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Brandon Vanderkool thinks in pictures; he used to think everyone did. Six-foot-eight and dyslexic Shopaholicpowerhouse Kinsella delights again with her latest, a winning if unoriginal tale of amn Flanders, After his tussles with the Inquisition and the intrigue of the Spanish court, Cap Holloman, Connecticut, When a plumber discovers the remains of a murdered girl and various dark religious objects in the A rootless foster child, Julie Mathison had blossomed under the love showered upon her by her ado Grant Morgan is one of London"s most eligible and unattainable bachelors.

He"s also a powerful me A story of fathers and sons, friendship and betrayal, and the casualties of fate s Afghanista Kanon"s daughter, Kimmy, and her boyfriend were murdered while on vacation in Rome. Since then, y In this original and suspense-filled historical romance, a woman assumes the identity of a counte Disgraced after a split-second decision nearly kills his Marine captain, Iraq war veteran John Ho Charlaine Harris reveals the dark side of going green, when a quartet of die-hard environmentalis It"s the foundation of any enduring relationship between friends, lovers, spouses, and fam In this gripping second installment to his ancient Rome trilogy after Imperium , bestseller Harr Worldly d John Lowery was declared dead in - the victim of a Huey crash in Vietnam, his body buried lo A psychopathic killer targets San Francisco"s most innocent and vulnerable.

A young mother and he Cader Harris shook the dust of Hayden, Louisiana, from his feet eighteen years ago, aided by his A near-fatal accident with one of his beloved horses prompts Hugh Dunne, the Earl of Briarly, to Like a bottle of champagne, Kleypas"s Victorian-era romance opens with gusto, but the deeper tast Collects eight classic Christie mysteries in a treasury that includes four vignettes starring the In this new satirical novel from Discworld, the jolly Hogfather, who brings presents to all the c Agatha Christie is more than the most popular mystery writer of all time.

In a career that spans When the Grim Reaper begins to ponder the existential, his Discworld bosses send him off with bes Discworld is an extragavanza--among much else, it has billions of gods. Shaken by a painful divorce, successful television writer Debra Barry leaves New York for the bea For defense attorney Mickey Haller, the clock is always running. With two ex-wives, four Lincoln Flighty but good-hearted Victoria Jones craves love, intrigue, and adventure.

She strikes gold in It"s a minor accident that brings prosecutor Kerry McGrath to the plastic surgeon"s office with h Penelope Featherington has secretly adored her best friend"s brother for. Quinn"s first title since not to feature the Bridgerton clan On the Way to the Wedding , th If you were helpless with laughter over Shanghai Noon, enjoy satirical British humor and terrible Whitney Stone"s teenage crush on a neighbor has her cold, unfeeling father banishing her to Paris Grade 6 Up—Winter must die, and Summer must sink into the ground; it is all part of the Story, an Targeted for murder after she takes custody of a mysterious notebook, Karen Whitlaw is protected Email: web bookshop.

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Blanca, una librera inteligente y solitaria, resignada a su fealdad exterior. Mabel, una cocinera inquieta y sensual. Luisa, viuda bonachona y alegre. Pedro, acechado por una enfermedad que lo condena al silencio. Ha llegado en pleno mes de agosto al balneario en el que su mujer fue asesinada. Historias Infieles Luis Fernando Iglesias Un hombre descubre que se encuentra preso dentro del cuerpo de su esposa mientras sospecha que el Un hombre descubre que se encuentra preso dentro del cuerpo de su esposa mientras sospecha que ella puede estar escondida en el suyo.

In this installment, Leon Courtney, ladies" man and former lieutenant in the King"s African Rifles, becomes a professional big game hunter and safari guide in the years leading up to WWI. Among his clients are Kermit Roosevelt, son of President Teddy Roosevelt, and a spoiled German princess who is fond of the whip. The story really doesn"t kick into gear until halfway through, on the eve of war, when Courtney"s uncle, Brig. Penrod Ballantyne, commander of the British forces in East Africa, asks him to spy on his newest client, Count Otto von Meerbach, a German industrialist with a secret agenda.

Courtney also begins an affair with Otto"s mistress, Eva, who has a secret life of her own. Will Courtney defeat Otto"s dastardly scheme and rescue Eva? Though the outcome is never in doubt, Smith manages to serve up adventure, history and melodrama in one thrilling package that will be eagerly devoured by series fans.

Sookie Stackhouse enjoys her job as a cocktail waitress in Merlotte"s, a small-town bar in small-town Bon Temps, deep in Louisiana. She"s funny and pretty and, thanks to her grandmother, she"s very well-mannered - but since not many people truly appreciate her ability to read their minds, the guys haven"t exactly been beating down her door And then along came Bill, tall, dark and handsome - and Sookie couldn"t "hear" a word he was thinking.

He was exactly the type of guy she"d been waiting all her life for. Of course, Bill had a disability of his own: fussy about his food, not into suntans, bit of a night person: yep, Bill was a vampire. And that"s going to make Sookie"s life really interesting! Pero esta vez era diferente. Cuatro ladrones asesinan a su antiguo socio en la soledad de un bosque. Parece que no. El motivo no lo saben.

