Manual Myths & Legends Over Time Part I

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He thereby destroys the symmetry of the myth, in the interests of history: what is now known as the Minoan-Mycenaean period was generally believed in antiquity to have been a good time to live.

This subjection of myth to history is not universal in Greece, but it is found in writers such as Hesiod, Xenophanes , Pindar, Aeschylus, and Plato. Of these heroes the more-favoured who were related to the gods reverted to a kind of restored Golden Age existence under the rule of Cronus forced into honourable exile by his son Zeus in the Isles of the Blessed. The final age, the antithesis of the Golden Age, was the Iron Age , during which the poet himself had the misfortune to live. But even that was not the worst, for he believed that a time would come when infants would be born old and there would be no recourse left against the universal moral decline.

Elsewhere in Greek and Roman literature, the belief in successive periods or races is found with the belief that by some means, when the worst is reached, the system gradually Plato, Politikos or quickly Virgil, Fourth Eclogue returns to the Golden Age. Hesiod may have known this version; he wishes to have been born either earlier or later. There is also a myth of progress, associated with Prometheus , god of craftsmen, but the progress is limited, for the 19th-century concept of eternal advancement is absent from Greek thought.

Myths about the gods described their births, victories over monsters or rivals, love affairs, special powers, or connections with a cultic site or ritual. As these powers tended to be wide, the myths of many gods were correspondingly complex. Thus, the Homeric Hymns to Demeter , a goddess of agriculture, and to the Delian and Pythian Apollo describe how these deities came to be associated with sites at Eleusis , Delos , and Delphi , respectively.

Other literary works

Poseidon god of the sea was unusually atavistic in that his union with Earth, and his equine adventures appear to hark back to his pre-marine status as a horse or earthquake god. Many myths are treated as trivial and lighthearted, but this judgment rests on the suppressed premise that any divine behaviour that seems inappropriate for a major religion must have seemed absurd and fictitious to the Greeks. As time went on, an accretion of minor myths continued to supplement the older and more authentic ones. Such etiological myths proliferated during the Hellenistic era, though in the earlier periods genuine examples are harder to detect.

Of folk deities, the nymphs nature goddesses personified nature or the life in water or trees and were said to punish unfaithful lovers. Water nymphs Naiads were reputed to drown those with whom they fell in love, such as Hylas , a companion of Heracles. Even the gentle Muses goddesses of the arts and sciences blinded their human rivals, such as the bard Thamyris. Like sea deities, sileni possessed secret knowledge that they would reveal only under duress. Charon , the grisly ferryman of the dead, was also a popular figure of folktale. Hero myths included elements from tradition, folktale, and fiction.

The saga of the Argonauts , for example, is highly complex and includes elements from folktale and fiction. Even heroes like Achilles , Hector , or Diomedes are largely fictional, though doubtlessly based on legendary prototypes. The Odyssey is the prime example of the wholesale importation of folktales into epic. All the best-known Greek hero myths, such as the labours of Heracles and the adventures of Perseus , Cadmus , Pelops , or Oedipus, depend more for their interest on folktales than on legend.

Certain heroes—Heracles, the Dioscuri the twins Castor and Pollux , Amphiaraus one of the Argonauts , and Hyacinthus a youth whom Apollo loved and accidentally killed —may be regarded as partly legend and partly religious myth. Thus, whereas Heracles , a man of Tiryns, may originally have been a historical character, the myth of his demise on Oeta and subsequent elevation to full divinity is closely linked with a cult.

Similarly, the exploits of the Dioscuri are those of typical heroes: fighting, carrying off women, and cattle rustling. After their death they passed six months alternately beneath the Earth and in the world above, which suggests that their worship , like that of Persephone the daughter of Zeus and Demeter , was connected with fertility or seasonal change. Certain myths, in which goddesses or heroes were temporarily incarcerated in the underworld, were allegories of seasonal renewal. Perhaps the best-known myth of this type is the one that tells how Hades Latin Pluto , the god of the underworld, carried Persephone off to be his consort, causing her mother, Demeter , the goddess of grain, to allow the earth to grow barren out of her grief.

In less benign climates, she was said to spend six months of the year in each. Myths of seasonal renewal, in which the deity dies and returns to life at particular times of the year, are plentiful.

