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View components. Easily fit the course into your schedule with 90 to hours of material that can be completed in an academic year. New Challenges ' updated content and visuals make learning English relevant to students. Never be at a loss to find an activity with audio tracks, videos, video exercises and interactive activities throughout the course. Encourage students to learn for pleasure with the Time Out section, which includes puzzles, games and quizzes. View samples. Students will enjoy learning with challenging activities based on interesting topics, such as ghost stories, mysteries and popular culture.

Consolidate their understanding with Get Ready modules and then build up their skills and confidence with writing projects and tools such as Word Builder, Sentence Builder and Picture Dictionary. See your students rise to the challenge. Order Locally. What is New Challenges? Pronunciation of the Past Tense. Review: Irregular Verbs, Past Tense 1.

Review: Irregular Verbs, Past Tense 2. Review: Negative Form 1. Review: Negative Form 2. Review: Negative Form 3. Review: Question Form 1. Review: Question Form 2. Review: Question Form 3. Review: Present Continuous Tense. Past Continuous Tense 1. Past Continuous Tense 2. Prepositions 2. Vocabulary Review 2. General View 2. Have to: Present Tense. Have to: Past, Future, and Present Perfect. Have to: Negative Form. Have to: Question Form. Say, Tell. Review: Present Perfect Tense. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Since, For, Ago. Past Perfect Tense. Review: Negative Form 4.

Review: Question Form 4. Prepositions 3. Vocabulary Review 3. Vocabulary Review: Mistakes of Fact 1. General Review 3. Review: Contractions. Expressions of Purpose. Review: Indirect Object Position. Review: Irregular Verbs, Past Participle. Future Tense with Going To. Going to: Past Tense. Sequence of Tenses. Pronunciation of s. Pronunciation of ed in Regular Verbs. To get. Silent Letters. Prepositions 4. Vocabulary Review 4. General Review 4. Passive Voice 1. Passive Voice 2. Passive Voice 3. But she would accept Ua kahiko ka puke.

Limu kala is always rough kalakala , and only in a legend could it have been smooth and then made newly rough. The meaning of ua is clearly inceptive in this conclusion to a prayer for resuscitation: 'Aina ka 'ai, hume 'ia ka malo, ua ola FS It is commonly used alone, as in answer to a question, with the meaning 'no'. E hele ana 'oe? In the following utterance, the perfective ua is replaced after a noun phrase by i verb ai: i ka manawa i hele mai ai ke kanaka 'at the time the man came'.

Here, the time word at the beginning manawa is in focus it is emphasized. For other examples of the alternant i verb ai after noun phrases, see sentences labeled b in section 7. The imperfective aspect marker e verb ana is, like ua , diagnostic for verbs; it marks continuing or durative action and is commonly translated in conversations by a present progressive tense, as in the common way to announce one's departure: E ho'i ana au. Note that in table 12 section 8. That's a headland facing Hawai'i. In noninitial position, ke.

Ke koni iho, koni aku, koni a'ela from the song "Ke Ka'upu," Elbert and Mahoe The common second person only negative imperative marker is mai. The second person imperative is commonly a direct command with the subject expressed. It is usually awkward to translate the subject in English. In the first and third persons, the meanings, subsumed as "intentive," include a vague desire, need, purpose, necessity, or probability. E is commonly used before certain subordinate verbs: Makemake au e hele.

Elbert and Mahoe Near the end of section 7. Here is another example FS :. Note that make ai in this sentence is translated 'would kill' and that e puni ai is translated 'should have'. Also near the end of section 7. Thus the mood marker e has many. Andrews discusses a pidgin-like use of 'a'ole by foreigners in direct commands, as aole hana pela Andrews' spelling 'do not do so' and adds that "this is intelligible to Hawaiians; but where the prohibition is direct and positive they always use mai ".

