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Under the header JavaScript select the following radio button: Allow all sites to run JavaScript recommended. We found 1 result. Jack Bowman Bowman : We found 1 result. Filter Sort. Sorted By: Top Matches. Filtered By:. Grid List. Order By: Top Matches. Kobo ebook. Available for download Not available in stores. In Thanatos on a Southland Freeway the reader senses a range of dark, brooding cloud poems on the horizon, and as the wind blows each moves overhead and deposits its contents on the reader below. A sense of interesting dread and a mysterious forest of words….

Find This Item in Store Not sold in stores. Only show stores with stock. The highway construction in California was brought by urban renewal programs as it implemented efficiency, growth, and progress, but it also changed the lives of many with lasting consequences excluding the San Francisco Bay Area, which successfully revolted against two thirds of the freeway plan in the area in favor of BART though revolts in Santa Clara County were unsuccessful.

The image of freeways and encouragement to purchase automobiles began to flourish. During this time, the residents of South Central Los Angeles protested against the construction of freeways as the Harbor Freeway was proposed to destroy as many as twenty thousand homes.


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It would extend south from downtown between Broadway and Figueroa Avenues. Local leaders and South Central residents pleaded to the State Highway Commission to change the proposed freeway routing, but the original plan proceeded. The Hollywood Freeway, also known as US , opened in It is said to be historical as it was outlined by an ancient highway that spread throughout various parts of Los Angeles.


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The Hollywood Freeway did not come without protest; in , the Hollywood Anti-Parkway League condemned the construction of the freeway as not being part of American culture. Early planning maps proposed the Hollywood Freeway originally known as Hollywood Parkway to be constructed across a heavily populated area in Los Angeles.

The opposition of the freeway grew as it was planned to extend the freeway toward the downtown area. The construction resulted in the loss of historical structures and several homes in Whitley Heights but avoided the local community and many other industrial landmarks such as the Hollywood Tower , the KTTV television station, and the First Presbyterian Church.

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Extensive landscaping was also installed to suite the complaints of Hollywood Bowl Association and their fear of noise pollution. The Santa Monica Freeway I was fully opened on January 5, and is heavily used by many Southern California residents as it is a major east-west highway that extends through much of Los Angeles and California. Between the s and the s, the construction of the Santa Monica Freeway was an immense modern project for urban renewal as it would be the start to connect the nation with superhighways, funded as a statewide and national effort. This plan, like most freeway proposals at the time, would displace countless residents and disrupt local communities.

The mapping of the Santa Monica Freeway was planned to be constructed across densely populated communities as the state would purchase any amount of property to construct this freeway. Community members, homeowner groups, and countless churches that would be displaced with construction began to organize and protest. They focused mainly to denounce the 6.

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Public hearings were made to speak of the proposed freeway route and the concerns of many. A general agreement of the freeway was that it was needed in Los Angeles to connect the downtown area to the coast. The plan to construct the freeway proceeded, but it was revised to save 47 homes. This change did little to benefit new neighborhoods, who also opposed the plan but were ultimately ignored by freeway planners.

Many people were displaced but after many years of slow construction progress, the local protests ended. It is also known for being the cause of displacing countless Mexican Angelo communities, as 19 percent of East Los Angeles is intertwined with freeways.

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Community leaders rallied together to fight for their neighborhoods as they circulated petitions and organized public hearings. The construction of the freeways started as scheduled despite the resistance. The numerous freeways in this era displaced many East Los Angeles residents as they had their homes and property seized.

The loss of Hollenbeck Park was also a devastation to the community, since there was already a shortage of parks in the area. The Divide of Highways again justified the loss of communities by contending that residents would save time using the new freeways. Boyle Heights was a densely populated area because of low mortgages that were enjoyed by Mexican Angelo families.


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  6. When families were forced to give up their homes they struggled to find homes that matched in affordability. Some families were also displaced in gang ridden areas and further from the freeways that they never used. The remaining residents in the area also still suffer the consequences of the construction of the surrounding freeways.

    Residents are now separated from parts of the community and face many effects of the area's air pollution caused by vehicles. By the s, many cities in the United States, including Los Angeles, were experiencing widespread freeway and expressway revolts , [9] the oil crisis raised fuel prices dramatically, and growing interest in mass transit resulted in reduced funds being available for freeway construction.

    The tax revolt of the time also reduced the resources available for infrastructure development [ citation needed ] and California Proposition 13 , which was enacted in , also reduced funds available for highway construction. The Century Freeway , which opened in following widespread community opposition, is likely to be the last freeway built using traditional funding. Other routes which presented expensive engineering challenges e. The result was a system filled with gaps and bottlenecks.

    That is, many of the freeways that were built ended up with traffic levels far above their original capacity because planners had expected those traffic loads to be shared by other freeways that were never constructed. By contrast, San Diego County is nearing completion of its originally planned freeway system and is using regional sales tax money to support various extensions and building new toll roads like State Route to fill in the remaining gaps.

    After a deep recession in the early s caused by the collapse of the defense industry at the end of the Cold War and the closure of naval bases, Southern California began to grow again in the latter part of the decade. As in many other areas with rapidly growing populations, the region's infrastructure has had difficulty in keeping up. Traffic congestion in Los Angeles is the worst in the nation, and has been the worst since at least the early s. Census of and may see it grow to 25 or even 30 million in the coming decades.

    Environmentalist sentiments, high fuel prices, and the dearth of available land may result in future development taking a pattern along the mass transit -oriented lines of the " smart growth " school's recommendations. Beginning originally in the s, a variety of factors, including environmental concerns, an increasing population, and the high price of gasoline, led to calls for mass transit other than buses.

    In , the State of California formed the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission to coordinate the Southern California Rapid Transit District 's efforts with those of various municipal transit systems in the area and to take over planning of countywide transportation systems. After decades, the wheels of government began to move forward, and construction began on the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system in In , the two agencies formed a third entity under which all rail construction would be consolidated.

    Caltrans or local transportation agencies have identified the following priority freeway projects:.

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    Southern California residents idiomatically refer to freeways with the definite article, as "the [freeway number]", e. This use of the article differs from other American dialects, including that of Northern California, but is the same as in the UK e. In addition, sections of the southern California freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers. For example, the names Santa Monica and San Bernardino are used for segments of the Interstate 10 even though overhead freeway signs installed at interchanges since the s don't display these names, using instead the highway number, direction, and control city.