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En l'occurrence, les nazis, si nazis il y a, ce sont les autres. Il ne faut pas inverser la charge de la preuve. Haut-commissaire aux droits de l'homme de l'ONU, M. Entre M. Certains comme C. C'est si fourbe que les mots exacts me manquent pour qualifier l'imposture. Est-ce que cela inclut les Qui est vraiment l'initiateur des actes terroristes?

S'il n'y a plus de Roi aujourd'hui en France, c'est qu'il n'y a plus les hommes "nobles" pouvant incarner une "noblesse". Et si accrocher le portrait de E. These protesters are what I would consider as real Jews. Un sentiment de profond malaise. L'impression du loup qui vient tourner autour de sa proie, de la reptation d'un python qui tente d'enserrer lentement sa victime en sifflant les paroles sophistes.

Cette terreur de la bien-pensance peut se retourner contre ses instigateurs. Il faut que BIGARD se reprenne et rentre dans le lard des censeurs, il l'a tellement bien fait avec les thories officielles du 11 Septembre! En fait, c'est une question de mesure et de retenue. C'est une question de respect. Nous y sommes! Chez nous? The animal should therefore be killed within the Circle, or Triangle, as the case may be, so that its energy cannot escape For the highest spiritual working one must accordingly choose that victim which contains the greatest and purest force.

Voici pour les faits. Gilets Jaunes : Vers une Guerre Civile? Septembre Avec la Chine, le Monde basculera plus vite encore. Macron a donc commis un acte contraire au droit international. Directement des fabricants? Cela ne se peut pas sans une logistique importante.

Eux aussi font du bon boulot? Ne mettez jamais les pieds en Auvergne! Pour ceux qui connaissent le film Idiocraty de , c'est bien pire encore. Vivement l'Armaggedon de la guerre ultime! C'est dans l'ordre des choses. J'en paye ainsi le prix fort aujourd'hui. Liste interminable. Mais n'est-ce pas le but? Au total De ce point de vue l'art de la peinture est post-lapsaire.

Je ne pense pas que cela soit si simple. Il suffit de savoir et vouloir regarder. Pourtant, ne nous emballons pas trop vite, il semblerait que ce texte est un faux , totalement ou en partie. Pas assez laid sans doute, et puis la pudibonderie Nous pouvons dire que depuis le 11 septembre inside job? Accueil courtois. Sous d'autres cieux, ils seraient chevaliers. Une guerre de l'opinion est en cours qui appuie celle des armes. Les chiffres sont effrayants. Lorsque l'on traite ainsi les animaux, on en fait tout autant des hommes.

Nous sommes ce que nous faisons. Hollande est de soutenir que le complotisme conduit au djihadisme, au terrorisme. Or, c'est l'e xact contraire. Poutine, la brute? Ensuite, ce fut sous George W. Poutine une brute? Article de Toby Rogers traduit en par D.

Cela est urgent! Une certitude. Mais les hommes politiques sont aveugles et sourds. Pourront-ils dire qu'ils ne savaient pas? A n'en pas douter, c'est insignifiant, ne menace en rien une marche de l'Histoire. However, its relationship with mortality remains uncertain. Conclusions : Red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, CVD, and cancer mortality. Esclave tu restes! A l'origine : l'intention de bien faire, tout au moins de le vouloir.

Ayons un esprit large et vrai! Excellente nouvelle. Absolument pas. Seul il est affranchi des lois du genre humain Complexe, mais essence-ciel!!! Les gardiens le plaquent contre la bascule. Parlez-en au ministre de l'Agriculture rire! Fuck off! Lorsque vous le battez, il mord. Pourquoi en serait-il autrement avec l'homme? Faudra-t-il finalement me droguer ou bien me faire piquer? Ces gens ne se posent strictement aucune question, ni sur le 11 septembre ni sur autre chose. La crise? Mais elle va dans le sens de la fabrique des esclaves C'est pourquoi M.

Nuisibles, ces tomates de nos grands-parents? Fichtre, qu'est-ce qui est donc vraiment nuisible? Parce que je le vaux bien! Wertz, Jr. Il est dommage que ce ne soit pas le respect du client qui soit "entretenu". The bankers own the earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create money, and with the flick of the pen they will create enough deposits to buy it back again.

However, take away from them the power to create money and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in. He was the first author on the Boulevard to discover what were the requirements of a popular drama.

During the early part of the ninLOonth century, many of his pantomimes were reprinted and several were changed into melodramas by the addition of a few monologues and some dialogue. The pantomime seemed to have reached perfection! The small theaters of Paris obtained their long desired liberty the 13th of January, , when the National Assembly gave forth a decree which placed all the theaters of Paris, on the same footing and made them all equally free. The first two articles of this decree are especially important. This rejoicing did not last long, because the small theaters soon discovered that complete liberty had its disadvantages.

The directors of the changing I Cf. In the National Convention decided to use the theaters for the purpose of political propaganda. The Comedie-Franpaise suffered more than 31 any other theater of the capital. Welachinge ri, H. Muret, Histcire par le theatre , vol, I. Certes, on ne saurait trop aprrouver Chez Napoleon, ce gout du grand et du beau. Henceforth the troupe was much better than it had been for over half a century previous. The Revolution with all its dramatic possibilities, its color, excitement and violent changes of fortione, was not utilized for pur- poses of the drama.

The popular theaters, on the contrary, felt the influence of the Revolution very deeply. Even in the midst of these awe-inapiring plays 34 contemporary theatrical newspapers raised a cry of pro- test. II sembleroit que les auteurs enaser. Tf 35 dgi! Even the acting and the staging was exaggerated and realistic.

