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Enamoured with the high favour, his Majesty in return gave the damsel her fairin' for which "the gude-man" got her "benison"! The woman blessed him with the words "May your purse ne'er be toom [empty] and your horn aye [always] in bloom"; [2] the club's motto thus became, "May prick nor purse ne'er fail you". The club was formed in but only formally established in , it existed until Much of their discussion revolved around sex and there were often lectures on sex and anatomy; the club had a stock of pornography and there were also sometimes naked "posture girls" for the members to look at.

They also are thought to have indulged in rituals of collective masturbation , which formed part of the initiation ceremony. When thus ready he was escorted with four puffs of the Breath-Horn before the Brethren or Knighthood, and was ordered by the Sovereign to place his Genitals upon the Testing Platter, which was covered with a folded white napkin; the Members and Knights two and two came round in a state of erection and touched the Novice Penis to Penis. Thereafter the special Glass, with the Society's Insignia thereon and Medal attached, was filled with Port Wine, when the new Brother's health was heartily and humorously drunk, he was told to select an amorous Passage from the Song of Solomon and to read it aloud.

Andrew's Day. All frigged ; the Dr. Two nymphs [young girls], 18 and 19, exhibited as heretofore. Rules were submitted by Mr. Lumsdaine for future adoption. Fanny Hill was read. Broke up at 3 o'clock a. The club opened a chapter in Edinburgh in The club's founding members included some of the most influential people in the area surrounding Anstruther, including [11] [12].

Later members included: [13]. Amongst honorary members was the balloonist Vincenzo Lunardi. The club was dissolved in ; some of its papers and relics were retained by one of the last members, Matthew Foster Connolly, burgh clerk of Anstruther Easter and Wester, who left them to his son-in-law the Reverend Dr J. Gordon; the remaining club money was bequeathed to fund prizes for girls at school in East Anstruther as well as to start a new social club at the nearby University of St Andrews. In an unknown author published Records of the Most Ancient and Puissant Order of the Beggar's Benison and Merryland, Anstruther with photographs of many of the relics; [15] this work was reprinted in in the Gems of British Social History Series.

In David Stevenson, emeritus professor of history at the University of St Andrews, published a scholarly book on the Beggar's Benison. Fife Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, is still known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland. Fife is one of the six local authorities part of the South East Scotland city region, it is a lieutenancy area , was a county of Scotland until It was occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors.

A person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population, it has a resident population of just under ,, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes.

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The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife. It is well known for the University of St Andrews , one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf. Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay and to the south by the Firth of Forth, is a natural peninsula whose political boundaries have changed little over the ages; the Pictish king list and De Situ Albanie documents of the Poppleton manuscript mention the division of the Pictish realm into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one being Fife, though this is now regarded as a medieval invention.

The earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only , in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife ; the notion of a kingdom may derive from a misinterpretation of an extract from Wyntoun. The name is recorded as Fib in A. It was associated with Fothriff ; the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig , near Newburgh , was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD. Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone.

Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey ; the Abbey replaced Iona as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area.

A new royal palace was constructed at Falkland the stronghold of Clan MacDuff , was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart , who favoured Fife for its rich hunting grounds. King James VI of Scotland described Fife as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries. Wool , linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past; the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the thatched roofs.

In , King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife , who became known as the Fife adventurers, to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region; this endeavour lasted until when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie , the clan chief of the Mackenzies.

Fife became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century.

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Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Rural villages such as Cowdenbeath swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife to find work in its mines; the opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife with Dundee and Edinburgh and allowed the rapid transport of goods. Modern ports were constructed at Methil and Rosyth.

Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum. Postwar Fife saw the development of Glenrothes. To be based around a coal mine, the town attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife Council and Fife Constabulary centre their operations in Glenrothes. Ebooks and Manuals

Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower. Fife is represented by five constituency members of the Scottish Parliament and four members of the United Kingdom parliament who are sent to Holyrood and the British Parliament respectively. It is celebrated on 30 November. Saint Andrew's Day is Scotland's official national day, it is a national holiday in Romania. It was thought that ritual slaughter of animals associated with Samhain was moved to this date, so as to assure enough animals were kept alive for winter, but it is only in more recent times.

In , the Scottish Parliament passed the St. If 30 November falls on a weekend, the next Monday is a bank holiday instead. Although it is a bank holiday, banks are not required to close and employers are not required to give their employees the day off as a holiday; the University of St Andrews traditionally gives the day for all the students as a free holiday, but this is not a binding rule. Saint Andrew's Day is an official flag day in Scotland ; the Scottish Government's flag-flying regulations state that the Flag of Scotland shall fly on all its buildings with a flagpole.

Prior to , the Scottish Government followed the UK Government's flag days and would only fly the Union Flag on Saint Andrew's Day; the regulations were updated to state that the Union Flag would be removed and replaced by the Saltire on buildings with only one flagpole. The flying of the Union Flag from Edinburgh Castle on all days, including Saint Andrew's Day causes anger among some Scottish National Party politicians who have argued that the Saltire should fly on 30 November instead.