La segunda novela protagonizada por este singular periodista y escritor lo lleva otra vez al borde del desastre. Cuentos Impensados Leo Masliah El humorista uruguayo presenta una serie de cuentos con su particular estilo. Perez-Reverte wrote the Captain Alatriste seies as a homage to the adventure books that had been his own initiation into the world of reading as a boy - books such as Dumas"s the Three Musketeers.

Captain Alatriste is a swordsman for hire in Spain in the s - a time when Court intrigue was high and the decadent young king had dragged the country into a series of disastrous wars. As a hired "blade", Alatriste becomes involved in many political plots and must live by his wits. He comes face to face with hired assassins, court players, political moles, smugglers, pirates and of course, the infamous Spanish Inquisition All the stories are told by Inigo Balboa, Alatriste"s young page. Una hermosa historia a tres voces en tres tiempos distintos que desemboca en un todo perfecto, impecable, donde las piezas encajan y adquieren sentido.

Pero la buena suerte y Castor no suelen encontrarse. Y todo estaba sombreado e iluminado de un modo extraordinario. La naturaleza fue y es la gran palabra. Y sobre ese tema, si es listo, cierra la boca. En este apasionante relato, el autor comparte con el lector la historia de su vida, la historia de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. When John Sutter"s aristocratic wife killed her mafia don lover, John left America and set out in his sailboat on a three-year journey around the world, eventually settling in London.

Now, ten years later, he has come home to the Gold Coast, the stretch of land on the North Shore of Long Island that once held the greatest concentration of wealth and power in America, to attend the imminent funeral of an old family servant. Taking up temporary residence in the gatehouse of Stanhope Hall, John finds himself living only a quarter of a mile from Susan, who has also returned to Long Island. But Susan isn"t the only person from John"s past who has reemerged. Though Frank Bellarosa, infamous Mafia don and Susan"s ex-lover, is long dead, his son, Anthony, is alive and well, and intent on two missions: drawing John back into the violent world of the Bellarosa family, and exacting revenge on his father"s murderer - Susan Sutter.

To quell the PR nightmare of the gem fiasco, the museum decides to reopen the Tomb of Senef. An astounding Egyptian temple, it was a popular museum exhibit until the s, when it was quietly closed. But when the tomb is unsealed in preparation for its gala reopening, the killings - and whispers of an ancient curse - begin again. And the catastrophic opening itself sets the stage for the final battle between the two brothers: an epic clash from which only one will emerge alive.

La Mente Del Hipnotista Kepler, Lars Un asesino en serie conmociona a la sociedad sueca: graba a mujeres instantes antes de matarlas y Los textos recogidos en este volumen trazan un recorrido tan rico y variado como reconocible y coherente. Cuenta la historia de variados personajes encontrados en la vida o en los libros, en la tierra sucia y sufriente de los hombres o en la libre e inmensa tierra de la literatura.

When he meets the beautiful, auburn-haired Sian Jones, he falls in love instantly. She, like him, is in search of something bigger than what the home she left behind can offer. But when Babo's parents learn of his intention to marry 'some girl from God knows where' he is given an ultimatum: he can only marry Sian if they agree to live in Madras for two years before returning to London.

As the years pass by, the calamities, quirks and heartaches of first love, lost innocence, and old age unfold across cultures and generations of this mixed-up family in a topsy-turvy world. Sus ideales y sus convicciones siguen siendo, aun en los albores del siglo xxi, absolutamente actuales. Cuatro aventureros deben encontrar al desaparecido a tiempo para que pueda montar en la prueba crucial; mientras, cada uno de ellos lucha contra los fantasmas de su pasado.

Dwk The Ugly Truth Jeff Kinney Greg suddenly finds himself dealing with the pressures of boy-girl parties, increased responsibil Greg suddenly finds himself dealing with the pressures of boy-girl parties, increased responsibilities, and even the awkward changes that come with getting olderall without his best friend, Rowley, at his side.

Can Greg make it through on his own? Or will he have to face the ugly truth? When millionaire Paul Wheeler is murdered, his family retains renowned lawyer Derek Mitchell to defend the victim"s nephew Creighton - although the police have not charged the young man with the crime. Wheeler"s mistress, Julie Rutledge, who is also a suspect, believes that Creighton is the killer, despite his rock-solid alibi, and she"ll do almost anything in her quest to prove his guilt - even ruin Derek"s career.

Pero Olivia tiene un plan minuciosamente trazado, para provocar su muerte Una tarea que cambiara su vida. In her third case, Harper and Tolliver, her stepbrother, are hired to find a missing grandson. But the truth is far worse than a single dead child, for numerous teenage boys, all unlikely runaways, have disappeared from Doraville, North Carolina. With the Holy Land in turmoil, seven-year-old Jesus and His family leave Egypt for the dangerous road home to Jerusalem.