According to lo Courier des spectacles a performance of la Foret perilleuBO was almost stopped by women, who, frightened at the sight of so much bloodshed, were screaming and leaving the theater. While the people and the nation were in this morbid state, craving for strong and thrilling sensations, they found certain forms of contemporary foreign literature congenial reading.

Both England and Germany, in their literature, if not in their governments, showed radical and revolutionary tendencies. France soon acquired a liking for these highly colored novels, whichj after being translated and published in large editions, were dramatized for the use of the small theaters. The Journal des D e bata described Victor ov 1' enfant de la foret, a play of this highly romaneaque type as, "un drame sombre, horrible, di. The form of these popular plays at the time of the Revolution varied greatly. The most common type closely resembled the pantomimes of Arnould, the only difference being the use of dialogue.

Fabien Pillet, who was especially bitter against the small theaters, attacked both the name and the genre. A pantomime with dialogue by Cuvelier entitled C'est le dieble oh" la boh e mienn e was thus criticised by him : "Je denan- derais a I'auteur, si je le connalssals, ce que c'est qu'uhe pantomime dialoguee : il me re'pondrait sans doutS: c'est le diable. II me repliquerait peut- etre : que m'importe? J 'attire la foule, j'ai reussi II pourrait avoir rnison male a coup sur jejn'aurais pas tort. The fact 39 that this pantoraine with dialogue was given at a time when the small theaters were not allowed to use dialogue is somewhat difficult to explain.

First of all, Baron de Trenck is probaMy an iinique example of the use of dia- lo. Mais reflechissant que nos meilleurs outeurs lyriques avoient souvent reussi en secouant cg joug, et enhardl par leur extmple, j'ai travaillo ; et nombre. Mais un le'ger inconvenient m'ayant empechor de faire representer mon ouvrage sur un des premiers theatres do la capitale dont j'ai tant a me louer de I'honnetete des premiers sujets , je rae suls decide a la faire jouer sur ion theatre subalterne, ou j'ai du, en partle, mon succes au jeu de I'actour charge du role de Baron de Trenck.

The subject of the pantomime is a conspiracy against the Baron de Trenck. He is cast into prison because of the false accusation of Colonel Thinski but soon is able to 1 Cf. In the end the Innocence of the hoi-o is established and after a general reconciliation the play ends as usual with drills and dances. A short passage from the third act will illustrate the manner in which Mayeur de Saint 'Paul interrupted the music by dialogue. Trenck, Ce bienfait de mon Roi me devient plus flatteur Depuis que I'araitie partage mon bonheur. S mesures rt. Jhe interruptions of the dialogue were so numerous that the action must have been carried on al- most exclusively by pantomime.

The Baron de Trenck was given at the Ambigu-Gomique for the greater part of a year and became almost as famous on the Boulevard as le Marechal-des-lo gis. Mayeur de Saint-Paul's experiment of combining dialogue and pantomime, however, was a failure for the time being, because no play similar to le Bpron de Trenck was seen on t? In the newspapers and theatrical almanack" of the period le Baron de Trenck is spoken of either as a pantomime.

Moline was perhaps the first to use the word in this sense in his Michelin. To explain why the word melodrame was adopted, it 7;ill be necessary to trace the history of this word during the eighteenth century. The 'scene lyrique'. Popular manuals and encyclopedias have often stated that Pygmalion vrva the beginning of popular melodrama Even Geoffrey, in his hatred for the Genevan philosopher, claimed that the decadence in the drama might be traced to the author of le ContraJg', social.

Qui I'cut cru que ces tragedies des Boulevards avoicnt pour pore un aussi fameux philosophe que Jean-Jacques Rousseau? V-0, 3 p. About the middle of the eighteenth century a quarrel arose in Paris as to the respective merits of French and Italian muGic. Since French opera had not yet become successful, it was urged that France should abandon the idea of a national opera and adopt the music of Italy. Rousseau seemed at first to be in favor of a national school of French opera, and apparently wrote the wordn and music of his Devin du village l as a convincing argument against the adoption of Italian opera.

His opera was very successful nnd he himself seemed pleased with the praise of the critics and the generous reward which the king and queen bestowed upon him after they had heard the work. Glxick he expressed the snme views ; "Persuade qua la langue francalse, destltu-. En perfectionnant cette methode, on reunirait le double avantage de soulager I'acteur par frequents repos, et d'offrir au spectateur I'espece de melodrame le plus convonable a sa langue.

Avec cette espece d' ouvrage. At first it was performed in the drawing rooms of his friends and did not become generally known xontil after he wrote his Observations sur I'Alceste de M. It consists of a monologue which is frequently interrupted by instrumental music. The subject is the ann-imation of the statue of Galatea at the prayer of Pygmalion. XIV, p. After the sculptor's rapturous mono- logue, the miracle takes place and Galatea utters a few words.

At the pauses In the monologue, the actor expresses his feelings and his state of mind by means of pantomime to the accompaniment of tlie orchestra. For example, after the overture and several interludes by the orchestra Pygmalion beseeches the goddess of love to animate his masterpiece, to give it both a living body and a soul.

De'esse de la beaute, epargne cet affront a la nature qu'ion si parfait modele soit 1' image de oe qui n'est pas. Pygmalion, who with mallet and chisel in hand is about to make an alteration in the statue, sudden- ly stops as he feels a vibration in the marble. Vaine terreur, fol aveugloment Je n'y toucherai point ; les dievix m'epouvantent. Sans doute, elle est deja consacree a leur rang. II la conaidere de nouvoau.


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Que veux-tu changer! Ah, c'est sa perfection, qui fait son defaut. Divine Galatee, moins parfaite, il ne te manquerait rien. Avec plus d'attendriss. Qut-l'arae faite pour animer un tel corps doit etre belle. When the orchestra has exprosnod the happiness of those two united beings, Pygmalion closes the scone with the words, "Oui, Cher otchamant objot ; oui, digne chef-d'oeuvre de mee mains, de mon coeur et des dieux, o'est toi, c'est toi seul ; ;]e t'ai donne tout mon etre ; je ne vivrai plus que par toi. As the merchant Coignet explained in a letter to the Mercure de France , "M.