In Scotland, many countries with Scottish connections, Saint Andrew's Day is marked with a celebration of Scottish culture with traditional Scottish food and music, it was once said that pipers typical march or walk while playing, it's only theorized but some say it's a vain attempt to out run the sound. There are week-long celebrations in some other Scottish cities. Saint Andrew's Day is celebrated as the national day of Independence in Barbados ; as the patron saint, Saint Andrew is celebrated in a number of Barbadian symbols including the cross formation of the Barbadian Coat of Arms , the country's national honours system which styles persons as Knights or Dames of St.

There are a few pre-Christian Romanian traditions connected to Saint Andrew's Day, some of them having their origin in the Roman celebrations of Saturn. One of the elements that came from the Roman and Thracian celebrations concerned wolves. During this night, wolves are allowed to eat all the animals, it is said that they can speak, but anyone that hears them will soon die.

Early on Saint Andrew's day, the mothers go into the garden and gather tree branches from apple and cherry trees, rosebush branches, they make a bunch of branches for each family member. The one whose bunch blooms by New Year's Day will be healthy the next year; the best known tradition connected to premonitory dreams. Single girls must put under their pillow a branch of sweet basil. If someone takes the plants in their dreams, that means, they can plant wheat in a dish and water it until New Year's Day. The nicer the wheat looks that day, the better the year to come.

In parts of Ukraine , Austria , Poland and Romania , a superstitious belief exists that the night before Saint Andrew's Day is suitable for magic that reveals a young woman's future husband or that binds a future husband to her. The day was believed to be the start of the most popular time for vampire activity, which would last until Saint George's Eve. In Poland, the holiday Andrzejki is celebrated on the night of the 29th through 30 November.

Traditionally, the holiday was only observed by young single girls, though today both young men and women join the party to see their futures; the main ceremony involved pouring hot wax from a candle through the hole in a key into cold water. In Romania, it is customary for young women to put 41 grains of wheat beneath their pillow before they go to sleep, if they dream that someone is coming to steal their grains that means that they are going to get married next year.

In some other parts of the country the young women light a candle from the Easter and bring it, at midnight, to a fountain, they ask Saint Andrew to let them glimpse their future husband. Saint Andrew is invoked to ward off wolves, who are thought to be able to eat any animal they want on. Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie Thomas Alexander Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie , styled Viscount Fentoun and Lord Pittenweem until , was a Scottish musician and composer whose considerable talent brought him international fame and his rakish habits notoriety, but nowadays is little known.

Recent recordings of his surviving compositions have led to him being re-evaluated as one of the most important British composers of the 18th century, as well as a prime example of Scotland's music, his father Alexander Erskine, 5th Earl of Kellie, was incarcerated at Edinburgh Castle for supporting the Jacobites in the Jacobite rising of His mother, Janet Pitcairn, was the daughter of a celebrated poet. Thomas attended the Royal High School and around left for Mannheim in Germany to study under the elder Johann Stamitz and returned to Scotland in as a virtuoso violinist and composer, nicknamed "Fiddler Tam", he began propagating the modern Mannheim style , of which he was to become acknowledged as the leading British exponent.

Six of his three-movement "Overtures" were published in Edinburgh in James Boswell borrowed five guineas from Erskine on 20 October , on 26 May took him on a visit to Lord Eglinton's in London , where the overture the Earl composed for the popular pastiche The Maid of the Mill became exceptionally popular. In the Earl returned to Scotland, where he became a leading light of the Edinburgh Musical Society, acting as deputy governor, as an able violinist directed the concerts in St Cecillia's Hall in Niddry Street, Edinburgh.

An active Freemason , he was elected the fourth Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Ancients at London in and served in that office for six years, he served as the twenty-fourth Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland from to His dissolute lifestyle extended to founding an drinking club, the playwright Samuel Foote advised Kellie to put his red nose into his greenhouse to ripen his cucumbers! A Civil War ended in the Byzantine Empire that had started in It so weakened the Empire that, although it survived for another Century, it was an Empire in name only.

The Black Death plague started and affected many Euro-Asian countries. It is estimated that it killed between 75 million and millian humans and resulted in religious, social and economic changes in Europe. It died out in Pope Clement V1 issued a Bull to establish the University of Prague which was officially founded in and opened the following year. The Siege of Calais in the Hundred Years War - to - between France and England - started on 4th September and lasted for eleven months before the French surrendered to the English.

Calais remained under English rule until 7th January St George's Chapel, Windsor was constructed on the orders of King Edward of England and later re-developed by successive Monarchs between and This was the first major Battle between the Ottomans and Europeans fought on European soil.

It was issued at Nuremberg and Metz Germany and continued in force for years. The Hanseatic League was founded in Lubeck, Germany. It was a trading confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in North West and central Europe. It ended in but the official demise was in The Campanile in Florence, Italy was completed. The foundation stone had been laid on 19th July It was designed by Giotto the founding father of the Italian Renaissance in architecture.

English became the language used in the English Courts of Law for pleading and judgement while French continued to be used for documentation. The Battle on China's largest Lake started on 30th August and lasted several weeks. The result established the future Ming Dynasty. The University of Vienna was founded and is the oldest German speaking University. Seventy seven German towns, both Hanseatic and non-Hanseatic League towns, joined the Confederation of Cologne in a military alliance against Denmark.