Frequently the stative is preceded by a transitive. A poetic way to say 'don't be cruel' is he 'ole manawa 'ino FS One can say e lilo 'oe i kumu 'become a teacher', or mai lilo 'oe i 'aihue 'don't become a thief'. Here, however, there is ambiguity. The last sentence might be translated, 'You almost became a thief. Another mai must be introduced here, a rarely used particle mai that was listed in both the Andrews and the Andrews and Parker dictionaries as an adverb, but is not found in either Alexander's grammar or Andrews'.

In his Tongan Grammar , Churchward lists Tongan mei 'nearly' among his "moderative adverbs. It seems always to indicate something unpleasant, and this suggests the awkward term imminence , since, according to English dictionaries, this word is applied usually to danger or evil that hangs over one's head. This mai is used with all types of verbs, most commonly perhaps with loa'a -statives:. Since both mai , negative imperative, and mai , imminence, directly precede verbs, is there ever any confusion? Mai hina is usually 'don't fall' but in some contexts might possibly be 'almost fell'. Bases are words without affixes.

Examples of bases taking prefixes from more than one of the vertical columns in table 10 follow. The bases that they precede are in boldface type. Prefixes in the column in table 10 headed "Other" are mutually exclusive that is, each occurs with a different base. A few examples have been noted of more than one prefix in each of the three leftmost columns occurring with a single base:.

Most partial reduplications are commonly pronounced in the same stress group see section 2. Complete reduplication of vowel-consonant-vowel bases are usually pronounced as a single stress group, as ikiiki 'stifling' and onaona 'softly fragrant'. I laila 'there' is not a reduplication at all, but is sometimes sung ila. The vowel of the reduplicated first syllable in this type is short and stressed weakly or not at all.

A long vowel in the first syllable is retained in the. Reduplications of this sort are suffixes. These terms are to be construed broadly. For example, hoe 'to paddle', hoe-hoe 'to paddle continuously, frequently, or for a long time; for many persons to paddle'. Make , 'death, to die'; ma-make 'deaths everywhere, many deaths'. Niho 'tooth', niho-niho 'toothed, notched, serrated'. Frequently it is difficult to carry over into English the subtle semantic force that the reduplication conveys to the Hawaiian.

A few reduplications are diminutives. In general, the part of speech of the reduplicated form is the same as that of the base.

These exceptions have been noted:. See also in the Dictionary 'apo, 'a-'apo; 'au, 'au-'au; 'awa, 'awa-'awa; hema, hema-hema; ho'i, ho'i-ho'i; ho'o-kama, ho'o-kama-kama; ho'o-puni, ho'o-puni-puni; hula, hula-hula; kea, ke-kea, kea-kea; kui, ku-kui; kuli, ku-kuli; lawe, lawe-lawe; lima, lima-lima; pi'i, pi-pi'i; and wehe, wehe-wehe. Etymology of such words may be difficult to determine. Is wai-wai 'wealth' related to wai 'water', as is generally believed, or to wai , a rare form for waiho 'to leave, deposit', as seems more probable?

Reduplications of many words in the Dictionary are not defined, and the reader is referred to the base. This is an indication that the reduplicated meaning is frequentative, increased, or plural action. Only a few of the Dictionary glosses are given in the following list, and no reduplications. Search revealed 81 examples in the Dictionary; reduplications were not counted.

Some examples follow:. Only 7 examples of use of the prefix hai- were found in the Dictionary. Exception: hele [vtd] 'to cut' and mahele [n] 'division'. Some bases take several of these prefixes, as indicated below. Of these, maka'u can be traced back to Proto Austronesian takut. Use of the prefix ma- was noted 33 times in the Dictionary; bases begin with the vowel i- and all the consonants except w-. Some of these words are rare today. For na-, see in the Dictionary na-hae, na-holo, na-kele, nakoa, na-ku'e, na-kulu, na-luli, na-ue.