As they travel, the Boy tries to unlock the secret of His birthand comprehend His terrifying power to work miracles. Anne Rice's dazzling, kaleidoscopic novel, based on the gospels and the most respected New Testament scholarship, summons up the voice, the presence, and the words of Jesus, allowing Him to tell His own story as He struggles to grasp the holy purpose of His life. As an educated man, Northup was able to present an exceptionally detailed and accurate description of slave life and plantation society.

Indeed, this book is probably the fullest, most realistic picture of the "peculiar institution" during the three decades before the Civil War. Rebelde, incomprendida, genial; no puedo dejar de pensar en ella. Un relato inolvidable sobre la libertad y la diferencia. Ted acepta sin imaginar que la nota en el escritorio y la oferta de Lynch son apenas el comienzo de un juego macabro de manipulaciones. Y, en ocasiones, ni siquiera eso. An irresistible collection of short stories from bestselling author Jeffrey Archer An English lord requires one more chess piece to complete a set that would be worth a fortune.

Another man, an accountant, realizes he"s achieved nothing in his life--and sets out to make a fortune before he retires. And then there is the author"s own favorite, "In the Eye of the Beholder," about a star athlete who has a fateful run-in with a three-hundred-pound woman. Some of these twelve stories were inspired by the two years Jeffrey Archer spent in prison, including "Don"t Drink the Water," the tale of a company chairman who tries to poison his wife while on a trip to St. Petersburg--with unexpected consequences.

The criminal doesn"t always get away with his crime and justice doesn"t always prevail, but the reader wins with each and every story. These 36 stories, culled from his three previous collections 12 Red Herrings, A Twist in the Tale and A Quiver Full of Arrows , contain many a good yarn in plots that feature numerous trial scenes, business dealings and complicated domestic relationships. Highlights include the suspenseful car chase in "Never Stop on the Motorway"; the snappy intellectual repartee between two rivals that camouflages their deep feelings for each other in "Old Love"; and the sudden twists and turns that ensue when a cuckolded businessman strikes back in "Trial and Error.

Clever and entertaining, these tales make a good candidate for holiday gift giving. The Reversal Michael Connelly Connelly"s new thriller features two of his series heroes-the wily defense attorney Mickey Haller This time Haller is working the other side of the courtroom, as a special independent prosecutor trying to keep a very nasty child molester and killer behind bars, with Bosch doing his legwork.

As we"ve seen in The Brass Verdict, the author has Haller narrating his chapters, while the Bosch-centered sections are told in the third person. For the former, Peter Giles has developed a breezy, fast-paced vocal approach, while the detective"s process is presented in a tougher, no frills manner. Additional characters are provided their own unique voices, including the smooth-talking district attorney, the arrogant villain, Haller"s icy-but-melting former wife, and a brave but wavering witness to the crime.

Not only is the production highly entertaining, the package is particularly generous, offering an additional two CDs containing unabridged MP3-format versions of The Reversal and the previous Haller-Bosch match, The Brass Verdict, also read by Giles. A Little, Brown hardcover. Warlock Wilbur Smith Lengthy but seamlessly composed, this epic historical drama by veteran author Smith The Eye of t Lengthy but seamlessly composed, this epic historical drama by veteran author Smith The Eye of the Tiger, etc. The kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt have been at war for 60 years.

Treachery and assassination eliminate both rulers, allowing two false pharaohs to unite in an orgy of tyranny and oppression. Tamose"s son, Prince Nefer, is his father"s rightful heir, but the false pharaoh, Lord Naja, denies Nefer"s birthright and plots to kill the young prince. Aided by the royal sorcerer, a warlock named Taita, Nefer escapes Naja"s plots. Nefer and Taita outwit assassins, evil magicians, pursuing armies and even the treachery of Nefer"s own sister, as they raise their own army in the lost desert city of Gallala.

Taita"s magic spells and occult powers protect, teach and guide Nefer on his tortuous path to regain the throne and save the woman he loves, Princess Mintaka, daughter of slain King Apepi. This All the forms of heredity [ Hochmann without giving page references. Darwin here also expounds the received wisdom of his time, shared by French and Spanish physicians as well as English, that tuberculosis was an inherited condition. For a suposed relation between parental tuberculosis and childhood mental deficiency, see the preceeding note on Langdon Down.


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In the presence of commonly ill-defined nosological boundaries and at a time in which many diseases of obscure etiology might coexist in the same patient, links were commonly drawn between diseases that we now know to have unrelated causes, apart from the debilitating predisposing factors of malnutrition and poverty. Rickets and scrofula are examples. Representatives of the government The principles of the Naturalism that Zola preached, which were not necessarily those that he practised as a novelist himself Furst and Skrine 46 , included the following features:.

An examination of sordid aspects of working class life and language that had previously been excluded from literature. Unlike the previous movement of Romanticism, which was typically centered on the high emotions of exceptional individuals, the principal characters of Naturalism are everyday folk who represent Everyman in their instincts and in their struggles.

A sense of hereditary determinism in which the characters are controlled by their race, milieu and moment of Taine, such that they have little control over. This is associated with moral and physical degeneration that may be the immediate effect of a bad physical, emotional and moral environment, the result of ills and predispositions inherited from forebears, or an atavistic regression to a supposedly more primitive, animal state.