He adopted the name of Hong-Wu and founded the Ming Dynasty. The Mongol Emperor Tamberlane re-conquered Samarkand. It had been under Mongol rule since Genghis Khan conquered it in but had revolted in Exeter Cathedral was completed. There had been a Diocese since and the Cathedral had been built in but re-built starting The Vatican commissioned an astronomer to reform the Julian Calender. The project was abandoned when the astronomer died and the reform took place years later in This was the first English naval defeat in the Hundred Years War against France and when La Rochelle was lost to the French on 7th September England lost naval supremacy over the French western coast and the subsequent loss of other territories in France.

Castilian troops captured Lisbon and abandon it after the payment of a ransom having burned a great part of the City.

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  • John of Gaunt invaded France with an army of 9, and marches from Calais in August to reach Bordeaux on 24th December But the force was too small to engage with the French army and suffered two thirds losses due to disease and othe causes. France resumed war with England 9 years after the Treaty of Bretigny in and fighting continued as France recovered some of its lost territories in the Hundreds Year War. A one year truce was agreed at the Treaty of Bruges in and extended for an additional year to It lasted for 39 years and was resolved at the Council of Constance in The Western Papal Schism occurred after the death of Pope Gregory X1 and the electoral system in Rome was corrupted so that three different Popes were elected.

    The Schism lasted until Pope Martin V was elected as an agreed candidate in The Ciompi Revolt started in Florence when non-Guild workers revolted and took over control until New College, College of St. Mary Oxford, founded by William of Wykeham. The foundation stone had been laid on 5th march The war between the City States of Genoa and Venice lasted from to and Venice emerged victorious following the naval Battle of Chioggia, Italy, after which Genoa's maritime power ended while that of Venice continued until defeat by the League of Cambrai in Ship-borne cannons were used in the Battle.

    John Wycliffe was dismissed from Oxford on account of his involvement in the Lollard Movement. The Peasants' Revolt began in England. It was caused by socio-economic tensions resulting from the many deaths in Black Death Plague. The movements leader, Wat Tyler, was killed on 15th June and the revolt was generally crushed by November. Archbishop Simon of Sudbury was beheaded by a mob during thhe revolt. It was widespread and lasted until November when the leaders were executed.

    The Japanese Noh Drama was pioneered by Motokiyo. It had originated in China in the 8th Century and is a musical drama based more on tradition than innovation. Heidelberg Cathedral was founded. It was burned down by the French in the War of Palatinian Succession in and later rebuilt. King Richard 11 of England sent archers to aid the Portuguese in compliance with an earlier Treaty which today is the longest lasting Treaty between any two Countries. The building of Milan Cathedral started on the site of the first church built in AD.

    The final construction took nearly six centuries to complete and now is the largest in Italy and the fifth largest in the World. The Swiss Confederacy defeated the army of Leopold , Duke of Austria at the Battle of Sembach which was the turning point in the growth of Switzerland. John Purvey of England completed the translation of the whole Bible into English. The result was inconclusive. Both Murad and Lazar were killed and the Serb losses were such that they were unable to resist a later take over by the Ottomans.

    It peaked during the 16th Century. The start of the persecution of the Jews in Andalusia, Spain when the synagogues were closed and Jews ordered to convert to Christianity or leave Spain. This resulted in the growth of the Inquisition. The Palace of Alhambra was completed. The Dynasty lasted until October It was to last five Centuries until replaced by the Korean Empire in October King Richard 11 of England invaded Ireland with a force of 5, and successfully strengthened the power of the Anglo-Irish Lords as well as achieving the submission of a number of Irish Chieftains.

    He withdrew in may Tokhtamysh had united the Golden Horde prior to the Battle. The Grimaldi Dynasty took advantage of the military engagements of the Republic of Genoa to take possession of Monaco. The Union of Kalmar was established as a union between the Countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland and was to last until Sultan Bayazid 1 of the Ottoman Empire abandoned the siege of Constantinople to march his forces into Anatolia to confront the invading army of Tamberlane Timur where he was defeated at the Battle of Ankara.

    The Union lasted until King Richard 11 of England abdicated the Throne after being deposed by Parliament. He was succeeded by King Henry 1V. The Order fell into disuse until being re-established by King George 1 on 18th May King Henry 1 was crowned at Westminster Abbey. He suceeded Richard 11 and preceeded Henry V. After initial successes he was driven out from his last stronghold in and, although a high reward was offered by the English for information as to his whereabouts, he was never betrayed or captured.

    William Sawtrey was the first person to be burned at the stake in Smithfield, London. His crime was for heresy in being a dissenting Lollard. This was the start of the Spanish Empire. Moldovia asked protection from the Kingdom of Poland against an invasion by Hungary. Bayezid was captured and the Ottomans' were obliged to call off the seige of Constantinople.

    These laws were repealed in The Doge of Venice took the lead in imposing a quarantine of sufferers of the Black Plague by isolating them on an island. The Chinese Emperor Yongle commissioned the writing of an encyclopedia Yongle which was completed in It was the World's largest encyclopedia for the next years when Wikipedia was launched on 9th September The Chinese Emperor Yongle ordered the construction of a fleet The Treasure Fleet which came to number vessels some of which were the largest wooden ships ever built.