In it attracted some attention because of an amateur performance of it in Lyons. Goethe, who heard the work at Weimar in , believed it was to revolutionize opera. Vieles konnte man daruber sagen. At first he com- plained that it was to be given without his consent but, when he was waited upon by a delegation of actors from the Comedie-Francaise , he refused to see Larive, who was at the head of the delegation and who wan to play the title role, and shouted through the key-hole, "Faites comme vous voudrcz, je ne m'en mele pas : je vous previons 1 Dichtung und VJahrheit, III,ii.

Larive, jouant Pygmalion, et Mile. Au moins, c'est un genre qui peut varier les plaisirs du the'atre. Ill, p. La scone a fait la plus grande sensation : on peut la regarder corame Tin petit chef-d 'oeuvro dont il faudrait cependant supprimer quolque idees trop abstraites, quelquea expressions Eentant trop I'ocole et le dialectiAtien.

After his death, however, Paris saw a second scene lyrique ' in Benda's Ariadne luf Naxos,. Benda's wife who created the lead- ing roles in all of his works, possessed that rare ability of harmonizing the tones of her speaking voice with the musical interludes. Benda's fame, due in most part to these histrionic talents of his wife, spread to Paris, and after many refusals he finally 'consented to go there to Cf. The first scene consists of a monologue by Theneus, who, as he beholds the sleeping Ariadne, regrets that he must leave her a prey to the Greeks, the second scene is Ariadne's monologue of despair over the absence of her lover, and the third act contains the announcement.

The play ends with Ariadne's casting her- self into the sea. Although much more dramatic than Pygmalion , Ariadne auf Naxos was not a success, when given in French. The Mercure de France 1 praised the music of Benda but criticized the translation of the German text : "Ce n'est pas ainsi que I'immortel Citoyen de G6nevo a ecrit son Pygmalion. Quel feu! After - Larive's failure there appeared an occassional scrne lyrique written by some admirer of Rousseau or Home musical amatevir eager to reform the French opera, but as a distinct genre it disn.

Returning to the statement that Rousseau w? More recently Strauss has revived the genre in his Enoch Ardon. In France a revival of the genre is to be found in the so-called 'adaptations musicales', which are 1 Of. The history of this word melodrama, will show why Rousseau's name has been associated with the popular drama. Rousseau had used the term, scene lyriq ue probably through analogy with tragedie lyrique , which his contemporaries often applied to opera.

G'est ainsi qu'on est convenu d'appeler Drames les pieces larmoyantea, qui ne peuvent etre nommees, ni 1 The preface of the translation of Ariadne auf Naxos is signed, J. Gli'ick as the first use of melodrama for a lyric scene, 3 but he was misled 1 Op. As Martineau made this proposal In the preface t o his Ariane , a short melodrame which he printed privately and which was never produced, he attracted no attention to this distinction in the meaning of the two terms. After I7SI scene lyrlque and melodrame became synonymous ; both Pygmalion and Ariadne auf Naxos were referred to indiffer- ently as the one or the other.

Ce n'est point une oomedie, ce n'est point un opera ; c'est ce que nous appeSLons un nelo-drame. Before this date Benda had used the terra Monodrara for a lyric scene vrith one actor and Duodram for one v. The extensive use of I. Diiring the Revolution inelodrarne was used for any scene in which music accompanied monologue. Fredegonde, seule. Qu'ai-je entendu?

Le perfide II me trahit il m'abandonne L' amour, la haine luttciit au fond de mon coeur que dis-je, 1' amour? Ah, desormais, la rage seule peut re'gner dans mon ame Eh qu6i.

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Mon art sera done puissant I'enfer n'auroit done plus de tortures For instance in the 1 'Anni- versaire , the author asked for extraordinary music, "la musique indique le lever du soleil. As soon as the word ' melodramej became familiar to the Boulevard, authors and managers began to use it regardless of whether or not the play contained any lyric scenes similar to the one quoted above from I'Enfnnt du Malheur.

Nous savons que cola signifie uno monstruosite dramatique, remplie d'un style souvent gigantesque, ampoule'. Amould began the evolution of pantomime hy the introduction of a serious plot of an historical or roraonesque character. After dialogue was added to pantomime and plots were generally borrowed from the Gothic romances of England. This change of taste on the part of the public caused the managers and the authors of the Boule- vard to abandon the highly romanesque type of play based upon contemporary English novels.

At the very theaters where the dramatizations of the Monk and the Mysteries o f Udolpho tiad achieved success, these Gothic fictions were exposed to ridicule 67 ill satfrical comic operao and vaudevilles. Not that Lewis and Ann Radcliffe had entirely fallen into dis- favor, for there were niamerous French translations of both these authors during the post-revolutionary period but rather there was a recognition by the public of the fact that highly colored tales of medieval knights were unsuited to the stage.

The melodramatists endeavored to bring the popular drama nearer reality by the use of plots drawn from the national history, popular tradition, or anecdotes of contemporary life. The melodro. Remembering the conservatism of French drama since the Cid , it could hardly be expected that even the melodrama- tists should ignore the question of the unities and other essentials of classical tragedy. The hack-vyriters of the Boulevard, after having passed through a period of revolt in regard to dranntic disipline, began to alter the form and general cl'aractor of theii"" plays.

Pixerecourt, who, as we shall see later, became the champion and the the- orieer of the melodrama, frequently mentioned the unities and affirmed that he always endeavored to retain them, when it vrps posoihle. Geoffrey scoffed at the idra of regularity in the plays of the Boulevard and eniaumeratod their essential features as 'I'abus de la pantomime et des machines, les combats, lee danses, le ire'lange du tragique et du bas comique, lea declamations et I'enflure.