Familial alcoholism is a common example and various forms of madness appear frequently. Strong localization. Unlike the Romantic hero whose generalized surroundings often serve to amplify his emotions, the character of the Naturalistic novel lives in a very specific and recognizable time and location. Absence of any metaphysical or spiritual quality in the characters who are brutes humaines, determined entirely by their heredity and their environment. The Naturalist novel frequently has the quality of a sociological document Hazel Gold, canon in which the often hidden abuses of society are exposed.

The introductory La Fortune des Rougon recounts the genealogy of the family that plays an opportunistic and self-serving role in Plassans in when it supports the assumption of power by the new Bonaparte. Her life spans the entire series since she will die with advanced dementia in an asylum at the very end. The following generation is more numerous, but hereditary determinism dogs both families, most spectacularly the Macquart where Antoine proves to be an alcoholic like his father, has an alcoholic daughter, Gervaise.

She, in turn, bears a nymphomaniac daughter, Nana, a son, Jacques Lantier , who is a homicidal criminal and a second son, Claude Lantier , who is a disturbed genius of a painter. Jacques Lantier : Jacques is, in fact, the alter ego of another son Etienne Lantier , who reads Darwin and becomes a strike leader in Germinal , and who is a more admirable character.

Visor de obras.

Zola has the Etienne-character disappear with Germinal to be replaced by Jacques who resembles him and appears in the following novels. The legitimate Rougons, meanwhile, ascend to power and fortune by means that are marginally less pathological. Pierre cheats his mother and half brother and sister out of their inheritance in order to buy his way into a respectable bourgeois family.

He, in turn, has a vicious, effeminate son, Maxime, who has an affair with his step-mother. Rather than being scandalized by this, Aristide turns this to his own account by blackmailing his second wife to keep the affair secret. Both Pascal and Clotilde appear to have escaped the evil hereditary traits of the Rougon clan and pusue an idyllic, rural passion in a house near Plassans, where Pascal studies the archives of his family and develops a theory of heredity, which is identical to that of idyllic, rural passion: the affair between the year old Pascal and his year old neice is transparently a portrait of the relationship of Zola, himself, with his young mistress, the semstress, Jeanne Rozerot to whom he privately dedicated the volume Brown The gross disproportion in the ages of the couple and the incest of their uncle-neice marriage are elided by Zola.

While Prosper Lucas writes in his treatise about the inheritance of characteristics both favorable and unfavorable, Zola shows a striking prediliction for the latter, mostly involving disorders that are socially disagreeable. While acknowledging the pessimism and horror of many volumes of the series, however, Grant takes pains to emphasize a counterbalancing optimism in the prospect of life triumphant and of hope Grant Taine With such a Darwinian background, Weinstein observes that in his portrayal of the brute struggle of violence and passion, Zola owes much to the literary and intellectual influence of Balzac and Taine,.

He is especially remembered for his vision of determinism in human affairs under the influence of the triad of race, moment and milieu. Taine wrote to Zola expressing an interest in his early works and offered advice that may have influenced Zola to present a wider social background and more balanced anti- thetical characters in his Rougon-Macquart series Weinstein While heredity and degeneration form the central theme of the novels of Les Rougon-Macquart Huertas, Darwinismo , there are recurring Darwinian echoes such as when Claude Lantier in Le Ventre de Paris describes the battle for survival of two hostile elements of contemporary society, the Fat and the Thin, as the former thrive at the expense of the latter.

An idea of the Naturalist synthesis behind the novels is probably better. Zola, Preface ii. As the Naturalist movement in literature spread to other countries, so too would spread the associated identification with the physician. One might speculate that this was not only to dignify the study of the pathological and the horrific in man by adopting the clinical objectivity of a respected profession, but also to attempt to defend the writer from the charge of being merely a muck-raking voyeur.

Of all the professions that come face to face with disease and the pathological in man, the most detached and least judgemental is likely to be that of the physician. A scientific experiment conducted under the same conditions will tend to lead to the same results anywhere. Zola goes as far as to quote this passage of Bernard but, undermining his thesis as it does, Zola chooses to disagree with it. In the words of Mitterand,. Mitterand, Zola Degeneration theory evolved from being an intellectual tool of social observers and natural philosphers in the eighteenth century and in the first two decades of the nineteenth century, to an all-encompassing theory of social and mental disease from onwards.

In France the opportunites available for professional biologists were few in Spain they barely existed , while a glut of physicians arrived from the ranks of the military at the end of the Napoleonic era looking for work Cartron The route to biology was through medicine. Many, especially those involved with the natural sciences, found Much degenerationist thinking of the time can be seen as a reaction on the part of physicians to the disturbing increases in insanity and many social diseases, all related to national political instability.

