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Le contenu est-il consensuel? Cette solution vous semble-t-elle constituer un compromis raisonnable? Ceci dit, pour info:. Est-ce qu'on en parle quelque part? Merci d'avance. De plus cela ne concerne qu'un seul type de PGM. Actuellement elle contient. Je propose que l'on supprime ces 2 sous sections, mais en conservant une partie de leur contenu. Merci d'avance et bonne continuation. Est-ce qu'il y a d'autres avis? Donc, sur le fond, je ne vois pas ce qui justifie de modifier cette phrase. Les contributeurs avant toi font un commentaire, pas une modif. Si oui, il faudra avoir la patience de m'expliquer quel en est l'enjeu.

Sur le conflit en cours. Qu'en pensez-vous? Je vous remercie tous de ces contributions convergentes qui, me semble-t-il, nous permettent d'avancer. Je vous fais ci-dessous une proposition de mention dans l'article principal. La publication dans la presse fut ainsi assortie d'une clause exceptionnelle interdisant toute contre expertise scientifiques avant la publication officielle, s'assurant ainsi l'absence provisoire de contradicteur.

Je mets au net ci-dessous. Merci de commenter. Tant mieux! Mary is a young woman forced to live her life disguised as a young boy… Throughout her childhood and adolescence, Mary will be a prisoner to this double identity. After having served in the British army, both on land and at sea, Mary meets Joos, a young man with whom she falls in love. But as Joos tragically dies, Mary decides to dress up as a boy again to fulfil her dream of setting out on a life at sea! Mary Tempest thus becomes the first woman pirate. And so a new life starts for her, full of adventure! It is THE pirate story of the year.

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Solution du casse-tête de l'étoile de Galilée

Let the card battle begin! Strong, determined and with a flair for solving cases, Angelica is a great new character! By Hubert Ben Kemoun from 13 years old 7 February February F 50, Flammarion The real story of Mary Read , an english soldier and pirate well ahead of her time.

Le monde des livres Mary is a young woman forced to live her life disguised as a young boy… Throughout her childhood and adolescence, Mary will be a prisoner to this double identity. A story about the perils of greed and the value of friendship and acceptance. More titles to come: Vol 9. The Troyan War — January Vol Also, both writers, deeply concerned about the materialism and the atheism of their times, are anxious to re-spiritualize the consciousness of their period. Moreover, since both writers have little confidence in established religion, they must seek the sacred and the ideal from some other source.

For Michelet, it is relocated in the peuple itself, and Michelet gradually develops it into a religion toward the end of his life. Hugo, on the other hand, retains the elements of the same sense of the sacred, but as he wrote in a letter to a friend, It is necessary to destroy all the religions in order to reconstruct God. There are, however, some crucial differences in the vision of the peuple that Michelet and Hugo create, and these differences are most clearly discernible when Michelet's history and Hugo's fiction are compared as romance.

The romance mode structures both writers' ideas of the people, but Hugo allots a somewhat different role in history for the peuple than Michelet does. For the latter, the peuple is simply the hero of history; the heroine of this romance written out upon history is France, or in a larger sense all of mankind; the evil forces which block the movement toward, a new Golden Age are such things as "machinisme," egotism, selfishness, and in certain respects the bourgeoisie.

Though he considers this movement toward perfection as relentless and inevitable, Michelet in Le Peuple depicts the common people as momentarily enchanted, spellbound, and unable to fulfill its grand historical function. As a romance hero, the peuple of course possesses the appropriate qualities of virtue, nobility, and innocence; it is also, like the Tannhausers and the Parsifals, youthful, naive and immature in its quest to free itself and France, which, appropriately for a romance heroine, is in great distress at the writing of Le Peuple.

Though Michelet's message is one of fraternity and harmonious fusion of the social classes of France, that harmony and fusion is to be brought about by the members of other classes going to the people and joining their struggle: going to the people is recommended, for the moral and spiritual anemia suffered by the bourgeoisie.

This narrative structure is suggested by many elements in the novel, particularly, the bourgeois class origins of the revolutionaries at the barricade in the rue de la Chanvrerie, Marius's destiny as leader of the people, and the prize he receives near the end of the novel—the beautiful plebian virgin Cosette. Though the suffering people is an entity to be saved, it becomes a savior in its own right as the example of Valjean shows. Though the people embodies the purity, virtue, innocence and passive helplessness of the romance heroine, it is also marked by the evil, satanic, criminal, barbarous characteristics of the standard villain, as is found in the chapters, "Patron Minette" and "L'Argot.

Symbol of the satanic as well as the saintly potential in the peuple , Valjean's hagiographic story is performed before an internal audience: Marius and Cosette.


