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Virtual Nations and Failed States: making sense of the labyrinth more. Over the last decades, sub-Saharan Africa has been depicted as a region where independent states have but for a few exceptions proved incapable of guaranteeing national sovereignty, internal stability and basic services to their Over the last decades, sub-Saharan Africa has been depicted as a region where independent states have but for a few exceptions proved incapable of guaranteeing national sovereignty, internal stability and basic services to their populations. State and nation in their various forms and combinations have remained an integral part of the debate on civil society in Africa on a par with ethnicity and modernity.

The case of Guinea Bissau plainly justifies a reassessment of nationalism and nationhood in the light of popular narratives. By focusing on political and popular meanings and metaphors with regard to state and nation, the present chapter analyzes the shift in discourse from the legitimization and reification of the nation to its fragmentation and present insignificance. Covering a time span from the s to the late s it places events and discourse in a comparative context of political change in Africa, with the aid of published literature, archival and oral sources.

More Info: in: Eric Morier-Genoud ed. Sure Road? The Colonial Encounter Revisited: anthropological and historical perspectives on brokerage more. With the professionalization of anthropology in the inter-war years, its increasing focus on sub -Saharan Africa and the changes occurring in the social sciences after WWII with the emergence of African Studies in the s, the approach The pioneering work by the late Jill Dias on Angola, inspired by the need to understand cross-cultural interaction, negotiation and mediation of fluid identities and practices in the wake of colonial incursions, is highlighted the present essay.

More Info: in: Maria Cardeira da Silva ed. Direct or Indirect Rule? Reconsidering the roles of appointed chiefs and native employees in Portuguese West Africa more. The present article emphasizes the importance of an understanding of the daily functioning of administration, in terms of the negotiated encounter between the different members of the hierarchy at various levels on the one hand, and Acting as interpreters, informants and intermediaries, administrative guards or sepoys formed part of these multifaceted, indigenous and hybrid networks, and straddled a number of boundaries and institutions.

With the aid of archival sources, the present essay cast new light on these actors and their actions in the largely neglected context of the Portuguese empire in West Africa, during the crucial phase of colonial rule from the s to the s. More Info: in: Africana Studia, 15, The question of brokerage is fundamental for an understanding of the complex social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the proto- and colonial periods.

In the case of West Africa, 'ethnic' and 'hybrid' communities acted as In the case of the Guinea Bissau region, christianised communities such as the Kriston stand out as important brokers in the riverine relay trade. During the transition from the slave to the crop export trade during the 19th century, the question of land and access to it became a source of tension and conflict.

Based upon hitherto unpublished material, the present essay focuses upon the complex relations they maintained with the colonial administration and rural communities, providing fresh insights into a crucial period from the late nineteenth to the first decades of the twentieth century as Portuguese colonial rule imposed itself on African societies. Journal Name: Economia e Sociologia, 85, Its implementation occurred just as Its implementation occurred just as Portugal was seeking to dominate African societies by military means. The present chapter shows that tax collection was one the principal vectors of governance characterised by political expediency and personal interests.

The dilution and fragmentation of ethnic identities and intra-ethnic rivalries did not lead to reforms in the absence of a political consensus. The anti-colonial war would eventually confront colonial and metropolitan administration with the consequences of their negligence.

Over the past decades Afro-Atlantic ports have received increasing attention from historians and economists. However, on the whole they have mainly been However, on the whole they have mainly been studied from a historical angle, to the detriment of anthropological approaches. From the s to the late s when the trade in slaves and local produce intensifies, the town of Cacheu became the principal port of call on the Guinea coast.

Based on unpublished sources, the chapter sketches the gendered dynamics of inter-ethnic and Afro-Atlantic relations the powerful images of female personhood that amanate from these fringes of empire. The present chapter takes a closer look at the impact of the transition from the trans-Atlantic slave trade to legitimate commerce in nineteenth century 'Portuguese Guinea' on the West-African coast. Based upon published and archival In particular, two powerful women traders who left indelible marks on the region, by tracing their careers, life styles, fortunes, kinship relations, and partnerships.