Other characteristics of the melodrama of France were due to local conditions and so are peculiar to it alone. The subject of the present chapter is a discussion of the more important characteristics of the melodrama. The word itself will be defined as it was understood at the beginning of the last century and an attempt will be made to classify the more usual varieties of popular drama during this period.

Definition of the word 'melodrrraa'. At the beginning of the nineteenth century meat of the melodraraatists and the dramatic critics were misled by the etymology of the word, " melodraTne into insisting upon the music as an integral part of this sort of pro- duction. Telle est I'origine du raelodrame. This acooxint of the origin of the melodrama ,even if it were true, would not necessarily prove that Pixere- court's definition was either correct or exact.

This error of the early melodramatists and critics of insis- ting upon music as an essential part of popular drama has been followed by more recent lexicographers. The Academy defines the meaning of the word as ' sorte de drame populaire mele de musique, - Littre 's definition ia more exact ', ' sorte de trage'die populaire d'ou la musique a presque entlereinent disparu. Any drama of Plxerecourt or Calgniez would, with the omission of the music, remain a melodrama regardless of all the definitions quoted above, The distinguishing characteristics of the genre were first eniomerated by Geoffrey, who in an article on la Fille adoptive, ou les deux meres made the distinction between popular tragedy and middle-class 73 comedy.

C'est une grande queetion. Ce qui n'eat pas douteux, c'est que le drama ou melodrame eat un romo. II aurait done fallu employer quatre mots pour definir cette espeoe de monstre, sorti 1 Journal de 1' Empire. June 2, 12fl4.


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Quol qu'il en eoit, cardone- nous bien de le rogarder le melodrame, comme chef-d'cevvre de l' esprit huniain, c'est dans force du terme, xxne superfe'tation drar. The melodraiiatist,- after hav- ing chosen a situation for the beginning of his drama, was in no wise boiond to develop it and could by the introduction of extraneous characters and events create nev: situations or modify the original one according to his fancy. In classical tragedy, on the contrary, tie dramatist is held dovm by a dramatic necessity and is unable to allow his individual caprice to prevent the catastrophe or alter its nature.

Aside from this freedom, or the absence of what may be called 'the dramatic necessity', there is no characteristic of the melodrama which may be considered essential. The conformity of the early melodranatists regarding the use of mur. The audiences demanded a liberal mixture of the comic and the traric, they were fond of music and liked the introduction, of songs and ballets, they applauded commonplace aphorisms and wept over fnlse or exaggerated sentiment and pathos.

These preferences of the pit modified the exterior of the drama but did not. Omitting, for the present, minor details, the melodrama may be defined as a form of popular tragedy in which the form is free and variable and in which the author develops his plot according to his individual fancy. No sooner had the word 'melodrama' become definitely associated with popular tragedif than it acquired a pejorative meaning. Unfortunately the earlier dramatists of the small theaters had abused their freedom and their plays had shown the effects of an unbridled imagination.

The conservative critics, who were eager to crush this popular drama, never failed to exaggerate the faults of the melo- dram. Puisqu'ili faut souffrir le melodrame, les litterateurs doivent tacher de le diriger, de le regulariser pour le rendre moins nusible. Enfin le scandals cessera si I'on veut reflechir que le melodrame dont L'ai parW deux fois, tient aux objets les plus interessans pour la nation et pour 1 'huraanite'.

I'ose me flatter qu'on me pardonnera les deux articles, quand on les aura lus. A similar statement by Geoffrey, "Ce n'est pas en critique que je m'occupe des melodrames, c'est en observateur et en philosophe'. C'est comme disait un ' certain Voltaire, 1 'abomination de la desolation. Ce mot enfin est devenu I'arrae ridicule et banal e avec laquelle on attaque, on veut detruiie au theatre tout ce qui off re de 1'i.

Present dromatic criticism considers that it has done its vrorst when it has classed a tragedy as a melodrama. It is to be regretted perhyips that Tnelodi-B. Before entering upon the discussion of the structure and characteristics of melodrama, it vfill be well perhaps to describe briefly a few examples of early melodrama, which will illustrate the definition given above. Coelina ou 1' enfant du mystere one of the early successes of Guilbert de Plxerecourt, offers a good example of the popular tragedy in its freo form and undeveloped plot.

Coelina contains every variety of drama from high tragedy to low comedy and from opera to vaudeville. Coelina , like many of the early melodramas was a dramatization of a popular novel. Pixereccurt foiind in Ducray-Dummil ' s lengthy fiction entitled Coelina a plot filled with movement and surprise. Durour is sending away a poor mute named Francisque. The latter' s story is related in the exposition of the plot.

Eight years before the beginning of the play he had been attacked by two men whose identity still remains xmknown a. By accident the two meet, there is a moment of suspense c]iaracteristically melodramatic, and as Francisque withdraw8,Truguclin trembles with fear.

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Truguelin, as soon as ho is alone with his servant, plans to force Francisque to leave the vicinity at once or, in case of his refusal, to kill him. Coelina, the rich ward of Dufour overhears the plot and warns Frp. She hates Truguelin because he is endeavoring to separate her from her lovor, Stephany, the son of Dufour, and force her to marry his son. When Francisque refuses to comply with Tuguolin's request to leave, he is attacked by Truguelin and his servant but succeeds in protecting himself until Coelina has brought the whole household to the scene.

Truguelin accuses Francisque of having insulted him but Coelina contradicts this state- ment and by her insinuations arouses the suspicions of Dufour as to the honesty of his guest. Truguelin, angered at this attitude on the part of h'S host, prepares to leave and swears vengeance upon Dufour and Francisque. The second act opens v;ith songs and dances in honor of the engagement of the young couple.