For no-, see in the Dictionary no-hae also na-hae , no-kule, no-'olu. The base hae may carry any of the prefixes ma, na, no, and also u , all combinations meaning 'to tear'. In the Dictionary 39 instances were noted. Pa-: 16 words with this prefix were noted. See in the Dictionary pa-he'e, pa-hele, pa-hemo, pa-hio, pa-hiwa, pa-hole, pa -. Pu-: A few of the examples noted include pu-'aki, pu-ehu, pu-ha'u, pu-hemo, pu-hole, pu-mahana.

Ku- occurs as a prefix most commonly before bases beginning with the vowels a- ku-ahu, ku-ahua, ku-ali, ku-anea, ku-awa , e- ku-ehu, ku-emi, ku-ewa , and o- ku-oha, ku-olo, ku-oni. It is possible that the common word akahai 'modest' is made up of the prefix aka- and -hai, which has no meanings in Hawaiian related to 'modest', but which has cognates elsewhere.

The same hai may also occur in Hawaiian hai-pule 'religious' cf.

Prepositions of time IN, ON and AT - English grammar

U-, a plural marker. Examples: u-haele 'to go'; u-he'e 'to slide, drip, hang'; u-lawai'a 'to fish'; u-noho, u-no-noho 'to sit, live, stay'. But compare 'oli 'joy' and hau-'oli 'happy'. It is doubtful that native speakers recognize hau- as a prefix. It occurs also in South Marquesan as faufau 'disgusting, bad'. Hau- 'ruler', as a prefix, is even less recognizable to native speakers, as it occurs principally in names of female deities, the most famous being the earth mother, Hau-mea, probably literally 'red ruler' red is a sacred color in Polynesia.

Others are Haulani, Hau- maka-pu'u, Hau-nu'u, Hau-wahine. The same prefix occurs in two common names now used by females, Hau-lani 'royal ruler' and Hau-nani 'handsome ruler'. Hawaiian hau- is cognate with Tahitian hau 'government' and Rennellese Sau- 'to have abundance of gifts from the gods' a prefix to male names. The Proto Polynesian form is sau. Many examples occur in the Dictionary. Some derivative meanings are rather different from those of the base.

The prefix ki- was noted only in ki-ani. Words beginning with ho 'o- and its alternants are entered in the Dictionary under the bases and not with the h's. This is because their meanings are much clearer if studied in connecion with the meanings of the bases, and repetition is avoided. The user of the Dictionary should search for such forms under the bases.

Ho'o-: before any consonant other than the glottal stop puka, ho'o-puka and usually before bases beginning with i and u and with a plus juncture before the vowel ilo, ho'o. An apparent exception is the common word ho. Words with ho'o- and its alternants, unless used as nouns, are transitive verbs, most commonly deliberate transitive verbs regardless of the class of the base:. God save the King. A vtsp ho'o- form is ho'omaopopo, from maopopo vsl.

Hawkins , section 2. Ho'o- is also prefixed to verb-nouns, sometimes with similitude meanings: haole 'white person' and ho'o-haole 'to act like a white person'; hula, a dance, and ho'o-hula 'to cause someone to dance a hula, to pretend to dance a hula'; kanaka 'person' and ho'o-kanaka 'human'. Some words occur only with initial ho'o- or its alternants. Nevertheless they are entered in the Dictionary under the elements following these causatives.

Some rare ho'o forms are not included in the Dictionary; in such cases, a translator can himself usually calculate the meanings. The productivity of ho'o- within historic times is attested by its use with loan words, as keonimana 'gentleman' and. A suffix noted in several forms is -ea perhaps cognate with an identical suffix in Rennellese labeled pejorative :. Both forms are entered in the Dictionary. The PPN form is -ha 'a. Examples of 'ana are given in section 6. The consonants represented by C in table 11 include all the consonants except p and w i.

They may be called thematic consonants. The term "thematic" was used in descriptions of Latin vowels that end the stem and precede the inflectional endings, as in aud-i-o 'I hear'. Milner [xxxiv] used the term for Samoan. It is not considered a suffix because of its potential separation from a preceding base. After words commonly used as nouns, 'ana seems to give a verblike meaning to the noun head, which of course remains a noun:. Of the nominalizing suffixes listed at the beginning of section 6.