Particular attention is given to the political and economic changes that transformed these African women - but excluding many others - from enemies into allies of Portuguese interests in the region. MIller eds. View on ohioswallow. Bibiana Vaz more. Bibiana Vaz formed part of the Christianized or Kriston community of the town of Cacheu on the Upper Guinea Coast in the seventeenth century, trading with the peoples of the region in slaves, beeswax, ivory, hides, and kola nuts in As the most prominent member of the Vaz trade lineage, she led a rebellion against the Portuguese authorities in Cacheu, deposing the governor.

The triumvirate which ruled with her patronage, claimed Cacheu as a free trade zone while excluding Portuguese interests from trading directly with African suppliers. Taken prisoner, she was deported to the Cape Verde islands, but subsequently pardoned on account of the skillful use of her influence in coastal networks, which made her indispensable for brokering the settlement of ongoing conflicts.

Rosa de Carvalho Alvarenga more. She would She would become one of the most powerful and wealthy slave traders during the first half of the nineteenth century. Married to a Capeverdean official, Nha Rosa would establish herself as the head of a trading lineage as well as pioneering commercial rice cultivation in the region. Her kin ties with African societies and Cape Verde's creole communities.

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Location: DOI: Dictionary of African Biography, Publisher: Oxford University Press. Her career would span decades and illustrates the transition from the slave to the legitimate trade. Educated in a local Educated in a local Kriston community along the coast, she would marry a Capeverdean official and slave trader, their affairs being closely watched by British anti-slavery patrols.

Pioneering the cultivation of peanuts in Portuguese Guinea, she would become one of the most influential planters and exporters during the peanut boom, while brokering deals and treaties with local ruling lineages. Her descendants would continue her trading lineage, which continues to the present day and is preserved in oral traditions. The Atlantic Ocean, transcending national boundaries as it does, has long been seen as a pivotal site for understanding the way in which local and regional economies and cultural frameworks gradually became integrated into a global system The Atlantic Ocean, transcending national boundaries as it does, has long been seen as a pivotal site for understanding the way in which local and regional economies and cultural frameworks gradually became integrated into a global system during the early modern era.

A key concept that has brought new insight to the study of transnationalism is that of brokerage. Brokers are people who link up different worlds and are at ease in a variety of cultural settings; they have a flexibility of outlook and cultural identification. Brokerage can explain and add nuance to the multiple cultural worlds and intense trade characteristics of the regions of West Africa. Havik with Toby Green , in: Toby Green ed. Kriol without Creoles: Afro-Atlantic connections in the Guinea Bissau region 16th to 20th centuries more.

So far, relatively little has been written about the cultural So far, relatively little has been written about the cultural history of this fascinating Afro-Atlantic mosaic and of the Creole vernaculars that characterize it. The present chapter addresses the emergence of Creole vernaculars in the Guinea Bissau region against the background of the formation of hybrid social groups and cross-cultural interactions triggered by the Afro-Atlantic encounters. In doing so, it intends to provide a historical perspective upon the way these vernaculars provide insights into the ongoing re negotiation of local narratives, identities and practices as they were represented in written - and mostly locally produced - sources from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries.

View on palgrave. Motorcars and Modernity: pining for progress in Portuguese Guinea, more. Until its military occupation in , the territory allocated to Portugal at the Berlin Conference approximately the size of the Netherlands, i. The first stretches of road — about 70 km — were built during the pacification campaign in the North of the territory to facilitate the movement of troops and equipment.

In the s an ambitious road-building scheme was implemented which by the end of the decade amounted to almost kms of a hardened surface network. However, thereafter little was added to the network and plans for a railway line were shelved. In addition, a large part of the network remained inaccessible during the rainy season, and a significant number of vehicles in the small car pool were out of action for long periods of time or abandoned due to a lack of maintenance and spare parts. Apesar destes programas The Port of Geba: at the crossroads of Afro Atlantic trade and culture more.

Over a period of four centuries the port of Geba, in the Guinea Bissau region in West Africa, constituted one of the main bargaining counters between two political and economic spaces, i. The port formed the lynchpin of the barter trade in which slaves, gold, hides and ivory were exchanged for iron bars, textiles, salt and kola nuts.