When this scene of gaiety is at its height Truguelin' 3 servant brings a message to Dufour from his master. Diifour, from information contained in the message. To dispel any doubts regarding the veracity of his statement, Truguelin sends the birth-certlf icato of Coelina. Dufour is filled with indignation and drives Francisque and his daughter from the house. The act closes with the arrival of the village doctor who Informs Dufour and the peopje assembled at his home that Truguelin has been identified as one of the men who attacked Francisque eight years ago and that the police are already upon his track.

The scene of the third act is 'un lieu sauyage', dfins le fond est un pent, do bois, au dessoivs duquel se precipite un torrent, nuCvient passer derriere un moulin. Francisque and Coelina also come to the miller or. Upon the arrival of the soldiers who have been summoned by the miller, thor-e is a scene in pantomime, which might well have been taken from some pantomime given on the Boulevard before the Revolution 85 and which is certainly a rolic of the genre from which melodrama sprang.

Truguelin makes frantic efforts to escape the doldiers, he engages in hr-i. Dufour accepts this explanation for what reason both the dramatist and the audience might find it difficult to state and consents to the union of his son and Coelina. The play ends with rejoicing and the singing of a 'ror.

Vous le voyez, mes chers amis, De 1' ombre en vain I'on couvre Las crimes que I'on a commis ; T5t ou tard ca s'decouvre, etc. The plot of this melodrama ispuerilo 'ind inane. The succession of events without any logical relation to 86 one. A few critics even praised it. The cause of this popularity is not difficult to find. The spectator, like the reader of some old and rambling romance, might not always understand the v;hy'B and the wherefore's of this continual movement but a lack of comprehension did not detract from the interest.

The variety of the performance, the sudden changes from tears to laughter and the lack of restraint and convention in both the drama and the acting pleased an audience made up of the middle and lower classes of society. Another typjcal example of early melodrama is Caigniez's JuQcmTt die SoGomon , which is less extravagant and romantic in Doth plot and treatment.

It is not a dramatization of a novel, like Coelina , nor is it filled with so many improbable and almost impossible situations. The scene of the first act is laid in the gardens of Herod's palace. Leila is hiding in the gardens in order to see Eliphal, a younger brother of Solomon. Leila had then lost sif;ht of Eliphal for three years but v;hen she hears that he is to be married to Tamira she comes to the palace in hopes of seeing him once again. While waiting in the gardens, she meets a child toward whom she feels a strange attraction but the arrival of Tamira, the supposed mother of the little boy, causes him to be taken away from Leila.

In the meanwhile Eliphal arrives with an Egyptian princess whom he has just brought from her country and who is to marry Solomon. Then follow dances and merrymaking in honor of Solomon's ft approaching marriage. Eliphal as he recognizes Leila among the spectators is touched with pity and love and the expression of sorrow on his face becomes offensive both to Tamira and the king. The second act takes M place in a room of the palace. Leila after the meeting 88 of the little boy in the garden and witnesning the harsh- ness of Tamira tovmrd him, has becone convinced that it is her own child.

After having gained access into the palace, Leila succeeds in finding the child again and after having discovered certain marks on his neck and arm, declares that she is the mother of the child. Tamira arrives upon the scene, and orders the soldiers to take the child away from Leila. Solomon hears of the quarrel concerning the child and orders the two vromen to appear in the judgment hall. After both Tamira and Leila have maintained that they were each the true mother, Tamira admits to Solomon that sh. A soldier is just about to divide the child when Leila declares that the child must live even if Tamira lauot have it.

Solomon then pronoionces Leila to be the real mother, bs. Caignloz's plot if. The characters of the two 89 mothers arc excellently drawn. The stylo and dialogue is weak but this did not prevent the success of the play, for the Boulevard was, and still is, always ready to sacri- fice literary excellence to brilliant costumes and scenery. Son talent pourrait s'elevcr au-dNe3Sus de la sphere des spectacles forains et I'on pourrait appliquer a son ouvrage les deux vera d'Ovlde au sujet d'Arachtie, que Lesage avait applique''s au theatre de la Foire :''Son origine est basse.

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The beginning of the action ie in what we now call a truly melodramatic style. Au lever du ridoau et pendant I'ouverture, on entond un violent orage. Las eclairs, le tonnerre, la pluie, la grele, le vent se succedent avec furie. In this forest Tekeli meets an Austrian officer, overcomes him in a hand-to-hand encounter and then forces him to divulge the plans of the Austrian army for gaining possession of Montgatz.

Upon learning that the final struggle is to take place the next day, Tekeli resolves to reach the castle at any cost. Austrian soldiors arrive and begin a thorough search of the premises and in the meanwhile Tekeli escapes in a bag of meal. The third act takes place in the large Gothic hall of the 91 Uastle of Montgatz. Aiexina la hard preoeed by her soldiers and peasants who threaten to rino in robollion. A message fron the Austrian emperor announces an irranediate attack vmless the castle surrenders.

He is closely followed by a detachment of Austrian soldiers. A pantomime and ballet, in honor of Tekeli's return and his victory over the Austrians ends the play. Forgetting momentarily the successes of Dumas, pere, and Sardou we may be able to recognize some of Pixerecourt 's merits. The action of Tekeli is simple and progresses naturally without 92 too much recourse to the hackneyed tricke of popular tragedy.

A Penelope heroine, v;hether engaged in weaving tapestry or in defending castles is an interesting figure and Pixo'recourt in his hiomble way hss made the most of the character of Alexina. The scene in the third act where Alexina, in npite cf the rebellious cries of her soldiers, continues to believe in the immediate return of her husband, is handled with no little dramatic skill. Tekeli's escppe from the mill in a raeal-bag is managed quite as well as the famous Falstaff episode.

