June 29, , p. April 4, , p. Appetizers will be served. On Friday, April 5th, from p. Lennox Yearwood. Co-host of the event, Yearwood isfounder of the Hip Hop Caucus and a dynamic social justice and climate change activist.
They're on a roll. Less that a month after their big day in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, the power team landeda major spread in People magazine.
These youth know that they are now reaching deeply into middle America. Denise Giardina's award-winning novelStorming Heavenhas been adapted for the musical stage and is currently showing at the West Virginia University Creative Arts Center. Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ;  in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars. From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred western migration, the California Genocide     and the creation of additional western states.
Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the s. Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery. With the election of Abraham Lincoln , the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal.
The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation , the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery. Three amendments were added to the U. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,  and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote.
The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power  aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves. Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, an assassin's bullet on April 14, , drove a wedge between North and South again.
Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From to , so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region.
Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South.
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In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets. Virgin Islands from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.
Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Rockefeller , and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad , petroleum , and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J.
Let's Tell America It's Great
Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in until , when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations. In , the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.
After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system. The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war. After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism  and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.
They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. While the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments. At home, the U.
Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination. The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
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The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.
Originating in U. Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,  widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,  and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve  led to the mids housing bubble , which culminated with the financial crisis , the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.
The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements  and a relative decline in unemployment. In , the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act , which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates , subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during ,  but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.
The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in and control of the Senate in American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history. Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The United States is the world's third- or fourth- largest nation by total area land and water , ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China.
The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured. The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation ,   and international responses to global warming. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be ,, as of July 1, , and to be adding 1 person net gain every 13 seconds, or about 6, people per day. White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.
The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend. The The drop in the U. In the median age of the United States population was Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.
China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries since the s. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing. In , 33, refugees were resettled in the United States. This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the first time in decades.
In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston. English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U. Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan  is officially recognized by American Samoa.
Chamorro  is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate education , are: Spanish around 7. The First Amendment of the U. Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.
As with other Western countries, the U. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population. Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across the country, including the Oneness Pentecostals , Jehovah's Witnesses , Restorationists , Churches of Christ , Christian Scientists , Unitarians and many others.
The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.
The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Hodges , and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates. Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in , to 42nd in In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.
Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease , drug abuse, kidney disease , cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted per-capita rates.
America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five. From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal. In , American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.
In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or Of Americans 25 and older, The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.
In , U21 , a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher education, and 15th when GDP was a factor. As for public expenditures on higher education, the U. It is a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ". Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.
In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government : federal, state, and local. The local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the census , seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
The District of Columbia and the five major U. The president is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia. The state governments are structured in a roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature.
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Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote. The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus.
The Constitution has been amended 27 times;  the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall. The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.
These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. However, what it actually brings and has brought, in each and every case, is, instead, massive bloodshed, death, poverty, destruction, and outpourings of refugees — and an increasingly dangerous world, the current world. And, so, such international criminal trials must be organized and carried out, or else even worse can be expected to occur.
Only on the basis of lies can that succeed. This is the main function of the press, in such countries: deceit, on those international matters. In a neighbouring country, the FFM team gathered or received biological and environmental samples, and conducted witness interviews. OPCW designated labs conducted analysis of prioritised samples.
The results show that no organophosphorous nerve agents or their degradation products were detected in the environmental samples or in the plasma samples taken from alleged casualties.