From its establishment in the sixteenth century to its demise in the second half of the s, it was the principal Afro-Atlantic port in the region where the caravans run by djilas, i. The present article wishes to fill the gap by tracing the social history and anthropology of the trade settlement from the s to the early s in a regional context, whilst discussing the narratives on different social actors and groups reproduced by published and archival sources.

Publication Name: in: Mande Studies, 9, Female Entrepreneurship in a Changing Environment: gender, kinship and trade in the Guinea Bissau region more. The introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes SAP in sub-Saharan Africa during the s, revived interest in trade, bringing to the fore a whole range of issues, that - through no merit of the programme itself - firmly put the The introduction of Structural Adjustment Programmes SAP in sub-Saharan Africa during the s, revived interest in trade, bringing to the fore a whole range of issues, that - through no merit of the programme itself - firmly put the question of entrepreneurship on the academic agenda.

The link between gender and trade has since gained greater emphasis, not in the least because the former was sidelined into WID programmes whilst street and market vending was excluded from SAP funding. The present paper argues that relations based upon gender, kinship and age are essential to an analysis of entrepreneurship that goes beyond market based models.

More Info: in: C. Ganesh eds. Book Reviews. The study by Filipa Ribeiro da Silva on the Dutch and Portuguese presence in Western Africa fills a number of important lacuna in the historiography of the region and its links with the Atlantic. Its focus on the role of Dutch and Its focus on the role of Dutch and Portuguese merchants and trade companies in the trans-Atlantic and regional slave and commodity trade in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries provides new insights into maritime empires, their organisation, agency and interaction with African suppliers.

Rather than depicting these empires as rivals in a growing world system, the author looks at their entanglement, by means of the commercial and personal connections between them. As a result, the study ventures into new territory by deconstructing the idea of the rise of Dutch maritime ventures in the Atlantic being associated with the demise of those undertaken by their Portuguese counterparts. Tobias O. More Info: in: Journal of African History, 54, 2, Havik, Silences and Soundbytes: the gendered dynamics of trade and brokerage in the precolonial Guinea Bissau region more.

Multidisciplinary and Africa Today. View on inscribe. Joshua B. More Info: in: H-Africa www. George E. More Info: in: Cadernos de Estudos Africanos, 27, African Studies , Biography , and Lusophone Africa. Conference Presentations.

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Innovating Academia and Inspiring People. Jill R. The present biographical sketch focuses on the career of Jill R. Throughout her career she maintained a strong relationship with her students and introduced innovative approaches to teaching and research on African history, economic and social history, the history of anthropology, the anthropology of development, and colonialism and post-colonialism. Metropolitan Kiprian Metropolitan Fotius The Strigolniks Metropolitan Isidore and the Council of Florence Metropolitan Jonah Metropolitan Theodosius Metropolitan Filipp I Church Development Sergei of Radonezh Solovetski Monastery Expansion of Monasteries Morality and National Life Religious Education Metropolitan Geronti Joseph Volotzki, the Judaizers and Metropolitan Zosima Metropolitan Simon Metropolitan Varlaam Moscow — The Third Rome Elder Nil of Sor Maksim the Greek Metropolitan Daniel Metropolitan Joasaf Metropolitan Makari and the Hundred-Chapters Council Abbot Artemie Metropolitan Afanasi Metropolitan Filipp II Metropolitan Kirill IV Metropolitan Dionysei The Anti-Trinitarian Movement The Saints of Moscovite Russia Expansion of Russian Orthodoxy Ecclesiastical and Monastic Conditions Moral Condition of the People The Domostroi Elders and Mystics.

I really want to know more about your church and if I can get any books that would help me to know more How to purchase your publications! Christ is in our midst. He is and ever shall be. WOnderful site. Dios lo siga bendiciendo. Thank you very much for giving all this so important information on this website..! God Bless you! I have found your publications to be very helpful for my own enlightenment. Thank you and May continue to direct the stpes of all involved. Your Eminence!

Please, if it is possible, to intoduce historial pages about former bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad in Argentina, Brazil, Chili, Venezuela. Not only the biograhpies, but remembrances about them. Meta timis. Blagoslovy Vladyka! Thank you for your publishing orthodox texts in the internet!