The quasi- historical atmosphere of the play lends an air of reality which is absent from Coelina. These three melodramas which I have just des- cribed illustrate the definition of the genre as given above. These ferief descriptions of Coelina, 1 p. We may now enter into a more detailed description of the structure and form of the genre and of some of the minor characteristics. Since, from the time of the Cid and les Sen - timents de I'Academie sur le Cid to the present day, every discussion of the drama has begim v. Freedom seemed the one characteristic of popular drama which both the melodranatists and their enemies admitted to be essential and so it appears all the more surprising that the drama- ticts of the Boulevard should have had the slightest concern for the laws which are supposed to come from the Stager ian philosopher.

At the first performance one spectator was killed and several woTonded, and before the play had been given eleven times, the police had to be called in to keep order and prevent further catastrophgc. The conservative party, even at this time, was beginning to admit that there was no harm in allowing the popular theaters all the liberty they desired, provid- ed the Theatre Franpais and the Odeon remained faithful to clafJBical traditions. Merlin, the president of the 1 Cf. Le Roy, A. Hugo londoubtedly learned more from the Ambigu-Comigue than from Shakespeare.

The unity of time was at first carefully observed by Pixerecourt. He naively questioned the possibility of the unity of time in the dramatization of Mme. He admitted that the example might be dangerous, if it established a precedent, but he could not allow his moral nature to be ruled by his artistic inclinations. Cottin's Elizabeth pooaessed too fine a moral lesson to allovr artistic considorationi to prevent him from turning it into a melodrama.

This respect for the imities which we find in some of the early dramatists of the Boulevard alarmed the critics. Pixerecourt, however, even at the end of his life, found hia conscience perfectly clear as far as the unities were concerned. Mais c'est seulement dans la tragedie et dans la comedie a caractere, que toutes trois sont scrupuleusement observees.

Sedaine se contentait des deux premieres, et je n'ai jamais eu la pretention de faire mieux que lui; je n'ai voulu jamais que I'imiter. At first this question of the unities seems to have little to do with popular drama. Everything in the 1 Theatre chol si. The role of the music was another point which both the raelodramatists and their critics failed to xinder- Btand.

Music was not an integral part of the genre, although many, in their attempt to define the vford, melodrama, according to its etymology, held the opposite opinion. This incidental music, although familiar to England, was an Innovation for France. Sheridan, in the Critic ridiculed the abuse e of this music vrhich had grown stereotyped in English drama during the eighteenth century. The Critic , act Snerr ; Pray, what's that for? PirCf : It shows that Tiiburlna is coming — nothing introduces you a heroine like soft music.

Here she comes. The Bcenos lyriques of the Revolution proba. This kind of incidental music wae extremely popular on the Boulevard, where it has persisted up to the present, and moreover it has also been introduced in the more serious drama of France and England. The title pages of the melodrarras often contained notes such as these : fr marque les endroits ou il y a de la symphonie ; 1 "M marque les endroits ou il y a de la musique ; 2 "Tous les endroits marques d'un — — indiquent la musique en action.

When Victor Hugo then desired a composer for the incidental munic of his plays, it wns by no means unnatural that he should turn to Pic'lnni, who cortainly added to his reputation by the effective march at the end of the first act of Ruy Bias and the chanson des lavandieres in the second act of the same vrork. Sometimes the demands made upon these musicians vrere extreme. This descriptive music of the early melodrama was so important that the orchestral score, as well as the pltiy, was printed, because we frequently find a note on the title-page to the effect th-'t the full score may be procured at this or that music-dealer's.

Financial reasons soon eliminated both the services of the composer and the printing of his music. Certain eituptions occurrod 7. In the popular drama of France and England to-day tl:ie tirades of tho villain and the laments of the heroine are accompanied by stereo- typed music, seme of which possibly comes down from the times of eai'ly mclcdrnma. The music of the raelodrsrna was often hrjld up to ridicule, "Si tout 1 'orcJiestra, agissant a Ta foia, T ro- duit des sons sourds et lurubres, c'est que tyran approche, et tout I'auditoire fremlt' Si I'harmonie est douCe et moelleuse, I'amante infortvinee ne tardera pas a 39 montrer et tous les coeurs s'atten drlssent".

Cette 1 Traite du melodrime, p. The extension in the use of music in all forms of the drama offers some proof that music in tragedy and comedy has its effect upon audiences other tiinn those of the Boulevard. The question of style in the melodrama is another point upon which the melodramatiats and their critics wasted much energy.

Diderot, oedaine, and Mercier cla,im- Gd to have introduced into' the irama natural dialogue and to have reproduced upon the stage the conversation of every day life. The language of the petit peupl e of Paris bristles with striking figures of speech and picturesque expressions which found their way into the melo- drama and gave it life and color. The characters at the Amhigu-Comlque were elemental and one-sided but they talked easily and naturally. The minor cliaracters, such as the servants, the children, and the old men frequently used a patois which must certainly have appealed to the spectators of the Ambigu-Comique and the Gaite , many of whom spoke in the same manner.

Aussi Vendredi n etre plus a raoi, Vendredi ssuvage raais reconnaissant, etre tout entier a Robinson, 1 'aimer de tout son coeur, donner sen sang, tout, fout, jusqu a derniere goutte pour son generefux maitre. The sonorous phrase, the pretentious, noble sentiment, however, trite it nay have been, thrilled them. In fact, the presence of monologue in the melodrama, where there is such need for rapid action, is only explained by the desire on the part of th" audience for the expression of noble sentiment in an inflated style.