GTA SA - Myths & Legends - Myth #15 - REMAKE - EPSILON (Part 1) - The Farm

An important Greek example is the Cretan Zeus, mentioned above. Many Greek myths involve animal transformations, though there is no proof that theriolatry animal worship was ever practiced by the Greeks. Gods sometimes assumed the form of beasts in order to deceive goddesses or women. Zeus , for example, assumed the form of a bull when he carried off Europa , a Phoenician princess, and he appeared in the guise of a swan in order to attract Leda , wife of a king of Sparta.

The Atlantis-style myths that turned out to be true

Poseidon took the shape of a stallion to beget the wonder horses Arion and Pegasus. These myths do not suggest theriolatry. No worship is offered to the deity concerned. The animals serve other purposes in the narratives. Bulls were the most powerful animals known to the Greeks and may have been worshipped in the remote past.

Other types of myth exemplified the belief that the gods sometimes appeared on Earth disguised as men and women and rewarded any help or hospitality offered them. Baucis, an old Phrygian woman, and Philemon , her husband, for example, were saved from a flood by offering hospitality to Zeus and Hermes, both of whom were in human form. Similar to such stories are the moral tales about the fate of Icarus , who flew too high on homemade wings, or the myth about Phaethon , the son of Helios, who failed to perform a task too great for him controlling the horses of the chariot of the Sun.

Also popular were myths of fairylands, such as the Garden of the Hesperides in the far west or the land of the Hyperboreans in the far north , or encounters with unusual creatures, such as the Centaurs, or distinctive societies, such as the Amazons. Western people of all eras have been moved and baffled by the deceptive simplicity of Greek myths, and Greek mythology has had a profound effect on the development of Western civilization. The earliest visual representations of mythological characters and motifs occur in late Mycenaean and sub-Mycenaean art.

Mythological and epic themes are also found in Geometric art of the 8th century bce , but not until the 7th century did such themes become popular in both ceramic and sculptured works. During the Classical and subsequent periods, they became commonplace. The birth of Athena was the subject of the east pediment of the Parthenon in Athens, and the legend of Pelops and of the labours of Heracles were the subjects of the corresponding pediment and the metopes a space on a Doric frieze of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.

The battles of gods with Giants and of Lapiths a wild race in northern Greece with Centaurs were also favourite motifs. Pompeian frescoes reveal realistic representations of Theseus and Ariadne , Perseus, the fall of Icarus, and the death of Pyramus. The great Renaissance masters added a new dimension to Greek mythology. The German composers Christoph Gluck 18th century and Richard Strauss 20th century , the German-French composer Jacques Offenbach 19th century , the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky 20th century , and many others have set Greek mythological themes to music.

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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: A. A much happier couple-based story about the moon is this myth from Africa which says that Mawu is a moon good who is forever linked in unity with the sun goddess Liza. It is believed that lunar and solar eclipses are related to the lovemaking times of the celestial couple. This myth is clearly about the power of the moon, the sun, the sky and love and desire.

This is a Hindu god that is associated with the moon. In Hindu art, Soma is sometimes an embryo and sometimes a bull. Fertility is frequently associated with the moon. The bull is also a symbol that has shown up as related to the moon across cultures. The main thing about Soma though is its link with the moon as an elixir. Soma is the name of a drink said to be consumed by the Gods.

This is a story that comes from the Maori tribe in New Zealand.

The story is about a young woman named Rona who displeased the moon so the moon seized her and took her away. In the myth, she grabs on to a tree and drags it with her to the moon. It is believed by some that the tree is said to represent fertility, further linking the moon with this symbol.

The Mayan people have several stories about different moon goddesses. One goddess frequently associated with the moon is Ixchel who is associated with the moon because she is a fertility goddess. One of the creatures that we often see depicted in movie myths and legends is the werewolf. This creature is, of course, affiliated with the full moon. Typically it is believed that these are creatures that have human form but that morph into wolf-like typically violent creatures when the full moon is in the sky. There are many different variations on this because of all of the books and movies that have been made about werewolves.

Those are just ten examples of some of the powerful stories that people across time and across the world associate with the moon. Using many different forms of symbolism, the moon itself has become a symbol for love, desire, change, passion, fertility, and violence. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.