On many occasions allready I could help people from all over the world to find original orthodox texts by directing them to your internet-site. Vladika, Glory to Jesus Christ! Very good site! A long time russophil and now friendly with the local russian community in my home town I have had the honour of attending a Russian Orthodox Easter and christmas service. I have read much Russian history and seek to understand more deeply Russian Orthodoxy, which is immensely diferent from my own western Baptist faith.

May God be with you; and may God be with the Russian people to whom the world owes a debt of gratitude for saving the world from Hitler's terror in the war the Russian people rightly call the Great Patriotic War. I am a theology student studying at balamand hi to all. Very nice website. It was a joy to see some of our relatives and friends in the pictures from our old church in Montevideo. Hristos Vaskrse! This site is incredible and very helpful. I will be in Buenos Aires studying for 5 months and I cannot wait to come to church God Bless all of you, and hopefully I will be able to meet some of you in Buenos Aires.

God bless you! Very good site. Very food site. Also the prayers of Fr. Paul at Sacramento R. Church have been very helpful to me in several crisis situations. Thank You. Su indigno servidor Jorge Villalobos. Costa Rica jorviva yahoo. Christ is risen. I am looking for an icon of St. Theodosius of the Far Caves. May God be with you and bless you all. Christ is Risen! I am looking at your site and reading articles from your selection.

I was wondering if any of them are available in print-form that I could purchase from you. If so, would you please indicate to me how to order, and pricing information, and I will order immediately. Your unworthy brother in Christ, Michael. I wanted to write you today to say that it was incredibly in-depth and thank you Have a nice day! I have downloaded quite a few of your published articles.

Some of them I pass on to the St Edward Brotherhood to do with as they wish. A very useful site. God bless you. Cristo Ressuscitou! Verdadeiramente Ressuscitou! Vladika Bless, Christ is Risen!

Indeed He is Risen! I purchased two Icons in my visit to Riga from the Russian Orthodox church. How can I get them blessed? My friend and brother are hoping to start a mission in Mexico in the state of Sonora. Glory be to God for your service I am looking for 2 or 3 "traveling" Ikoni. The little 3 or 4 inch square pocket Ikona that is carried on a trip. Do you have such items or can you refer me to a source? I am interested in more studies on saints who lived during AD - AD It is difficult for a lay person to find such readings in regular religous stores.

If you have any books on Saint Barbara AD period, please email me. Thank you so much for your help.

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Catherine c. Please may you send me - if you are able to - a response to the story -"The Suit" by Can Themba. A very good work. My best wishes for the Easter. Antonios Markou. I hope you will like it. Pascale sakr. I am looking for original Russian cyrillic texts of the 6 sacred choruses that have been put to music by Tchaikovsky: Our Father; Cherubic Hymn No. Can you help? I've got some transliterated texts, but I can only read Russian in cyrillic like most language students.

Congratulate you on your site. It's fantastic! Great website, excellent articles. Good job. I thankyou for this interesting site.

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I find the Orthodox 'world' to be a interesting and seldom Known about part of Christendom. I am Protestant. I am thankful to the Lord for the various Churches of 'Orthodoxy'. Thankyou for being there. Your life in Canada is very interesting to me. I practically nothing know about life of orthodox christians and about Russian too in Canada. Very much it would be desirable to learn find out about you and your life more.

What employment occupations at you, how many to people to you come in usual days. Whether a lot of Russian live near to you. Thank you very much for information about your churches in Sao Paulo. Wishing you all the very best, Boris Fomin. I am the member of Georgian Orthodox Church, visiting your site to find interesting theological articles to broad my knowledge in orthodox faith and in theological terms on Russian and English. I would like to have all remembrance about "startza" Serafim. Could you please let me know if you sell publications on the lives of the saints in spanish?

O Kyrios. Diaconissa Anna. Please pray for me! We look forward to welcoming the Znamenia Icon to our city. May God bless you. I would like to find out more about the saint ZOE and if there is an icon of her. Thanks, Kai. I would like to receive as many orthodox religious events as you can. God bless! With respect and faith, Anca -Elena. Thank you for this web site.