The vil''ain of Pixorecourt 'a Monastere abandonne probably won the applause of the Boulevard by his openine; monologue. Je ne puis supporter ces accents de joie. La justice, cette sublime portion des attributs de la divinite do'it etre pure comme la source dent elle emane Dieu protecteur dt' Israel repands dans mon ame un rayon de ta divine lumiere ; aide-mol a faire sortir la verite du nuage qui I'enveloppe et ne permets pas, dans le jugement que je vais pronoimcer, que des paroles d'iniquite sortent de ma bouche. It would hardly be fair, however, to condemn all 'the monologues or narrative passages in the melodramas of the early period.

As a specimen of this style in Pixorecourt, we may take a speech from his Maures d' Espagne , where Zlma, the wife of the Moorish prince, Abular, describes the fear and consternation among the Spaniards. De quoi- s'agit-il? Caigniez, at his best, was mucli superior to Pixerecourt in the matter of style. For example, compare with the passage quoted above from les? Occupoe de soins champ'etres et bornant mes desirs aux seuls bienfaits que la naturo partage a tout le monde, j'y serais encore heureuse si ffficur n'avait seO.

H y a trcis rns. If jcur r. J'etais loin de craindre pour ses jours : les rcaen de la crrtr brillaient sur son visage. Jugez de mon desespoir, quand, le lendemain, a-mon reveil, je ne trouve a sa place qrx'tm enfant etranger que la mort a frappe. Je fis vaineMent entendre nes plaintos j il passa pour constant que mon fils etait mort. J'appris seulement hier qu'une scene bion differente se paseait a la memo heure, chez Tamira qui habitalt alors Hebron.

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Elle avait auor. Un homme a son service, nomme Gobar, qui nous connaissait tree bien, partit precipitammcmt, courut toute la nuit, et le matin, a son retour, le berceau de Tamira offrit, 8UX yeux des assistane etonnos , i. Geoffrey admitted the style in general of this raelodrpna tc be good and intimated that the author sliowed ability which would not be out of plnce in a much more pretentious theater.

Cuvelier, another raelodraraatist, whose reputa- tion almost equalled that of Caigniez and Pixere'court, was generally careless and indifferent in matters of style. The critics often berated him for his faulty graiomar and bad taste. Yet even in some of his works appear passages which offer fnirly good examples of a simple, drer. J'ai recu 1' invitation de mon epoux de tout ordonner pour une fete auguete et solennelle ; elle doit etemiser la raemoire du prodige eclatant qui m'a rendu a la tendresse de ma famille, en me delivrant de I'esolavage.

Tandis que nos servlteurs preparent le sacrifice, allez cueillir les fleurs qui doivent paror I'autel. Je ne puis supporter plus long-t-r-ms le tourment affreiix de 1 'incertitude ; je vais trouver Abraham, toraber a ses pieds, et si je I'ai offense sans le savoir, solUcitor mon pardon. To-day the style of a melodraina is larr:cly a matter of indifference to the dramatic critics, because thoy see no connection between popular tragedy and litera- ture, but in the early part of the nineteenth century this was not the case.

Very grave doubts were entertained 1 Chefs-d'oeuvre du repertoire dos rae'lodramos, vol. Gmnde Dieux!! MalheuEeux, qu'al-je fait????? Barbare J! Helas Jour affreux!! Even if this Inflated language did appear in the melodrama, it is not surprising when we consider the condition of France during this period. As Charles Nodier s? Les expressions de ce temps la s'otient assorties a 1 ' exaggeration vide et deoousue des idees. L'ordre logique de la pecsee avait fait place a une phraseologie creuse, aais sonore, dont le retentisseraont otait une habitude et un besoin pour I'oreillo publicMi!

Nodier, however, exonerated 1 Theatre choiai do Pixerecourt, vol. Liercicr, in the preface to la Bron ett e du vinaigrier admitted thot he intended the title to attract attention. J'ai prevu le reprocho et je I'ai bravo. Encore un Curfc , le Dernier "Jugement d. After tho Revolution the inolodramatists continued the use of such titles and their dependants to- day, as the titles of any of the popular trnp.

One explanation of the amoixnt of energy and care which the early raelodrarpatists spent upon this question is to be found in the method of advertising plays which wan followed at the Ambigu-Comique and the Galte. Notices were published in the press praising the new work and suggesting novelties in the sconery and costuming. These titles which were so helpful in making a melo- drama a success, may be divided into certain classes. Proper names were sometimes used but only when historical, Bibfical, or exotic. The more common names in the Bible especially in the more striking narrative passages, were.

Exotic titles are rare, although Gaign'oz used them somewhat, as for exanpio,, Noiir. P5 and Azendai igli? Pixe'recourt was especially fond of such headings which lent an air of erudition to his plays. X ' Time was Indicated in the title, sometimes to inform the spectators that the unity of time was not observed, sometimes merelj'' to show that a great deal would take place during the action of the drama.

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From these examples may be seen how the popular dramatists sought to attract the Boulevard and here again we see a parallel in the drama of Hugo. The author of Hernnni at first desired a more rcr. The original manuscript has the Spanish inscription Tres para una and the handbills for the first performance announced Hernani, ou I'honneur Castillan. VII, p.

It is here that we meet the chief characteristic of melodrama. The action begins with remarkable quiclmess but never ends. Likewise in the romantic drama too much happens with too little explanation. The pity or the curiosity of the audience had to be aroused at once. A conventional 1 Th. In les Enfans du bucheron 1 f 09 ; of Caigniez and Lemaire the vil'ain explains the contents of an important letter which has just been lost and the action immediately begins.

The point to be particularly noted is the absence of the irrelevent at the beginning of a raelodrpraa. By the end of the first act the author had not only started the action but carried the heroine through several exciting episodes. The ending of early popular tragedy shows the same haste and rapidity. As soon as the hero has made the final triumph ovet the villain the curtain falls abruptly upon a brief remark by the hero or the niais who points to the eternal ways of Providence.