The genealogical tree of the Rougon-Macquart illustrates many examples of trans-generational degeneration, not only among the illegitimate Macquart, but also in the descendants of the Rougon. The novelist committed to representing the more horrific aspects of the human condition, if he were not to be mere pathological voyeur, had to acquire the discourse and discipline of a profession accustomed to dealing with such things at first hand. Thus the psychology of the revolutionaries was [ These themes will recur in the following chapter on the growth of degenerationist ideas in Spain, transmitted through links with French medicine and the works of Zola.

The latter decades of the nineteenth century exhibited the most curious amalgam of art and science, literature and medicine Rafael Huertas. There appear to have been two main routes of transmission of degenerationist thinking into Spain. The first of these was medical, mainly in the context of hygiene, public health and psychiatry, not only through the many French texts translated into Spanish, but also by means of Spanish physicians such as Monlau, Mata and Simarro who studied, sometimes as exiles, in France.

This transmission was a gradual process that took place over 40 years, with the result that, at least in professional circles, the middle-class was primed for the arrival of the theme in literature. A second route of transmission was the Naturalist literary movement that burst upon Spain in the later s as a result of the arrival of the novels of Zola. Together with their graphic representation of low-life passions and vices, these presented a deterministic and pessimistic view of the human condition with its portrayal of inherited and environmentally-induced degeneration leading progressively across the generations to sterility and extinction.

The chapter will continue with a discussion of the fields in which the theory was applied by forensic physicians and hygienists to critique individuals and groups within Spanish society who transgressed its bourgeois norms. I shall then show how this bourgeois discourse was turned back upon the middle-class by members of the anarchist movement who were determined to challenge the view that degeneration was limited to the masa obrera.

This could be considered as a forerunner of degeneration theory in Spain. It is highly likely that members of the professions would have been able to read the French originals of works by Morel, Moreau de Tours, Prosper Lucas and Paul Jacoby especially as many of them, like Pedro Felipe Monlau Mercedes Granjel and Pedro Mata Guerra , either undertook some of their medical training in France or were exiled there as a result of political repression in Spain.

French originals: A generation earlier most physicians appeared to be able to read French. By the time of its publication in France, he had been elected a corresponding member of the Academy. His legislative role in the Trienio liberal is recorded by Cardona The analysis of the content of the texts is insufficient, however, to indicate how many of them employed degenerationist thinking. The fate of the impoverished is one of physical and moral degeneration,. Monlau, Remedios In other words, degeneration theory preceded Morel, not only in France but also in Spain.

This suggests that he might, at very. In his essay, he mentions moral treatment, and suicidal and homicidal monomania, but not degeneration. A review of texts published in Spain from to reveals a series of works, mostly in French, that include the concept of degeneration. He was a colleague of Morel. It would appear that, by this time, a degenerationist explanation was unexceptional. He is famous in medicine for his discovery of the speech center of the brain in the ventroposterior region of the frontal lobes, now known as Broca's area. Paris: Asselin, Returning to the main burden of his talk, however, he ends by repeating his warning of the ill-effects of physical inactivity,.

In , a fully-developed statement of degeneration theory appeared in the oration with which Dr.

Dissertations & Theses from 2018

Laorden Billiet was convinced that something about the soil was responsible and suggested that dietary iodine be given Friedlander Morel rejected this simplistic explanation, however, with a long letter propounding degeneration as a cause due to a combination of geological, racial and hygienic factors Friedlander The causual relationshop between cretinism and iodine deficiency was finally proved beyond all doubt as a result of large-scale trials by Marine and Kimbell in Akron, Ohio in Hetzel Maiz became an important survival foodstuff for the poor in Southern Europe in the XVIII century but because Europeans did not cook it with lye as did the natives of the Americas, important amino acids were not released with the result that Europeans developed vitamin B3 niacin deficiency or pellagra.

It was later described in Italy Pellagra , where it was also very common, hence the widely accepted Italian name. The dietary nature of the disease was demonstrated in Jackson, Misssippi by Joseph Goldberger in the s and the specific role of niacin vitamin B3 shown by Elvehjem in Bollet Laorden goes on to discuss the more widely recognized problem of intoxication with alcohol Laorden Taking after Morel, he warns of the hazards of hereditary transmission of a wide range of conditions that threaten the future of mankind,.

With no remedy apart from the recommendation of a simple and abstemious life, the discourse ends with the reflection that civilization directed by religion, morals and science is the basis for the prosperity of nations and the only route of true happiness for the individual Laorden His references to mental disease are limited, but this may be the consequence of his professional.

The Maudsley Hospital, founded in partly as a result of his donation of funds, continues to be a leading psychiatric center in London. Samuel Smiles : Scottish physician, author and reformer who came to exemplify the Victorian values of the self-made man, hard work and perseverance. Rundorff In view of the fact that it was entered in a competition sponsored by the Real Academia de Medicina de Madrid in , however, its statement of degeneration theory is likely to have been known in the s, at least in the Academy, where Jacoby was elected a corresponding member in time for the affiliation to appear on the title page of his treatise in He wrote over a hundred papers on pediatrics and was particularly interested in poliomyelitis.