    He put Admiral Zheng he in charge of the fleet to trade with countries of South Asia and east Africa and also spread Chinese culture and influence throughout the countries of these areas. The enterprise lasted until when the Emperor died. The Ottoman Empire and the main regional christian powers signed the Treaty of Gallipoli following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire by the Turco-Mongol Empire led by Emperor Timur Tamalane at the Battle of Ankara in , which left a vacuum in the region.

    The Papal schism of , when a series of anti-Popes moved to Avignon, was ended after a siege by the French. St Elisabeth's flood covered areas of Holland, Flanders and Zeeland destroying the dykes and polders put in following the previous flood of The Chinese ships were some of the largest sail-powered wooden boats in history. The Western faction defeated the Eastern faction in the Java Paregreg war of succession that started in The first written record of Irish whiskey although it was made there since 10th Century.

    The feminist writer, Christine de Pizan who was born in Venice wrote on moral and political subjects and had many European Royal Patrons. She presented a collection of her works to Queen Isabeau of France. Pisa, which had been a powerful City State from the 11th Century, was occupied by Florence. Oswesttry School was founded in Shropshire as a 'free' school Independent of the Church being the second one in England. He started in and arrived in the Capital Nanking on 10th April He left China on 17th May and arrived back in Tibet in China conquered Vietnam in what is known as the fourth Domination that lasted for 20 years.

    Jan Hus, a priest and religious reformer from Prague was dismissed from his vocation for protesting the sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church. He was ex-communicated in for refusing to recant and burned at the stake in Prague on 6th July All that remains today is the North Bar Gate. It was dissolved on 7th August He was postumously pronounced a heretic at the Council of Constance on 4th May and his books were ordered to be burned. The construction of the Guildhall, London was started and completed in It was damaged in the Great Fire of London in and the London Blitz in but in both cases was restored and remains the only stone building not belonging to the Church surviving to the present day.

    It was not a stable Treaty and was followed by two brief wars. English backed Highlanders defeated forces of 'Lord of the isles' at the Battle of Harlaw Scotland preventing the 'Lord of the Isles' taking over Aberdeen. But three days later John had Louis assassinated in Paris resulting in a Civil war with France that lasted for 70 years. The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty Korea began to be written and continued until With volumes they cover the longest continual period of any dynasty in the World.

    The Civil War in the Ottoman Empire ended. It started on 20th July before the death of Sultan Bayezid 1 in when his sons contested the succession with Mehmet eventually succeeding to the Sultanate. Oldcastle was burned to death and many Lollards hanged. This was a turning point in the fortunes of the Lollards. It lasted to Khizr Khan founded the Sayyid Dynasty - the fourth delhi Sultanate - that lasted until It ended on 22nd April It had the largest span in the World at that time - 76 metres - and a masonary bridge with a larger span was only built years later in Luxemberg in The Bohemian theologian and reformer, Jan Hus was burned at the stake after being found guilty of heresy at the Council of Constance Germany for espousing a form of Protestantism.

    A plot to depose King Henry V of England and replace him with the Earl of March - a grandson of King Edward - was exposed and the ring-leaders executed. A Venetian fleet defeated an Ottoman fleet in the Sea of Marmara. This was followed by a Maritime Treaty in the same year which stipulated the terms of trade between the two States. The Island of Madeira was claimed by Portugal and Portuguese settlers brought sugar cane to plant as one of their first crops.

    King Henry V of England conquered most of Normandy, France starting by besieging and taking the port of Harfleur in and the town of Rouen in January It was completed in 14 years using , artisans and up to one million labourers. The sea broke through the dykes at Dordrecht in Holland and over , people drowned. Large areas of Zeeland and Holland were flooded when the sea broke through the dykes on what was called St Elizabeth's Flood as it happened on that Feast Day.

    Between 2, and 10, people were drowned in the devastation. The Venetians controlled the town until it was captured by the Ottoman Emperor on 29th March Deva Raya 11 succeeded his father, Veera Raya, to the Vijayanagara Empire South India and ruled as one of the greatest monarchs of the sangama Dynasty until King James 1 of Scotland returned to Scotland after being held hostage in England as an 11 year old on 22nd March King James 1 was crowned King of Scotland at Scone. He had inherited the throne when his father, King Robert died 4th April and James was 12 years old but he had been detained and brought up at King Henry V's Court in England for the next 18 years.

    When he returned to Scotland he had to put down rebellious nobles. Henry the Navigator of Portugal captured the Canary Islands but was expelled by the Castilians in and this was confirmed in by the Treaty of Alcasovas between Castile and Portugal. The French poet Alain Cartier wrote the poem of courtly love, 'La belle dame sans merci. Vietnam regained its independence from China after the independence established in AD was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty.

    Japanese Civil unrest occurred with the Shocho uprising of peasant farmers after a poor harvest and an epidemic when they were denied debt relief. The trouble lasted until September Work was not started until by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi and the building was completed completed in the 's. Queen Suhita succeeded to the Majapahit throne East Java and reigned until King Charles V11 of France was crowned at Reims. He had inherited the throne in but most of Northern France was then occupied by the English or Burgundians.