The dehouenent houre-u x become a necessity. No esthetic consideration on the part of the spectators called for a catastrophe. The audiences of the Gaite" and the Amb i pxL-0 oia i que believed in a kind Providence rather than a pitiless Fate. In the end righteousness always v;on in the struggle against wickedness. The tender-hearted spectators even demanded that the nelodramatist treat the villain leniently. He is rarely killed or imprisoned but generally dismissed by the hero who warns him against returning to his evil ways.

Between the beginning and the end of a melodrama many incidents and events were crowded together. Each act had one and at times two climaxes quite as important as the one at the end. The tragedies of the Boulevard were in the words of an obscure English dramatic critic of the eighteenth century busy plays. The characters passed through many vi'ssitudes and came out of them all successfully.

The critic Hoffman bitterly complained of this crowding and padding of the plot. The characters according to him, resembled puppets on strings more than human beings. Already in the comedie larmoyant e this mingling of the genres occurred. Mercier however, warned writers against the abuse of this very easy means of obtaining contrasts.

The farces of the theatre de la foire at the time when MolierG. The melodramatiats might bring teara to the eyea of their audiences as often as they liked but they could not ignore the fact, that their spectators were equally fond of broad farce and low comedy. Another convention of the Boulevard which dated from the early theatre de la. Both the Ambigu-Comique and the Ga j! These mute dramas, besides offering a change, had the advantage of being more spectacular and easier to comprehend than those in dialogue. II, p. Pixere'court and his fellow- dramatists were even so fond of pantomime that they did not hesitate to interrupt the action for several scenes in order to introduce extraneous incidents, act- ed entirely without words.

Oourrier dea specta cles, 21 f lorial , 1B There was much rivalry on the Boulevard in regard to the ballet. Les b allets sont de M. This strange mixture of tragedy, comedy, music, pantomime, and ballet was usually divided into three 1 Journal des D ebats, June 7, 1" All the plays of Pixe'recourt , as well as those in the Repertoire des cheflr-d'oeuvre des melodrames , are, with but few exceptions, written in three acts. Pixerecourt heeded the critics and did not again attempt four acts until almost twenty years later. In 18? In his Per:.

In Carmouche and Courcy substituted chapitres for tableaux in order to show that the various divisions of the plays were not as closely related to one an- other as in the ordinary drama. An additional reason for the shortness of the early melodrama may be found in the fact that the Gaite and the Ambigu-Gomique were in the habit of playing two dramas in one evening. In spite of occasional variations we can state then that three was the usual number of acts in the early melodrama.

Before we have only sporadic ex- amples of a greater or smaller number of divisions, l It is a curious co-incident, if indeed it is nothing more than that, that Victor Hugo should have used three div- isions for his prose dramas. Lucrece Borgia is in three acts and Marie Tudor and Angelo in three.

Even their enemies had to admit the advance in the more material conditions of the drama as seen on the Boulevard. The genre batard had at least one good point. La foule des spectateurs, ajoute Andrieux, s'occupe beauooup plus aujourd'hui de la maniere dont une piece est representee que de la piece raeme. Cette disposition de la plus grande partie du public est tres peu encourage- ante pour les auteurs et tres peu favorable a I'art dram- atique.

Geoffrey frequently mentioned the excellent staging at the Gaite and the Ambigu-Coniique. In fact the raelodramatiata devoted so much attention to the details of costume and scenery that their plays accord- ing to their enemies were more intended for the eyes than the ears. A glance at the stage-directions will show how ambitious the melodramatlsts were. Never before, not even at the Opera had Parisians seen such realistic per- formances. For a long time they marvelled at scenes on board ship in Pixeracourt 's Christophe Colom b Volcanoes offered the stage-mechanics abundant opportu- nity to display their skill.

Pixerecourt required a re- presentation of Mount Etna in Belveder and of Mount Vesuvius in la Tgte de fnort 18g7. In the latter play the irruption of the volcano was Intended to be highly realistic. In the aecond act of la Fille de 1 'exile Pixerecourt required the repreaentation of a flood, the aucoeaa of which waa mentioned in a newa- paper report of the play. Dann le troisieme acts dont la decoration entlerement nouvelle est de I'effet le plus pittoresque, on voit et on entend une cascade d'eau qui sort du rocher; la nappe se de- ploie et tombe; on en sent la fraicheur, et I'art n'a aucune part au prodige, si oe n'est pour la dispooition des tuyaux qui conduisent I'eau du reservoir sur le theatre.

A note in la Fille de 1 'exile occupies two pages in describing the mechanism of the stage-flood mentioned above 1 and long notes in Charles le Temeraire explain means of producing the inundation of a field and the effect of the heroine falling from a balcony. He considered that it was a most important duty of the dramatist to be present at the rehearsals in order to give attention to every detail of the staging. Je soutiens que 1 'entente de ce que I'on appelle la mise en scene, suf- fit pour faire ev-iter los ecueils si dangereux dans ce metier difficile et scabreux.

Such scenes in spite- of their bad taste were staged so effectively that they held the attention of the audience. In Hugo's dramas we meet a similar use of the tableau, as for example, the end of the first act In R uy Bias. The Opera had opened the vvay for these spectacular scenes, although it had never reached the point of putting Heaven and the angels on the stage. Fablen Fillet in rebuked the popular dramatists for tlieir poor imitations of the Opera 2 but soon after that date he would have been 1 Theatre choioj, vol.

The melodramatlste soon learned the secret of making a poor play a success by skillful advertisement of the elaborate staging. In the treatment of the various classes of society we find perfect impartiality; the aristocracy and the royalty were not abused and held up to ridicule as in the drama of the Revolution, and the middle classes were not idealized as in the dram e bour - geois or satirized as in seventeenth century comedy.