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Phonological similarity effects in verbal complex span. Effect of concreteness of target word on verbal working memory: An evaluation using Japanese version of reading span test.


Japanese Journal of Psychology , 71 , 51— Simple and complex word spans as measures of working memory capacity. Developing L2 oral proficiency through synchronous CMC: Output, working memory, and interlanguage development. Working memory capacity and the use of inferences in text comprehension.

Discourse Processes , 14 , — Measuring central executive functioning: What's in a reading span?. Brain and Cognition , 45 , 1— European Journal of Psychological Assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment : 35— Working memory and language comprehension: a meta-analysis. The distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger when the hand is fully extended, formerly used as a unit of measure equal to about nine inches 23 centimeters.

words ending with "span"

To extend across in space or time: a bridge that spans the gorge; a career that spanned 40 years. A pair of animals, such as oxen, matched in size, strength, or color and driven as a team. Rearrange the letters in SPAN and see some winning combinations. Anagrammer is a game resource site that has been extremely popular with players of popular games like Scrabble, Lexulous, WordFeud, Letterpress, Ruzzle, Hangman and so forth.

We maintain regularly updated dictionaries of almost every game out there. To be successful in these board games you must learn as many valid words as possible, but in order to take your game to the next level you also need to improve your anagramming skills, spelling, counting and probability analysis.

Make sure to bookmark every unscrambler we provide on this site. Explore deeper into our site and you will find many educational tools, flash cards and so much more that will make you a much better player. Reproduction of the series also involves certain other "reproduction factors," such as language ability and arithmetical proficiency. A digit-span task is used to measure working memory 's number storage capacity.

Participants see or hear a sequence of numerical digits and are tasked to recall the sequence correctly, with increasingly longer sequences being tested in each trial.

short attention span

The participant's span is the longest number of sequential digits that can accurately be remembered. Digit-span tasks can be given forwards or backwards, meaning that once the sequence is presented, the participant is asked to either recall the sequence in normal or reverse order. Verbal working memory is involved in many everyday tasks, such as remembering a friend's telephone number while entering it into a phone and understanding long and difficult sentences.

Performance on the digit span task is also closely linked to language learning abilities; improving verbal memory capacities may therefore aid mastery of a new language. There are a number of factors which affect memory span.

Another word for span

Some of the factors are extrinsic, or present in the testing situation itself. These factors, if not carefully controlled, cause the memory span test to be statistically unreliable. While the existence of many of these factors have been recognized, extensive studies on their importance have yet to be done. Some of these extrinsic factors include stimulus grouping, response grouping, presentation rate, and S-R compatibility. Other factors are intrinsic in the individual, and it is these factors which are the basis of "true" memory span.

Though numerous factors affect memory span, the test is one that shows surprisingly high reliability. Results obtained by different investigators show that the reliability coefficients for memory span are quite high.

After Words with Andrew Napolitano C-SPAN - Ralph Nader (FULL)

There are certain intrinsic factors specific to each individual that may affect the extent, or span, of one's working memory. An individual's age affects their working memory span. When an individual is developing during childhood and adolescence, memory span improves with age. After adulthood is reached, memory span slowly decreases as an individual progresses towards old age.

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The decline in memory span with old age has been associated with a decrease of working memory storage and processing, and the age-difference in working memory becomes greater as the memory tasks performed become more difficult. One of the key aspects of working memory is the ability to inhibit distractions and to focus on stimulus cues, thus as a person ages, these abilities diminish, which reduces memory.

Musical training improves the verbal memory span, but there is no consensus among researchers if it improves visual working memory capacity. The more training received the better the memory improvement. In a typical test of memory span, a list of random numbers or letters is read out loud or presented on a computer screen at the rate of one per second.

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The test begins with two to three numbers, increasing until the person commits errors. Recognizable patterns for example 2, 4, 6, 8 should be avoided. At the end of a sequence, the person being tested is asked to recall the items in order. The average digit span for normal adults without error is seven plus or minus two. In a backward digit span task, the procedure is largely the same, except that subjects being tested are asked to recall the digits in backward order e. Other memory span tests focus on both a processing task and a memory storage task.

Generally, the task involves alternating between a task that requires mental processing and cognition, and a word or digit that needs to be memorized. For example, the processing question might involve the participant checking if an arithmetic problem is correct, or reading a sentence and answering a comprehension question about its meaning. The participant would then be presented with a word to memorize, before moving on to the next processing question.

When the exercise is complete, the participant will try to recall as many words as possible. When Daneman and Carpenter investigated this method in , they found a strong correlation between the number of words memorized and the comprehension performance for the processing questions. In other words, those who had a high memory span score and could recall many of the words also performed well on the processing questions.

Words from letters S P A N

Research in the s has shown that memory span with digits and words is only weakly related to performance in complex cognitive tasks such as text comprehension, which are assumed to depend on short-term memory.