    Joan of Arc participated in the liberation of Orleans from the English who had been besieging the town for five months. She was found guilty and burned at the stake on 30th May at the age of After the War, a re-trial by the French on 7th July declared her innocent. The French female fighter, Joan of Arc, was burned at the stake in Rouen after a trial for heresy cross dressing by English and Burgundian clerics. The trial was legally flawed and politically motivated. The Kingdoms of Portugal and Castile signed the Treaty of Medina del to end the many confrontations beween them since In spite of this China proceeded to turn its back on the outside world.

    The Peasants' Rebellion in Sweden led by Engelbrecht Engelbrechtsen over taxes was ended when he was assassinated on 4th May Muslim Slaves were brought for the first time into Portugal from West Africa and were openly sold in market places after Pope Eugene 1V issued a decree in authorising the capture of Muslim slaves as a part of the Crusade and those following this pursuit would receive absolution of their sins.

    The followers of the Bohemian Priest Reformer Jan Hus who had been burned at the stake on 6th July , led by a priest named Prokop the Great had fought against the armies of various European countries The Bohemian League in the course of five Crusades called by the Papal Authorities. The Hussite Wars began on 30th July and ended with the Papacy allowing the moderate Bohemian Hussites to practice their rites as preached by Jan Hus.

    The Thames River froze over and the frozen state lasted until 10th February The Inca Dynasty was founded by Pachacutec. Inca people had occupied an area around Cusco since the 12th Century until Pachacutec enlarged their lands by conquest so that they covered an area of what is now Peru and Ecuador.

    This Empire survived until defeated by the Spaniards in It became the largest pre-Columbian Empire in America. It was attacked by the invading Spanish colonialists and the last Inca stronghold fell in The agreement signed at Florence failed due mainly to the opposition of some elements of the Orthodox Church including the Russians. There was no follow-up as Constantinople fell to the Ottoman forces on 29th May and to this day the eastern Churches do not accept the agreement of Florence.

    Florence Cathedral was dedicated. Building had begun in and completion was in although the exterior was only completed in Portuguese traders began transporting West Africans as slaves which were sold in Lisbon market places. In the next years about twenty million slaves from Africa would be transported to Europe and the New World. Civil War broke out and by the League had broken up. An estimated 2 million slaves were trafficked by the time the trade ended in England lost all its possessions in Gascony, France with the exception of Bordeaux and Bayonne.

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    Abdur Razzaq of Persia was sent on a mission to India and wrote an account on 1st May He is a modern day Albanian national hero. King Alfonso V of Aragon captured the City of Naples and made a triumphal entry after a siege that started on 11th November He later went on to conquer Sardinia in The Albanian State was founded under the name, League of Lezne.

    It lasted until conquered by the Ottoman Empire in King Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples after a siege that started on 12th June and his triumphal entry on 10th November Later he goes on to conquer Sardinia. But Vladislau violated the Treaty resulting in the Battle of Varna on 10th September in which he was killed and his army suffered a disasterous defeat. Wijaya Parakrama Wardhana succeeded Suhita as the ruler of Majapahit Java which had been founded in and ended The Union of Kalmar between the Scandinavian Countries begins to disintegrate. This resulted in opening up much of Eastern Europe to eventual Ottoman domination.

    The Chinese army of nearly , men was defeated by about 20, Mongols and Zhengtong was captured but released after four years. The Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe in Africa which had been established in by Mapungubwe settlers from the south was conquered by the Kingdom of Mutapa.

    The Great Wall of China was rebuilt with brick facing and extended during the Ming Dynasty to Manchu Picchu in present dayPperu was built by the incas and abandoned about a century later. Approximate date that Manchu Picchu was built. It was abandoned in but never found by the Spanish invaders. The American explorer, Hiram Bingham was shown it by locals in By 19th october with the surrender of Bordeaux England had lost all its occupied French territory with the exception of Calais and surrounds.

    They were driven out and Cade later died of wounds received when being captured on 14th August His cause, however, indirectly led to the War of the Roses due to the repression and corruption of Henry's Court. It was the last Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and lasted until The ruler Brawijay 1 succeeded Wijayparakramawardhana to the Majapahit Kingdom Java which was founded in and ended in with the Muslim invasion.. It was founded 11th May and the Ottomans maintained its name until their Empire ended in and Turkey changed it to Istanbul.

    There were four campaigns during the War of Lombardy between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan which began in and continued until the Treaty of Lodi. The German Gutenberg printed the Bible in Latin with Gothic lettering using movable, metal type marking the age of the printed book in the West.

    This was the start of the English War of the Roses. Hungary was able to repel the Ottomans siege of Belgrade and prevent further advance of the Ottomans into Europe for the next 70 years. Prince Janos Hunyadi of Hungary leading the defence of Nandorfehervar Belgrade which was being blockaded by the Ottomans led by Sultan Mehmed 11 on 21st July destroyed the entire Ottoman Danube Fleet and repelled their land forces obliging the besieging Ottomans to retreat on 22nd July Prince Hunyadi died shortly afterwards on 11th August Freiburg University was founded by the Habsburg Dynasty.

    It was the second university in the Austrian Habsburg Empire after Vienna. Henry had earlier been deposed by an act of Parliament on 4th March passing the throne to Edward 1V. Henry's mother, Margaret of Anjou, had refused to accept Parliament's Act. Edward 1V was crowned King of England having occupied London on 26th February and been declared King by Parliament the following month.