To comment on this article, you must sign in or sign up and post using a HubPages Network account. It was very educational!! It was so fun to read. So much reading and facts. I know one!! A god,[ I forgot his name! Cool, way into the moon. Plan to use these stories to freak my science teachers mind she thinks i never read anything. The moon is an endless source of lore and fascination. When I look at it on a summer night, especially when it's full, it seems almost strange that some celestial body can hang in the sky so close to earth.

I believe in the moon and wrote a hub about timing activities by her cycles. Strangely, there are some theories around the internet that the moon was created and planted there for specific hidden agenda purposes. If such a thing proved true, all us moon lovers would have a shock! Thanks and voted up. Drink soma is different one.

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It is another meaning of the same word. The zodiac sign in which moon lies at the time of birth is called. Another myth is water on the moon. Many NASA scientists are claiming it. Because the vacuum of space abhors water. Only earth-things like Earth are properly hydrophilic.

Greek mythology | Gods, Stories, & History |

But why are NASA scientists really trying to claim the moon has water? Well, let me tell you a side story. Reptilians are literally the only beings without a single ounce of water in their body. So it would make sense that they would live on the moon, a place without any ounce of water. So is it any coincidence that NASA is trying to revise proper understanding of history?

So do these Reptilians still live on the moon? Not anymore. Because NASA is slowly putting water droplets on the moon even though celestial objects are not supposed to have water. There goes NASA destroying the balance of nature, as usual! Anyway, the Reptilians got smart 8 quintillion years ago because they knew that Earth had a hollow that they could live in. In this hollow of the Earth, there is no sign of water whatsoever. It is a perfect place for Reptilians to live.

The hollow Earth model also explains why Reptilian spacecraft often are sighted entering the ocean. Never heard about those myths before. They seem to be pretty nice stories. Thanks a lot for sharing with us :. From romantic outdoor dinners in the moonlight to theatrical plays, the moon and the mysterious aura surrounding it has always had an exotic appeal. These legends and myths about the moon make for an intriguing read. In my thriller "Silver", one of the lead characters speculates on the moon goddess Ariadne being the Minoan Snake Goddess of ancient Crete.

Love this stuff! So very interesting. We are soooo involved with the moon. Our love affair is endless. We sing songs about it, write poems, our cows jump over it, we catch moon beams, drink moon shine, flash it now and then, among many others.

1. Bloody Mary

Most are still told orally over marshmallows and hot chocolate but some are recorded. Many authors have retooled urban legends as inspiration for novels or movies. My new novel, Say Her Name is my version of the most famous urban legend of them all, the "Bloody Mary" curse. I'm far from alone, however. Here I present 10 of the scariest urban legends and examine their roots and influence. Perhaps the most famous modern myth, this tale suggests that if you are to look in the mirror and say "Bloody Mary" a specified number of times, something will happen.

It's the what that legend disagrees on. In the earliest versions, an unmarried woman would see the face of her future husband in the glass or a skull if she were destined to die before being wed. This evolved into something more gory — groups invoking a bleeding spirit or witch called Mary. Some links have also been made to Queen Mary I as she suffered multiple miscarriages during her reign. The story has been hugely influential.

Mirrors and reflections, a regular fixture in uncanny literature play parts in Clive Barker's The Forbidden , which went on to be the film Candyman, while Ringu, by Koji Suzuki, substitutes a mirror for a television set. The X Files and Supernatural directly tackled the Mary myth on screen. This year sees not one but two novels retelling versions of the legend: my own Say Her Name and an American version, The Summoning.

Another campfire must, this tale features an amorous young couple out for a drive when the radio informs them a hook-handed lunatic has escaped from a local institution. Either the couple go home to find a hook embedded in the back of the car or one of them ends up suspended above the car with his fingers scraping against the roof. In the original, novelised version of I Know What You Did Last Summer by Lois Duncan, the killer uses a gun but the cinematic version by Kevin Williamson features a hook-handed fishermen hell-bent on revenge.

The Candyman also has a hook for a hand. Recently, outraged internet people were taken in by claims that popular fast food outlet KFC were breeding genetically mutated chickens for their burgers. While the "shock pictures" were quickly revealed to be fakes, more than one of my Facebook friends were taken in.

Foodstuffs often fall victim to urban myths — are MacDonald's burgers really made from earthworms?