Only a few of the many bases taking -na are listed below, but effort is made in the last part of this section to list all the bases taking the nominalizing suffix symbolized -Cana. What is the difference between the nominalizing particle 'ana and the suffix -na? The meanings of -na derivatives are in some instances quite different and unpredictable from the meanings of the bases see.

Meanings of bases change but little when followed by 'ana. Note the many examples of 'ana in 9. In spite of these strictures, many persons have equated the two. Nakuina writes i ka hapai'na waa 'canoe carrying'. The apostrophe was believed to represent a lost a in 'ana ; -na was considered a shortening of 'ana.

A more common use of the apostrophe as a marker of elision is described in section 2. The alternants -hana and -lana, like -na, are closely bound to bases except mana'o , but only a few have been noted, and the meanings of base and derivative in some cases are rather different:. Mana'o-lana 'hope' differs from all the others in that the constituent elements may undergo transposition and particle insertion: ua lana ka mana'o 'there is hope'.

Two -kana nominalizers have been noted: pale 'to ward off, protect' and pale-kana 'protection'; pili 'to cling' and pili-kana 'relative'. Common kuleana 'land holding, responsibility' might possibly be another example. The alternants of 'ia see discussion of -a, below are inseparable. A stative qualifier or noun may intervene between transitive verb and 'ia: Ho'onoho niho 'ia. Examples from Wilson —69 :. The suffix -a is attached to a long list of bases and is perhaps productive.

Many -a forms have imperative meanings, as huki-a: Huki-a mai ka waha o ka 'upena. Most of the words with -hia are rare. Only malu-hia and la 'a-hia are in common use. Most or all of them may take a causative as well as -hia. Most or all of them take causatives as well as -lia. A few bases take more than one alternant: -hia and -lia are used with ho'owa'a, wa'awa'a, maka'u, and moku; -hia and -kia with mala; -hia ; -lia, and -nia with 'aihue.

Perhaps this indicates that -hia as well as 'ia are driving out the rarer -lia, -mia, and -nia. Some forms have both -a and -Cia: -a and -hia follow hao, hau, hopu; -a and -lia follow ku'u, nau, puku; -a, -hia, -lia, and -nia follow 'aihue. The usual meaning of 'ia and its alternants is 'passive voice'. The imperative meaning is rarely heard today except in the common next-to-the-last line in songs: Ha'ina 'ia mai ka puana.

Factors such as these led Milner xxxii to call similar words in Samoan "perfective suffixes. It is their infrequent use that has caused many of them to become more like ordinary verbs. The transitivizer label is not to be taken too literally. Churchward says that -Ci in Tongan is suffixed to some verbs that are already transitive, and explains the suffix as expressing "more definitely, or more emphatically, the idea of carrying the action through to completion.

It becomes executive, we might say, as well as transitive. I mean that the true function of these suffixes is not to make intransitive verbs transitive, or to make transitive verbs more emphatically transitive, but to form new verbs with new meanings—meanings which, in some cases, happen to be transitive. Both comments seem in general to be applicable to Hawaiian. Of the two suffixes, -Ca'i is the more common in Hawaiian and, being longer, is easier to recognize.

It has been noted as follows:. Possible others: luma-ha'i 'twist of fingers in making string figures', hi-na'i 'fish trap' cf. Suffixes beginning with thematic consonants are most commonly added to action-marking verbs; a few are added to adjectival-stative verbs 'awa'awa', makala and loa'a- statives make, pau.

Is lua'i to be divided lu-a'i or lua-'i? The -a'i division has been made in every case; -a-a commonly shortens to a elsewhere in the language e. Nineteenth-century Hawaiian grammarians were not very familiar with other Austronesian languages. Chamisso and Andrews attributed what they considered anomalous passives to euphony. Cautious Alexander merely says, "Sometimes another letter is inserted between the verb and ia. Those that belong to the set to the left in the table are discussed below. The particles occurring at the ends of phrases at the right in the table are examined in section 7.