    Sultan Mehmed 11 of the Ottoman Empire captured Meniko Castle in the Peloponese Greece after a siege and gained the whole of that area with the exception of some Venetian controlled towns. Prince Vlad of Wallachia with his forces broke into the invading Ottoman camp in an attempt to capture Sultan 11 The Night Attack but failed and retreated. The Ottomans found in nearby Targoviste Town A Moroccan Revolt ended the year Marinid Dynasty.

    Pope Pius 11 threatened to ex-communicate any Christian importing Alunite Alum into Europe as this would threaten the Papal mining monopoly of Alunite in the town of Tolfa. The War ended with Western Prussia being ceded to Poland. Singhawik Ramawardhana succeeded Ginsawardhana as tyhe ruler of Majapahit Java. The Onin Civil War in japan started. It lasted until and was a power struggle over who should rule over a united Japan. It was soon to be annexed by France in They were second cousins and needed Papal approval for the marriage.

    German printers established the first printing Shop in Paris. Earlier Printing Shops had been set up in Cologne in , Rome in , Venice in , and later ones in Cracow in and London in Nicolas Jensen, a French Engraver living in Venice was the first printer to use movable type with Latin text rather than Gothic text.

    Thomas Malory's Morte d'Arthur was completed. It was first printed by William Caxton in after Mallory's death. Yorkist faction defeated the lancastrian faction at the Battle of Stamford in England. After 10 years Edward was exiled and Henry was restored to the Throne. Henry was deposed as King for the second time. Cape Lopez Gabon is named after him. The Dynasty lasted until A game called 'hands-in-and-hands-out' - a precursor to the game of cricket - was banned by King Edward 1V of England because it interfered with compulsory archery practice.

    The Old swiss Confederacy and its allies defeated the Duke of Burgundy during the Burgundian Wars which began in This resulted in the decline of Burgundy. William Caxton issued his first dated book which was printed. However, the first book to be printed in the English language was by Caxton, in Bruges, Flanders on a printing press he set up in It was a translation he had made of 'Recuell of the history of Troye.

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    The Venetian Republic declared war against the Ottoman Empire in on an issue of trade and fighting lasted until the Treaty of Constantinople in which Venice ceded many of its possessions in Dalmatia, Greece and the Levant. The Ottomans reached their closest point to Venice when they besieged and captured Shkodra Scutari in Albania during the first Ottoman - Venetian War of to Sultan Mehmet 11 set off in another fleet to capture the whole of Italy but died on the voyage.

    His successor Bayezid 11 ordered Ahmed Pasha to be hanged and the fleets to return on 11th September Ahmed decided to withdraw his army back to the Steppes. The Sistine Chapel in Rome was completed; having been started in for the election of Popes when the first elected Pope was Alexander V1 on 11th August Portuguese explorers discovered discovered bananas growing on the West Coast of Africa which was the first time Europeans had access to them since Alexander the Great brought back bananas from India. It was occupied by the Dutch on 29th August and the whole Colony was ceded to the Dutch on 9th January The Pentateuch first five books of the Bible was first printed in Bologna, Italy.

    It is called the Torah by the Jews. Christopher Columbus attempted to interest King Charles V of France and King Henry V11 of England in an expedition sailing west to the East Indies by sending his brother Bartholomew to try and convince them to support his plan. He had personally tried and failed to interest King Joao 11 of Portugal the year before. He went on to occupy Lower Austria assuming the title Duke of Austria before signing an armistice on 16th December Richard was killed in the battle and was the last of the Plantagenet Dynasty while Henry Tudor became King Henry V11, being the last English King to win the Throne on a field of battle.

    It is the oldestmilitary corps still in existence in the UK and should not be confused with the Yeomen Wardens of the Tower of London. The slaves in the Kingdom of Gaur, India revolted and set up their leader as ruler. The expedition of three ships set sail from Lisbon in August and reached the furthest point at the Boesman River Eastern Cape, South Africa on 12th March before turning baack to reach Lisbon in December Torquemada came from a family of Jewish converts to Christianity.

    The first European typhus epidemic was recorded in Aragon brought by soldiers returning from Cyprus also Europe. King Henry V11 took control of the English wool trade from the Florentine bankers. Portuguese settlers planted sugar cane on Sao Tome using slaves bought from Benin to work the cane fields. The construction of the mausoleum of the Mongol ruler Tamberlane Gur-e Amir was started in in Samarkand Uzbekistan and completed in Only remnants of it survive. As the last Muslim ruler this brought to an end Muslim involvement in Spain since and resulted in a united Spain.

    The castile Monachs, Ferdinand and Isabella, entered Granada the following day. Christopher Columbus persuades the Monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella of Castileto aponsor a western expedition to reach the east Indies on 1st May and they signed a grant for him to make his first voyage to the Western Hemisphere starting on 3rd August from Castilian Palos de Frontera with a fleet of three ships, Santa Maria, Pinta and Nina.