He was much loved for his humanity and his learning. Ca He goes on to repeat the ill-influence of a bad environment upon the descendants of the individual and the community,. La humanidad, pues, se ha perfeccionado por la herencia sucesiva de la riqueza primitiva y de la adquirida [ Between and , the institution had been known as the Universidad Literaria.

Contributing to this confusion, of course, was the fact that these diseases were so common and that many patients suffered from multiple diseases. Like Morel and French hygienists as a group, he asserts his right as a physician to resolve the ills of mankind through his special knowledge of the life that is healthy for the individual, and hence, for society. Though the sequence of citations of one or more elements of degeneration theory presented here gives no indication of the breadth of acceptance of the concept in nineteenth century Spanish society as a whole, its recurring appearance suggests that it was familiar and accepted in at least some sectors of the medical and hygienist establishment, and that it was available for all who cared to read the medical journals of the day.

In addition, degeneration theory is expounded, or referred to, in many contemporary reference texts, the majority translated from the French. Another is the volume work edited by Jaccoud The Revista del Movimiento Intelectual Europeo was another. More or less simultaneous publication of the same article, sometimes with modification, has been traced by scholars in newspapers as far away as Havana Utt 82 , occasionally enabling identification of anonymous pieces by comparison with items published elsewhere.

He was present in the capacities of student and reporter at the student riot of the eve of St. All of these events would be later recorded in the historical cavalcade of his Episodios Nacionales. He had served an extensive appprenticeship in journalism with contributions to papers of a liberal, progresista leaning. The protagonist is an idealistic liberal who comes to Madrid to help oppose conservative political forces but, having been taken advantage of, he abandons the capital for his native country with his betrothed.

The novel was a critical and commercial success Berkowitz A third novel El Audaz appears largely derived from the formula of La Fontana de Oro, with the exception that the idealistic liberal hero is set in and that the novel contains much costumbrista detail. These beliefs form the background to the first series of ten Episodios Nacionales that began with Trafalgar in and ended with La batalla de los Arapiles in Encouraged by this, he immediately embarked on a second series of ten Episodios that was published between and , vowing at the end of the last volume that his writing of historical novels was at an end.

Catholicism was reestablished as the national religion, freedom of conscience was abolished and the Catholic Church regained control of national education. The three novels which followed, the so-called thesis novels, explore the relation between liberal hopes and beliefs and the oppostion of entrenched, Catholic conservatism. Gloria dies and Daniel goes mad in an attempt to synthesize a new religion that will reconcile the opposing beliefs that have destroyed his life.

It is characterized by a belief in rational harmony in the universe which reconciles concepts of divinity with progressive, liberal ideas Ward. He found in Krausism an intellectualized version of the Protestant ethic of self-improvement; a mystical belief in a God-given natural harmony, connecting right thinking with good living. Distraught at her abandonment by Pablo, Marienela dies. Valera in , lamenting the difficulties of The new mode, Naturalism, required an unvarnished representation of personal and social problems that had hitherto received only indirect reference. This representation involved a new way of articulating the portrayal of human dilemmas, which owed much to the current ideas in medicine and biology many of which were derived from the theory of degeneration.

Madrid in the decade before and after the Gloriosa of was a city of extremes. On the one hand there was spectacular economic growth in the s with major foreign investment, much of it French, especially in banking and in railways Carr , On the other hand, there was terrible urban poverty,. Unlike the old urban poor these slumdwellers largely escaped the influence of ecclesiastical charity. They also. Carr With poverty and unemployment, inevitably, came crime. He lists the locations in the capital where criminal activity is particularly prominent and occupies the bulk of his book describing the activities of the subspecialties within the criminal world.

He particularly condemns the way in which criminals become lionized in fiction,. Gil Maestre xv. His puritanical protest seems undermined by the lurid details of criminal life which occupy much of the book and which are likely to have consitituted its principal appeal. The extent of emigration to Madrid can be gathered from the fact that it doubled its population from , to , between and Largely responsible for urban povery was the fact that industrialization in Madrid was insufficiently developed to absorb all the suplus labor from the provinces Bahamonde The resulting large, poor underclass was seen by the well-to-do and the bourgeois as a threat to social stability and fear of it was expressed in the press,.

Bahamonde The association of social inequality with civil disorder is plain. The consequences for children were, it was believed, moral and physical degeneration,. It should be remembered that, at this time, it was widely believed and would continue to be believed for years to come, that bad smells, in themselves, were responsible for causing and transmitting disease. This was so in spite of the fact that the bacillus of anthrax had been shown to be responsible for the disease in sheep in Las guardillas Put more bluntly, the coexistence of poverty, its resulting degeneration and gross inequality is explosive and thoughtful observers, even before the s, had cause for concern.

The safety nets for the poor, traditionally provided by the Crown and the Church, by Casimir Davaine and that Robert Koch demonstrated the significance of the spores of anthrax in spreading the disease in See the note on miasma above. Alberto Ghiraldo, Probably with the European events of in mind, he spells out the urgent social and political need for a social safety-net for the poor if the threats of communism and socialism are to be averted,. The economic crisis of , however, resulted in more hunger, misery and resentment of the lower classes, despite municipal bread subsidies, which persisted until the restoration of Bahamonde The following sections will describe the main professional communities who employed degeneration discourse to come to terms with the social problems of the day.