Context determines which translation is appropriate; the second meaning is quite rare. The difference, if any, may be lost in connected speech. Wale means 'just, quite, alone; without reason; reward, pay'. Many examples are in the Dictionary. Koke 'quickly' occurs in both noun phrases and verb phrases: No kona hele koke 'ole mai 'because of his not coming quickly'.

Honua, glossed 'suddenly, abruptly and without reason', is less common than the other particles in this position. See table FS The time scale with directionals with and without following nei is more or less as follows:. Aku, mai, and a'e seem to be the most common, perhaps in that order. In English one may say 'John said', but in Hawaiian the relative positions of speaker and addressee may be shown by the directionals.

In the discussion of wahi 'say' in section 8. The two directionals here can be equated with 'thither' and 'hither'. A'e also expresses the comparative degree: maika'i a'e 'better'. The directionals have other syntactic and semantic roles. Mai occurs as a verblike idiom without any verb markers: Mai! Mai e 'ai!

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Come and eat! Mai is also used at times after the indefinite article he: He mai! E kipa i kauhale. Mai i kauhale nei Kelekona 19! Visit the house! Come to this house! Ua iho 'ia ke ala. Iho also denotes bodily processes and frequently follows such verbs as 'ai 'eat', aloha 'love', inu 'drink', maka'u 'fear', and mana'o and no'ono'o 'think': 'Ai ihola 'oia i ka pua'a.

These examples indicate that iho, like mai, commonly refers to self. For a love song in which iho equates with self, and a'e with a nearby sweetheart, see the poem at the end of section 8. And for another song with contrasting directionals, see at the end of section 5. Iho and a'e sometimes qualify luna and lalo: maluna iho seems less high than maluna. Maluna a'e is sometimes 'still higher', and malalo iho 'still lower'. In sentences the directionals follow ' ia and precede the anaphoric ai section 7. The directionals frequently occur in noun phrases after place names and locatives, as mai Honolulu mai 'from Honolulu this way', mai Honolulu aku 'away from Honolulu', malaila aku 'away from there'.

Directionals are most commonly used with five types of verbs page references to FS are given for rare usages :. In conclusion: It is difficult or impossible to fashion hard and fast rules for the use of directionals. The safest course is simply to follow examples slavishly. The name "relative" was given by Hale — because ai "in many cases supplies the place of the relative pronoun in English, though frequently it cannot well be translated.

It usually refers to some word in the first part of the sentence, expressive of time, place, cause, means, manner, etc. Note that the pronoun subject precedes the verb after a sentence-opening locative. The use of ai after preverbal noun phrases is clearly shown in table 9. I verb ai and e verb ai replace ua verb and e verb if a noun phrase precedes the verb phrase as in the sentence in section 5.

In the Dictionary the term "linking particle" is used as a name for ai ; in the Pocket Dictionary ai is defined as a "linking or anaphoric particle. Bloomfield characterizes anaphoric substitutes as replacing forms that have occurred in recent speech. Every ai in Hawaiian has an antecedent, usually expressed, but sometimes understood.

The fronted noun phrases the antecedents of ai are in focus. They may express time, place, cause, means or manner, and goal. These headings correspond roughly to Alexander's "by which," "when," "where," previously listed. FS 19 'at the time [he] sailed to dive for octopus. Insertion of kahi a is optional. Stoltz who died from it. If a direct object is fronted, the pronoun subject is replaced by an a -possessive never o - , and the verb is preceded by i replacing ua and is followed by the anaphoric ai.

The possessive following a preposed noun object is neutralized. The words hale and leo in the last four examples ordinarily take the o possessive, but take a after a fronted direct object. E verb ana versus e verb ai: In table 9, e verb ana occurs initially, and e verb ai medially. An example of this contrast:. Ai is commonly pronounced ei, or the first vowel suggests the a in English fat.