    They first landed on the island of San Salvador Bahamas on 12th October. The return to Barcelona with only two ships on 15th March His second voyage was with 17 ships sailing on 24th September which landed on the Island of Jamaica on 3rd May The return to Spain was in March The third voyage was with 6 ships leaving on 30th May when they landed on the Island of Trinidad on 31st July The following day they landed on the Paria Peninsula in what is now modern day Venezuela and, believing it to be an island, he named it Isla Santa.

    The expedition returned to Spain on 19th August The fourth and final voyage was with 4 ships on 12th may and return to Sanlucar de Barrameda on 7th November Between 50, and , Jews were expelled from Spain. The English started the siege of Boulonge but called it off and withdrew to Calais with the signing of the Peace of Etaples with France on 3rd November Spain commissioned the Italian sailor, Christopher Columbus, to find a trade route to the East by sailing West. He left Seville with three ships in August and landed in the Amnericas Bahamas.

    Leonardo da Vinci made a technical drawing of a helicopter years before a helicopter was able to fly. The Chinese were making rotary wing toys that flew in AD Pope Alexander V1 issued a Papal Bull that established a demarcation line leagues west and south of the Islands of the Azores granting all new lands discovered east of the line to Portugal and all new lands west of the line to Spain.

    Portugal considered this detrimental to their interests and protested. Christopher Columbus landed in the Caribeanon Island of Guadeloupe on his second voyage. The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between Spain and Portugal in Valladolid Province, Spain and modified the details of Pope Alexander's Papel Bull of by moving the demarcation that gave Spain land rights to the west and Portugal, land rights to the east, leagues to the west - leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands.

    The Treaty of Tordesillas signed between the The Crowns of Spain and Portugal at Vallladolid, Spain agreed to divide between the two countries all lands available for colonising. Portugal to have access to the Eastern part of South America. Pope Alexander V1 had endorsed the Treaty on 4th May The House of Medici came to prominence in Florence by founding a bank that became the largest in Europe. Gaining wide political influence the family produced four Popes and two Queens.

    The Italian mathematician Fra Luca Pacioli published the first book on the accountancy double entry system. The first cases of syphilis in Europe were recorded amongst French soldiers besieging Naples. It was the first English speaking University to teach medicine. King Alexander Jagellon of Lithuania ordered the expulsion of Jews from the country. The intervention of recently united Spain instigated the First Italian War from to The Diet of Worms met on 2nd February and attempted to reform the Holy Roman Empire but, by the end of the sessions had only succeeded in laying foundations for a future Constitutional State.

    The French army under King Charles V evacuated Novaro and the withdrawal from the whole of occupied Italy took place shortly afterwards.

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    • Vyborg Castle in Russia was occupied by Swedish forces and besieged by Russian forces who fled when there was an unknown explosion at the Castle. Poland established serfdom by putting a restriction on the right of Peasants to leave the land on where they worked and the landlord for whom they worked. A rebellion started in Cornwall against high taxes and a large force of Cornishmen marched to London where they were defeated at the Battle of Deptford Bridge by forces of King Henry V1 on 17th Jun Spanish forces captured Atella in the Kingdom of Naples which had been founded in King Mannoel 1 of Portugal ordered the expulsion of all Muslims and all Jews who would not convert to Christianity, to take effect by 31st October This order ended all previous Islam, Judeo, Christian tolerant co-existence on the Iberian peninsula.

      People in Florence were encouraged by the Dominican Friar, Girolama Savonarola, to throw on to a public fire all items that might lead to sin. It became known as the 'bonfire of vanities. Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci was commissioned by Spain and left Cadiz, Spain on his first expedition to the New World with 12 ships and returned in October Spain minted a money system based on copper Maravedi that were the first to circulate in the New World and continued for the next years.

      Vasco de Gama of Portugal set sail from Lisbon with a fleet of four ships and crew. The Treaty of Ayton was agreed between Scotland and England on 30th September and ratified in It was sealed with a marriage between the two Royal Houses and although the Treaty was broken it led to the unification of the two countries under a grandson of the marriage, King James V1 of Scotland.

      King Manuel 1 of Portugal issued a Decree that all Jews of the Kingdom must convert to Christianity or leave the country. Richmond Palace was one of the first buildings to have water flushing toilets. Leonado da Vinci completed the Painting of the 'Last Supper' on the wall of Santa maria delle Grazie church in Milan having started in Leonardo da Vinci completed his wall painting in a Milan convent that he had started in Vasco de Gama of Portugal reached Queimans Mozambique on his voyage to Calicut India and found the territory under Arab control, The expedition stayed there until 29th March No trace was found of the ships.

      The Portuguese explorer landed at Kappadu Calicut , India having sailed from Lisbon on 8th July with 4 ships and crew. For a time he had great influence in the Republic of but was ex-communicated by the Pope and when his popularity waned he was publicly hanged in Florence and his body burned. He is considered to be the precursor to the Reformation. There was a revolt by the Welsh at Meironnydd which succeeded in capturing Harlech Castle before being suppressed.

      Christopher Columbus reached Trinidad and the Orinoco River on his third expedition. The Black Death epidemic, also called the Great Pestilence, arrived in London and other parts of England and lasted until The writings of the German nun Hrotsvitha of Ganderschein, a 10th century dramatist, are discovered. She wrote in latin and is supposed to be the the first person in the West to write drama since antiquity. This was the final Battle of the Swabian Wars and resulted in the 'de facto' independence of Switzerland from the Empire.