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Valjean plays both helping and blocking roles in relation to the love affair between these two characters. Marius and Cosette act out a more standard or traditional form of the romance story in which two lovers meet, are separated, and undergo perilous adventures before finally being reunited and married. Like any romance hero, Marius is a novice whose quest teaches him important things and prepares him for his future role as leader. Marius never saves Cosette in any real sense: rather as a leader, for which the novel records his preparation, he will save the peuple , envisioned by Hugo as a collective Andromeda II, p.

Thus this couple lives "happily ever after" in the additional sense that the world will increasingly come to embody the perfection, the joy, justice and peace of his own union with Cosette. Valjean's experience in the novel summarizes this cosmological process as he develops out of a seemingly less than human peasant into a satanic, criminal figure, and finally into a redeemed Christ or Prometheus figure. Looking within Valjean's soul, Hugo asks a series of questions, all of which concern the problem of how permanently criminal and perverse an individual can become:.

Man created was good by God, perhaps he becomes evil by man? The soul, perhaps completely remade by destiny, becomes evil, destinty having become evil? To such questions the "physiologiste," who generally denies free will and notions of the spirit, would answer yes. To Hugo's assertion that in human beings is a spiritual strength or resiliency that can resist such pressures from the "environment," the physiologiste would answer no:. Is there not in all human souls, is there notb in the soul of Jean Valjean in particular, a primaordial spark, a divine element, incorruptible in this world, immortal im the other, that the good can develop, spark, light, enflame, and???

The miracle of the peuple is that it, above all other social groups, can somehow keep alive that spark of moral strength despite the degradations into which the world submerges it. Fantine, Eponine, Gavroche, and of course Valjean retain an essential goodness, which in this novel is often measured by sacrifice, as Robert and Journet have pointed out. His musings on the Translation to come Hugo describes the hideous misery of the prisoners, the "haquets," as they make their way past the house of Valjean and Cosette, as if they were together Translation to come Described as Translation to come Champmathieu represents one of the more grotesquely comic faces of the peuple as a class mistrusted: at his trial the courtroom audience laughs at him after he has attempted to defend himself in Translation to come As Valjean watches him at the trial, he realizes that prison life will turn this ignorant peasant into an evil, malicious criminal.

More importantly, the peuple is also that segment of social world not necessarily criminal but awaiting some form of spiritual, intellectual awakening: as an Translation to come Comparisons to various sorts of animals, descriptions of his eyes as hidden in his obstructing net-like hair as if unseeing, his usual speechlessness, all suggest a stunted, undeveloped, unawakened intelligence.

It is a mystery; many do survive that descent into hell or that submersion into troubled waters, and they are for Hugo truly the peuple. The soul of the common worker or the poor is transformed, like Valjean's, into a battleground where victory and defeat are not predetermined nor predictable by any human measurement: called upon by Myriel to become a good man, Valjean feels that Translation to come Thus, Hugo willingly acknowledges, particularly in the chapters on the Patron-Minette gang I, pp.

So corrupted is this segment of the peuple that it becomes Translation to come Hugo sees it as a cave, "la grande caverne du mal," existing below civilization and growing larger as ignorance and misery continue:. Translation to come Elle s'appelle tout simplement vol, prostitution, meurtre et assassinat. Marius, who is educated through the process of the novel to sympathize with and lead the peuple , views the life of the Jondrettes through the hole in the wall and is introduced to the worst aspects of the peuple ; concerning this side, he is certain:.

As a model and pattern of the peuple , as one who subsumes the whole of plebian experience and character in himself, Valjean is not alien to this monstruous element in the peuple. Faced with misery, he commits a crime, rather pathetically and innocently at first; twisted and degraded by the harshness of prison life, he becomes such a hardened criminal he is described as Satanic.

What happens to him in prison is a pattern for what happens to others. Although Hugo insists he does not have a "nature mauvaise" and although he is still basically good when he arrives at prison, Translation to come It is the action of cursing and hating society and God that so transforms his soul and not simply the physical suffering in prison: taken altogether:. Given the opportunity to reclaim his humanity by the kindness and example of Myriel, he does so because the spark has not been extinguished within him; as a result of his descents into misery, he becomes all the stronger, more virtuous, ready for the greater tasks and sacrifices he will face at the end of the novel.

This pattern, or parts of it, can be applied to every member of the prison gang, "les haquets," that troops by his house in the rue Plumet. For this reason, leadership is crucial in the novel: we have images of both good and bad. Ultimately the novel is as much about leadership of the people—political, economic and spiritual—as it is about the people. Later, concerned with the uprisings of the "canaille," which are rapacious, destructive and wrong, Hugo points out: Translation to come In the senator's philosophy, the world is dominated by wolves and a general amoral hunt behavior; a mixture of egoism, vulgar epicureanism, a concerted indifference toward others, and an ironic, materialist attitude to all transcendental, idealist, visionary matters mark his thinking.