This discussion of ai has benefited by reference to Chapin, , and to an unpublished paper by John Dupont, They are listed in table 12 section 7. In that section numerous examples are given of -la preceded by directionals. In section 8. The tapes were conversational, Malo and Kepelino factual, and Nakuina narrative. She concluded that use of this demonstrative is a narrative device, otherwise infrequently used.

Postposed ana most commonly forms a discontinuous item in the sequence e verb ana discussed in section 5. Ana also occurs without e after the verb, and seems to indicate a single event, whether a command or a statement, whether completed or incomplete:. Pau ana ka 'ai i ke poho FS They come in a fixed order, indicated in the following list.

Certain incompatible items in the list are bracketed; they cannot occur in the same phrase. These particles are discussed in the order of their occurrence after the nucleus, and not according to semantic features. The intensifier most commonly comes in verb phrases, but it occurs also in other environments, as illustrated below. Note the following contrasts:. Oh, all right. Nona'e and na'e have the meaning 'still, yet, however': Ua koe nona'e ke ola.

Oh my! Within utterances, it more frequently follows nouns than verbs:. Auane'i and its variants 'ane'i and uane'i, infrequent dubitatives, usually follow nouns and are translatable as 'probably, merely, just'. In the Dictionary examples, auane'i follows a noun and the interrogative pehea.

Other examples:. He pa'akai ane'i e hehe'e ai? Uane'i usually follows words ending in —a ; see the Dictionary for an example. The more common auane'i 'soon' occurs in the next-to-the-last position in the phrase, and is discussed near the end of this section. Ho'i: This common particle is not to be confused with the equally common homophonous intransitive verb ho'i 'to go. The verb may follow verb markers and may come initially in affirmative sentences.

The particle follows verbs in affirmative sentences and follows 'a'ole in negative transformations. The particle also follows nouns, pronouns, and conjunctions. The somewhat disparate meanings of the particle are 1 general intensifier, and 2 'also', or, after a negative, 'either'. Context determines the translation. After no- the meaning is that of intensifier see noho'i. Doubt may be emphasized after interrogatives in such exclamations as pehea ho'i 'how indeed' or he mea aha ho'i 'what in the world for'.

In chants, the intensifier ho'i may for aesthetic reasons contrast with the verb ho'i:. Anei is an optional particle indicating that the sentence in which it occurs is a question that can be answered by yes or no. Paha: This extremely common particle occurs before, but never after, a pause of some kind, and may usually be glossed 'perhaps, maybe, probably, approximately'. Maika'i anei paha? Maika'i paha, 'a'ole paha. Paha is. Variants are uane'i and 'ane'i.

Kau, a superlative, usually but not always follows ho'i. He nani mai ho'i kau! Table 7 in chapter 3 shows that noun phrases differ from verb phrases principally in the prenuclear elements. These are discussed in chapters 9 and The largest part of this chapter is concerned with substitutes for nouns: pronouns, demonstratives, possessives, and interrogatives.

They are called substitutes because they occupy many of the slots of ordinary nouns. Ua 'ike ke ali'i. Finally in this chapter are discussions of locative nouns, compounds, and qualifiers. Most affixes in the language occur with noun-verbs. About the only prefixes to nouns are Hono- and Hana-, that occur in place names, and kai 'related person'.

Hana- and Hono- are not translated into English because they form the initial part of many place names. Most of such names are near the sea, although a few are inland.

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They are discussed in some detail in Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini Hana- is listed in section 2. A table in Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini shows that Hana- is most common on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Ni'ihau, and especially Kaua'i; O'ahu has both forms, and on the other islands to the east and south Hono- is the most com-. Examples are Hono-lulu 'fair harbor' and Hono-uliuli 'dark bay' on O'ahu, and Hono-ke-ana 'the cave bay' on West Maui.