      The Treaty of Basel that followed on 22nd September ended the Swabian Wars and ensured the de facto independence of Switzerland. The war ended in when Ottoman cavalry reached Venetian territory in Northern Italy and an armistice was agreed. Venice recognised the Ottoman territorial gains in Dalmatia. Setting off from Lisbon with four ships and crew on 8th July the expedition reached Calicut, Kozhikode, India on 20th May and returned to Lisbon the following year.

      The wooden bridge Pont Notre Dame in Paris which had been built in collapsed and was replaced by a stone bridge in that lasted until Jehan Lagadeluc, a Breton priest, compiled the first French and Breton dictionary in which was published later in Treguier. The rebellion of Alpujarras started in Granada when the Muslims were being forced to convert to Cristianity and was suppressed by the castilian forces by April Almost certainly, Giraldus had misidentified the kind of apples for which Avalon was famous, and his claim that Glastonbury was the Isle of Avalon had no basis in fact.

      Giraldus Cambrensis was on a roll, however. He described a leaden cross he claimed had been discovered on the underside of the gravestone. The cross bore a Latin inscription, which read:. It does not appear to have occurred to Giraldus that 'Guenevere' was a medieval French version of the name of Arthur's queen and, therefore, not quite authentic.

      The leaden cross vanished many years ago, but William Camden made a sketch of it in Camden's sketch shows no reference whatsoever to Arthur's 'second wife'. Giraldus, it would seem, had dreamt that bit up. Still, the 'discovery' of the grave, along with the publicity campaign undertaken by Giraldus Cambrensis, did the trick. Pilgrims flocked to Glastonbury rather like their latter-day counterparts, now known as tourists and their cash paid for the reconstruction of the abbey and for the Lionheart's military adventures in the Holy Land.

      As an added benefit, the rebellious Welsh were thoroughly discomfited. For years they had predicted the return of their glorious culture hero. Once his bones had been found mouldering in an English grave, the prospect of him riding forth again seemed much less likely. The 'discovery' of Arthur's remains had been engineered to boost the fortunes of Glastonbury Abbey, but the effects would be far-reaching.

      The event's curator, Sarah Toulouse, told the world's press, 'King Arthur is a mythical character who was invented at a certain point in history for essentially political reasons. There is, sadly, some truth in that statement, but it is not the full story. Ms Toulouse continued: 'If [King Arthur] had really existed there would be more concrete historical traces of him. A hero named Arthur undoubtedly existed, but his legend was stolen, uprooted from its proper place and time and transplanted to another country.

      Few acts of cultural appropriation can compare with this flagrant theft. But Arthur was never English. England did not exist in his day. Ackroyd's statement offers proof of the fact that the cult of Arthur was commandeered by his enemies. The scam of Arthur's grave and the subsequent myth that Glastonbury was the Isle of Avalon formed a major part of the conspiracy to reinvent Arthur as an English paragon.

      Not for nothing has Glastonbury been described by one writer as a 'factory of fraud' and a 'laboratory of forgeries'. The same manipulative cynicism was brought into play more than three centuries after the faked discovery of Arthur's grave, when Glastonbury's interests were once again threatened. On this occasion it was another King Henry — the eighth of that name — who had set his sights on the vast wealth of the Church. His officers were standing by to 'suppress' the monasteries and seize their assets for the Crown.

      With exquisite timing, at that precise moment — — a manuscript appeared; known to scholars as the Hafod MS 19, it also goes by the more enticing title of The Greal. The manuscript contained an account of the life of St Collen, an obscure British saint more commonly associated with the parish of Llangollen in Wales. The tale, as told by the Glastonbury monks, had St Collen inhabiting a primitive hovel at the foot of Glastonbury Tor.

      One day, Collen overheard two men outside who were talking about Gwyn ap Nudd pronounced 'gwin ap nith' and saying that he was the 'King of Annwn and of the fairies'. Collen stuck his head out of the door and reprimanded the men with the words: 'Hold your tongues quickly, those are but Devils. A little later, a messenger knocked on the door to Collen's hut, inviting him to a meeting with Gwyn ap Nudd on the Tor at noon.

      For two days, Collen ignored the summons. On the third day, he armed himself with a flask of holy water and climbed the hill to meet with the 'King of Annwn'. On the summit of the Tor, Collen saw 'the fairest castle he had ever beheld', surrounded by the 'best-appointed troops', the most talented minstrels and 'maidens of elegant aspect'.

      Courteously, Collen was ushered into the castle, where the king was seated on a throne of gold. Gwyn ap Nudd offered the saint an abundance of sweetmeats and entertainments, to which Collen responded with a fit of righteous fury and a well-aimed dash of holy water, instantly sending Gwyn and his court back to the realm of everlasting fire and interminable cold.

      The story, as told in , was a thinly veiled parable: such was the sanctity of Glastonbury that it could withstand the blandishments of luxury-loving kings like Gwyn ap Nudd, and like Henry VIII. The propaganda machine had swung into action once more, but this time it failed in its mission. Three years after The Greal appeared, the king's officers swooped.