As the great majority of those who thought in terms of degeneration theory were of the educated middle-class, it was inevitable that the theory should be employed primarily to define and control the Other, the marginalized and the lower classes, and that the. This threat to racial health was perceived as being particularly great when associated with alcohol abuse, to which the lower orders of society appeared to be especially prone.

That theory attributed epidemic diseases to a noxious, miasmatic influence arising from soil rather than to bacteria in water Hauser, suelo ; Hauser, memorias 61 , temporarily delaying acceptance of the fact that cholera is, in reality, a waterborne, bacterial infection Halliday For an assessment of his work see La Berge From my survey of medical texts in the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid it appears that physicians employed degenerationist thinking in relation to many different conditions, since I have encountered it in writings on diseases as diverse as syphilis, tuberculosis, scrofula, pellagra and rickets.

Hauser was not alone in linking social conditions with degeneration. Though medical problems caused by enebriation had been described by Trotter in , both Morel and Magnan were more influenced by the recent description of the syndrome of. While concerned physicians issued frantic warnings about the potential for degeneration of the individual, the family, society and the nation, a lobby of special interests saw to it that no effective regulation was introduced.

This situation remained in the face of widespread belief that drunken parents engendered epileptics, idiots, and progeny with all manner of criminal and social maladjustments and that their chronic alcoholism: the related acute syndrome of delerium tremens had been described earlier by Thomas Sutton in his Tracts on Delerium Tremens There was agreement among experts in both France and Spain, that while consumption of traditional wines and beers was, on the whole, healthful, the arrival of cheap spirits as a result of the growth of industrial scale distillation was an unmitigated disaster and was closely related to the increase of public inebriation seen in cities.

He comments that,. Foucault, Sexuality The Other, those who survived by Alfred-Jean Fourier : disciple of the great venereologist Ricord and foremost syphilologist in France in the last 30 years of the nineteenth century. He established that syphilis is the cause of spinal locomotor ataxia tabes dorsalis and of general paralysis of the insane G. Waugh A national debate raged in medical and political circles about the best means of combating the plague. She lobbied for the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts of the s, which had regulated, and therefore recognized, prostitution.

The Acts were repealed in A link between alcoholism and crime was widely accepted as both were seen as the result of hereditary and environmentally induced degeneration Hauser, siglo Degeneration, insanity and crime had been linked in France by Felix Voisin as early as Ackerknecht, short A striking feature of degenerationist interpretations was that they could be held by thinkers with radically different interpretations of the causes of criminal behavior, be they evolutionary, anthropological, hereditarian, environmental or social.

The lack of empirical verification of the supposed degenerative process was one of the reasons for its great. Implicit in its discourse was great faith in the plasticity of the human personality that was considered moldable by appropriate modifications of the moral and physical environments. The somaticist approach to mental disease characteristic of positivism, being the conviction that a structural lesion was always responsible, can also be seen as having a self-promotional agenda in that it directly challenged the Church, whose tradition taught that madness was a disorder of the soul to be remedied by spiritual means.

He was also a poet. Forensic psychiatry assumed increasing importance in the assessment of criminal responsibility in the law courts when it was appreciated that merely social concepts of madness were inadequate and that not all mad criminals were delerious. This medicalization of insanity resulted in a dissociation of the behavior of an individual from his or her normality, effectively substituting a medical definition for a social one. The conflicts of interest in clinical psychiatry, where deterministic degerationionist labels could be expected to discourage fee-paying patients by undermining any therapeutic optimism, were not present in forensic psychiatry.

novel degeneration by Benito Perez Galdos - Issuu

There, degenerationist ideas could be freely expressed by expert witnesses like Escuder, Esquerdo, Vera and Simarro in order to make a humane plea for defendants suffering from diminished responsibility. A further goal was the reform of an antiquated legal establishment that still followed. As Foucault observes, specialized knowledge was not only used to bolster the status of the medical profession but also to medicalize society with a view to controlling it.

Monomania: a form of madness supposedly limited to one dysfunction kleptomania, nymphomania, pyromania and dipsomania remain in current usage , which was diversified by Esquirol from onwards into many subtypes Goldstein, Console ch. Three high profile murder trials between and , which captured the attention of the nation, provided exactly the forum for Esquerdo and his disciples to air their knowledge and to challenge the conservative judiciary and their allies, the more traditionally-minded members of the medical profession.

His evidence was over-ruled, however, and Otero was executed in the April of that year, despite a plea for pardon from the king Conseglieri and Villasante Esquerdo registered his protest in two conferences at the medical school in March and May entitled Locos que no lo parecen, the second of which was reported by his pupil, Jaime Vera, in El Liberal and later published in full by Esquerdo himself Esquerdo, Locos A second opportunity for the legal defense by virtue of insanity presented itself later in in the trial of the notorious serial murderer Garayo, El Sacamantecas, when Esquerdo again advanced the concept, resisted in legal circles, of locura sin delirio.