Retention of the older form is in keeping with the Ni'ihau retention of vestigial t, also mentioned in section 2. Hana- and Hono- are prefixes because they occur only as parts of place names. Six kinship terms listed and defined in section 9. Without initial kai-, the terms are vocative. With kai- they are reference terms. One might define kai- as "classificatory kin reference prefix": kaina 'younger classificatory sibling of ego's sex' is the vocative; kai-kaina, the usual term of reference.

For a definition of "classificatory," see 9. Ten nouns designating kinds of people, some of them kinship terms, form the plural by lengthening the third from the last vowel:. The added vowel length in these words may be called an infix since it is affixed within a base. A noun with limited distribution is wahi, usually translated 'to say'. In contrast to wahi, which most commonly follows direct quotations, verbs of saying generally precede direct quotations. Wau is a rare variant of au ; both are nominative.

Third person singular ia is 'he, she' or rarely 'it'. The clitic subject marker 'o is commonly written joined to ia oia ; in the Dictionary 'oia. Pronouns are frequently omitted unless there is ambiguity.

In answer to the question Ua 'ike? Do you know? Another difference from English is that a pronoun subject of successive verbs may follow the last verb rather than the first one:. Dual and plural pronouns are sometimes followed by partially appositional ' o -phrases nominative or me -phrases comitative in which are named specifically one of the referents. The pronouns usually have reference to animate antecedents.

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These examples have been noted of third person 'oia with reference to inanimate antecedents:. Both these sentences are complex; each consists of a verbless sentence followed by a simple sentence. The steps taken in combining two simple sentences to get these two complex sentences are described in section A completely unrelated pronoun of limited distribution is ha'i 'someone else'.

Its distribution is shown below:. In section 7.

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For use of demonstratives as pronouns, see section 8. It is a commonplace in language study that very common forms are sometimes quite irregular, as the verb "to be" in various European languages; their high frequency of use prevents them from being regularized. The affectionate phrase e ia nei is discussed in section 8. It is often used between husband and wife, and is frequently shortened to e i nei.

Neia is the only n -demonstrative. Maika'i ia mea. The Hawaiian is amused by the fact that the female speaker is comparing the addressee's penis to a crowbar. In the sequence ke verb nei section 5. After directionals and some nouns it indicates past time section 7. Following nouns and pronouns it means 'this'; the common phrase Hawai'i nei 'this [beloved] Hawai'i' carries affection, as does e i a nei 'you', as used between husband and wife section 8. Preposed nei is not common and seems to have emotional undertones, good and bad:. It is translated 'this, that' or sometimes 'it', but seems to mean 'aforementioned':.

Table 12 illustrates the need for distinguishing the demonstrative ia from the pronoun ia. The demonstrative ia gives no indication of proximity; use of the pronoun, in the extreme right column of the table, indicates far distance. In the last three noun phrases, ua is followed directly by the plural markers po'e, mau, wahi section If the noun is mea, the meaning may be cause:. The noun after ua may be deleted cf. Ua o, o ua o, and ua ona o idiomatically precede nouns, with reference to previously mentioned things:. Haunani Apoliona has made a study of its use. In tapes made by four present-day Hawaiian speakers, she found not one use of neia.

Three examples were found in Elbert and Mahoe's song book. See FS for an example of use of me neia.

A time schedule taped by a native Hawaiian speaker for a Honolulu radio station begins: 'O neia ka hola. Arguments supporting such a class follow:. Bloomfield says, "Demonstrative or deictic substitution-types are based on relative nearness to the speaker or hearer. Iho here refers to self, a'e to one close at hand, but how can this be shown in a translation that carries the impact of the succinct Hawaiian? See section 7.

Both are treated in section 9. Their use seems to have changed. In the ancient Fornander chants ku'u is a term of affection usually reserved for kinfolk and names of people. In modern songs ku'u is also used affectionately, but much more generally. Only one inanimate head word was noted: nani ku'u noho 'ana , 'how pleasant my way of life'. Some of these sequences occur frequently. They are usually followed by nei or ala:. A saying quoted by Kelekona p.