful in one genre and sometimes being able to succeed in many In this area, musicians are the same.

    Some musicians can make a career of only performing one thing Beethoven piano sonatas or Puccini operas , while others can be successful with multiple things. Many performers of medieval and renaissance music are also successful performers of 20th and 21st century music, including some very avant-garde styles. Yes, it happens. And it happens to everyone. No matter the genre of music or movie, bad happens. I have often heard "modern" musicians criticize "early" musicians for a bad performance, saying that "gut strings are just an excuse to play out of tune.

    It happens to everyone, regardless of gut strings or metal wound strings. Bad movies are made. Bad concerts are recorded. Now, legitimately, if you look for it, there is quite a bit of distasteful early music that has been recorded. My music history listening CDs from college are full of terrible recordings of early music. I think it is a huge shame that whoever made the CDs chose to use such awful recordings, because all music deserves to be shown in its best light.

    There are absolutely mind-blowing performances of the madrigals of Gesualdo, early Italian Trecento repertoire, and chant. But the recordings on those CDs are full of bad technique, bad diction, horrible intonation, and all the things that would make anyone hang their head in shame. Possibly the person who put the CD collection together hated early music. Possibly they didn't have many recordings to choose from.

    Or they were cheap or lazy. I don't know. I know I can find amazing recordings of Hildegard von Bingen's responsories on youtube, along with clips from the latest Hollywood Blockbuster. I can also find terrible recordings, along with segments from laughably bad B-rate horror films. Unfortunately, it is also true that many of us come to the earlier styles of music after having spent many years learning later repertoire. This is less of a challenge for vocalists, and more of a challenge for instrumentalists.

    Violinists may begin their training at a very young age, but a baroque violin is a different instrument than its modern cousin. Gut strings make a different sound, and the bow is held in a different way. Playing a piano is a very different experience from playing a harpsichord, even though both are keyboard instruments. Sadly, most people don't start on harpsichord or baroque cello or theorbo. Maybe one of the few instruments which has remained more or less unchanged is the recorder Personally, I love the recorder.

    Everyone should learn to play the recorder. That said, treating the recorder as a children's instrument only, perhaps as a step-up to a clarinet a "real instrument" , ignores the fact that there is an amazing repertoire for recorder that requires as much skill and virtuosity on recorder as one would expect from any other "professional" instrument. With that said, it is incumbent upon those of us who are performing on early instruments or performing early repertoire to dedicate ourselves wholeheartedly to our performances. We should not be content with bad performances. If the pieces we are working on are badly written, we should find new ones.

    There is no excuse for poor performance, no matter what the repertoire. A bad movie is a bad movie, no matter the genre. A good performance is a good performance, no matter what pieces are performed. Obviously, every person has their own personal preferences. I happen to love action and sci-fi movies. My husband loves comedies. I also happen to love the music of Hildegard von Bingen. I love early Italian baroque works. My husband loves playing orchestral music of Russian composers. I'm not a huge fan of horror movies.

    I also don't care much for Schoenberg. Everyone is entitled to their own preferences. Whether one happens to like early music is a separate issue from what early music is and whether a performance is good or not. Hopefully you made it through the analogy! The 14th-century madrigal was favored by composers Jacopo da Bologna and Francesco Landini and referred to the poetic form that many of their pieces followed. For the most part, madrigals in the 16thcentury were settings of secular poetry for three to six voices that used polyphonic, imitative, and chordal techniques to emphasize the meaning of the text.

    Advances in printing, specifically in printed musical notation, allowed composers a greater range of rhythmic options, and the exploration of chromaticism opened realms of expressiveness that had not been previously possible. The text became the most important element in the composition, and it is from this emphasis that the techniques of word painting developed.

    Beginning in the 17thcentury, the forms of monody, opera, and cantata gradually replaced the madrigal. Publishing a book of madrigals had been and would continue to be a compositional exercise for young composers, but for Marenzio, Gesualdo, and Monteverdi, madrigals were a deliberately chosen form of musical expression. His first books of madrigals, published in the s, were incredibly popular in Italy and were reprinted frequently both in Italy and throughout Europe. He then declined a position with the Duke of Mantua, a post that Monteverdi would take four years later.

    Records from that time show that while Marenzio was popular as a composer, he maintained a flourishing performing career and comfortably lived on that income alone. He spent working for Cardinal Ferdinando de Medici in Florence, but eventually returned to Rome where he moved freely in the musical circles of the nobility and high-ranking clergy without being attached to any particular patron. During this time Dowland traveled to Italy with the desire to study with Marenzio, but it is unknown if they ever actually met. Claudio Monteverdi was born in Cremona.

    Ingegneri proved to be a shrewd instructor not only in music, but also in poetic taste and political savoir-faire. His hard work paid off in , when he earned a position at the Gonzaga court in Mantua, a place he would remain for the next 22 years. His reputation as a composer helped him to secure employment, but his primary role in Mantua was that of string player and singer. Under Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga and his successor Francesco, musical life in Mantua continuously expanded. While in Mantua, Monteverdi published three more books of madrigals and began to experiment with music for the theater, including opera.

    This can be seen from his sixth book of madrigals onward with his increasing use of basso continuo and the polarization of voice writing.

    Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (Couperin, François)

    He was born in Naples and inherited the principality of Venosa in Four years later, he surprised his wife and her lover in bed and murdered them both. This marriage, while unhappy, helped put the scandal of the murders behind him and lasted until his death. Between , Gesualdo published four books of madrigals in Ferarra, thus solidifying his reputation as a composer. Gesualdo returned to his own estate in and immersed himself in music, focusing specifically on setting up a musical establishment similar to what he had seen in Ferarra.

    In , two years before his death, Gesualdo published his last two books of five voice madrigals. The madrigals in those two books took chromaticism to an extreme that would not be seen again until the 20thcentury. Marenzio had begun to explore chromaticism near the end of his life, and even Monteverdi used it before moving solidly into what would become the early Baroque style. Gesualdo used incredible variation of rhythmic ideas in his pieces, with fast and slow sections alternating very quickly. Just as Marenzio made each line of text a separate musical idea, Gesualdo highlighted each line with differing harmonies, rhythms, and textures.