When Garayo was taken to the garrote, Esquerdo proceeded to campaign once more for the recognition of impaired responsiblity by reason of insanity in his second, fuller address, somewhat confusingly titled Locos que no lo parecen.

Levinson, Luisa Mercedes

Esquerdo, Garayo Escuder, Autopsia 4. He lists deformities of the skull, asymmetry of the brain and a small, flattened cerbellum, as a result of which he announces that,. The positivist premises, that structural lesions must underlie insanity, are held to have been vindicated. Pulido, Estado Simarro reports that Galeote is microcephalic, with a cranial volume such as is seen in imbeciles and idiots.

To complete his anatomically-based testimony, Simarro claimed that he could distinguish any patient. He wrote a monograph on General Paraysis of the Insane prefaced by a prologue by Esquerdo. The outcome of the trial was full of irony. The sceptical judges sided with the evidence of non-psychiatric medical experts to the effect that Galeote was responsible for his actions and condemned him to capital punishment.

An appeal to the Tribunal Supremo ratified their judgement. He would later include in La desheredada, a portrayal of a retarded, disgruntled epileptic, Mariano Rufete, who is encouraged by acqaintances in a taverna to assassinate Alfonso XII, and who is very closely modeled on the history of Otero Gordon, medical ; Casteglieri In a century plagued by political and economic instability and a very fragmented and inadequate sytem for psychiatric care, no coherent psychiatric nosology emerged during the nineteenth century in Spain.

Pinel later adopted non-restraint in France, after which it became the ostensible standard of care of the insane on the Continent. Garayo Degeneration theory was also adduced by Morel to account for mental deficiency in infancy Morel, Maladies , and in the children of alcoholics. Clearly, for. II The conflict between Church and medicine over the responsibility for care of the insane parallels that which took place earlier in France see Chapter I.

The encyclical helped to stifle Spanish experimental scientists and to reinforce the already repressive laws against scientific inquiry. Implied in this admission of therapeutic failure was one of the fringe benefits of degenerationism for the medical profession, namely that it provided a theoretical alibi when therapy proved to be of no avail, since the label of degeneration implicitly made cure of a condition improbable.

It would appear that an element of promotional salesmanship intruded into some psychiatric texts. An additional ideological field in which degeneration theory came to occupy an important role was that of anarchism. Apparently weary of being made the scapegoat for degeneration in Spanish society, anarchists launched a counter-offensive on the bourgeois whose corrupt and. As the anarchists would do later more prominently, illustrated by the biological theory of group solidarity of Pyotr Kropotikin, they aggressively turned biological theory back upon its bourgeois proponents.

Having reviewed the fields in Spanish medicine where degeneration theory was most prominent, I will now turn to the second stream of degenerationist influence imported from France, that of Naturalism. Prince Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin : Russian zoologist, evolutionary theorist, geographer and foremost anarcho-communist. In Mutual Aid he concludes, in contrast with the individualistic emphasis of Social Darwinism of the period, that cooperation and mutual aid are the most important factors in the evolution of the species and its ability to survive.

Though relatively brief, the introduction to the Naturalist novel in Spain was no overnight event.


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It appears that, from their earliest introduction to the Naturalist novel, Spanish readers were being warned to expect a new, clinical, medical approach to the representation of fictional characters. In spite of this, there was considerable confusion among critics in France between the terms realism and naturalism, which were often considered by many to be more or less equivalent.

It would appear that such a description made the book irresistable in some quarters since copies of the novel in French were soon circulating in Spain. The unplanned growth of Madrid paralleled that of the more industrialized Paris and London producing nightmarish epidemics of medical and social problems whose root causes were overcrowding, poverty and unemployment.

Any socially-aware, Realist writer in Madrid had no choice but to confront the disease, alcoholism, madness, crime and prostitution that surrounded him or her. The explicit incorporation of these threatening social vices into Realist fiction was what gave birth to Naturalism. Experiencing and describing these horrors made some degree of detachment in the writer essential if he were to remain in control of his art. For this purpose, the most appropriate model of sympathetic detachment available to the Naturalist writer was that of the physician, a figure in France and Restoration Spain who was largely identified with liberal and progressive beliefs and with understanding of the latest theories, which included degeneration.

Zola identified with the medical profession, and was so seen by some of his readers. The Naturalist vision that entered Spain in the late s was thus inextricably intertwined with medicine and its degenerationist interpretation of threatening contemporary, social problems. Accompanied by widespread fear of national decline in Spain, this came to a head after the disaster of The following chapters will show how he did this. Homo sum; humani nil a me alienum puto Terence, 2nd century B. The summary of the novel will be followed by a detailed consideration of the first chapter that serves as a thematic frame for the entire novel.

Two of the very few articles on degeneration theory in La desheredada, both repeatedly cited in the critical literature, will be examined for their contributions and for the errors of fact and opinion that have been exposed, in part, by more recent scholarship. The chapter will end with a summary of conclusions that have been reached.

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