Both he and Felix agree that the purpose of life is to "jouir" and not to "souffrir": Translation to come Religion for them is simply a means of keeping the people quiet. The suffering of the peuple is at the same time seen as a furnace, "fournaise. Also, Translation to come For Valjean, an Translation to come L'avait fait en quelque sorti visionnaire" I, p. The tears that the redeemed Valjean can shed, 28 the suggestive name of the city Montreuil, the imagery of the people as a mighty river—all indicate water as a symbol of redemption. This principle is stated, clearly in Marius's sojourn at the "masure Gorbeau.

The peuple need not just competent, responsible leadership but more importantly spiritual enlightenment or redemption that will lift them above the demoralizing effects of their miserable lives. Thus, the plebian leader must possess something of the missionary.

Moreover, that leader must necessarily be something of a revolutionary inasmuch as his efforts in behalf of the people are counter to the interests of established society. In him is the necessary combination of heroic leadership, enlightenment, and rebellion. Essential to the Greek mythic hero of mankind is his theft of the divine fire from Zeus in order to give it to mankind, just when Zeus had been ready to destroy his troublesome creation of mortals. In this mythic story, benevolence on one level is tied to rebellion on another; no wonder Christian culture since early times has viewed Prometheus as a curious prefiguration of both Christ and Satan.

Essential to our image of Prometheus is also the eternal punishment he receives from Zeus for his theft of the fire and for his kindness to man; he is chained to a rock high in the Caucasus mountains and vultures feed upon his open wounds daily. His eternal damnation in this lower, mortal world is linked to martyrdom for the sake of mankind.

Prometheus's gift of divine fire to man has been broadly interpreted as the civilized arts, domestic science, imagination, and even spirit or consciousness; he is often viewed as a civilization-bringer. His suffering at once resembles that of Christ, for having benefited man, and that of Satan, for having rebelled against God. An obvious contrast between these two stories is that Zeus seems an unjust god, whereas God is just and good. The one is indifferent and even hostile to man; the other out of his great love for man seeks to help him.

Prometheus is a thief and a rebel thrown out of heaven by the Greek god; Christ is an emissary sent by the Christian god to man. Prometheus was an attractive mythological figure to such Romantics as Hugo, Shelley, Byron, and others, particularly because of this unusual blend of benevolence, rebellion, and martyrdom—all of which corresponded to the Romantics' vision of themselves. They saw themselves as rebelling against the established powers of their times and attempting to aid mankind with their prophetic visions.

They saw themselves somehow as being in touch with the divine and as possessing divine gifts symbolized by the fire like the Greek hero. They could view themselves as having descended from some higher realm. And again like the Prometheus of some versions of the myth, they often saw themselves as punished or martyred for their efforts—even by those whom they had come to help. Romantics, however, cannot be described as rebellious against God but rather against secular powers such as the state, the church, society, or dominant artistic conventions. The god against which they rebel has been secularized; they still seek a transcendent force or deity, from which earthly institutions and leaders have strayed.

The Promethean analogy thus remains a powerful one for the Romantic's concept of himself, his mission in the world, and his relationship to the powers and the people in the world. One Romantic in particular, Jules Michelet, regularly thought of himself and more importantly the people in Promethean terms. In the preface to the Histoire de France , he writes, Translation to come While it is difficult to know how Michelet would have carried out the terms of this analogy, particularly the theft of the divine fire, the people are justly rebellious against secular gods.

At the same time, in their misery they are benevolent to the rest of man because of the basic material goods and services—food, shelter, and clothing—which they supply by their hard, unending labor. As a progressivist, Michelet saw the peuple as slowly freeing itself from its seemingly eternal chains—a turn of events that appears nowhere in the ancient versions of the myth. Again, as it is for the Romantics, the target of plebian rebellion is a secular power and not a transcendent one; in Michelet's view, the people are nearer to God, if not in fact God Himself.

Quite unlike Michelet, Hugo is much more disturbed by the "mauvais peuple," the "canaille," the rabble, or the mob, which he views as the result in great part of miserable social conditions. Hugo does not however become a "naturalist," who views the milieu as all-determining. For Hugo, there always remains a divine spark within man that makes possible his redemption. For this to occur, a spiritual enlightener is necessary; the common people, in the depths of their poverty and ignorance, need such a force.

Society and its established centers of power, however, are indifferent or even hostile to the lower classes. A Prometheus among the peuple would naturally appear to a society's ruling class as threatening, conspiratorial, and rebellious.