Thank you for this most informative site! I am happy to report that it did play a small role in my conversion to Orthodoxy. Your Grace, I humbly ask for your blessing! Looking through the service of Holy Unction, I noticed the attributions for special melodies. Are these special melodies set to music somewhere? Thank you for this site. In Christ, Maria Armstrong. W selu. I am currently a student at university. Due to the lack of sprirituality in the world today, I found myself questioning my faith. Now that I have turned back to the ways of God, I still need guidance on how to live the kind of life that God has willed me to live.

I am Baptist but went to Catholic School in my younger years. It is with great anticipation that I am seeking to become a Catholic. I would be greatly thankful if you could offer any advice for me. Thank you and may God bless. Thank you for providing such a tremendous amount of great information. Thank you for your spiritual wisdom Father. May God Bless us All! Thank you for putting this web site on the internet. It has truly helped me find my Orthodox roots and help distort the mysteries I had about my religion. Dorogoi nash glubokouvazhaemyi Vladyko!

Molim Boga o Vashem skoreishem vyzdorovlenii i verim, chto Gospod' uslyshit nas. Nadeemsya, chto Vy poluchili nashu otkrytku, peredannuyu cherez Ekaterinu Pavlovnu. Iskrenne Vashi Vera i Anatolij Lange. Thank you for this wonderful site, Vladyka! Please pray for me as I seek God's will for my vocation. I am a Protestant minister.

Your web site is very interresting. I am the teacher of russian and litrature. I write poems, storys a. I would like in summer holidays work for halp of churche. But I have just one problem I speak not very good in english. Padre Antonio. Necesito la direccion electronica de la Iglesia Ortodoxa Romana, si alguien la tiene por favor enviarmela, a la mayor brevedadposible. I apprecaiate the availability of your publications online. I sent a request via a separate email. God Bless You always!

Very good website. We need sites like this. I would love to read more about life of Russian Saints. God Bless You Janna. Hello Father Alexander, I am very happy to see a Orthodox web sight to keep us informed.

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Wishing You and your family a Merry Christmas! Christ is Born! C Bogom, Katya. Blagoslovi Vladiko Your Grace, I have read much of what is available on your site. I have translated some of it into Macedonian and have distributed it among believers here in Macedonia. Until recently I agreed with everything you teach.

I must say that I was shocked and grieved beyond words when I read your explanation on the origin of man; where you adopt evolution in its most radical form that from molecules to microbes to apes to man; not even allowing for a divine creation of Adam and Eve. I was further alarmed and to be honest M Andreev and Father Mikhail Pomazansky to fit you beliefs and offer them such as on-line textbooks at the Holy Trinity Seminary in Jordanville , with complete disregard for what the authors believed and taught on the creation of the world and man and the nature of the pre-fall world and man. Surely your Grace this cannot be a Christian attitude.

Therefore, it is impossible to have a painful and violent pre-fall world i. Nobody who thinks logically can accept such paradoxes. Such compromises undermine the Christian faith at its root. Your Grace, please reconsider in light of the teachings of the Holy Fathers and true science your views, which might be an obstacle and a trap to the ones who would like to believe but find that they simply cannot compromise their integrity by accepting an explanation which is so incoherent as to be hypocritical.

Your Grace, please accept my filial apology for any wrongs on my part in writing the above. Recommended by Revd Douglas Reid to consult your website. Very impressed. Best Regards. Fray Daniel Maria Rossi O. Muchas gracias por los escritos. This is one of the best Orthodox sites on the WEB. I have been reading the articles all night long.

I will be back again.. Dear Vladika, Bless please. I had submit my inscription as learner. Excuse Me.

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I beg your Holy Prayers. Vladyko, Blagoslavi. Anna Papkova. I wish one day I can come to visit your MONASTERY,friend of mine told me how good and spiritualy is there,it is good to know there is still faith and spiritualy priest and monk around,and because of your prayers for the world we are a life and safe.

Saludos en Cristo. Paz en Cristo! May the true meaning of Christmas be ever in your heart. Thanks for building and maintaining a very helpful web site for those seeking to learn more about Orthodox Christianity. Tem sido de grande ajuda em minhas pesquisas. John the wonderworker abides with them baptized at his mission here. Da chranit Vas Hospod! Spasiba za sait. Please I am sending a new message, because I think it is very important to tell you that I was born on september 29, , here in Mexico this day we celebrate Saint Angel Michael, so this is my saint.

Maybe you can give more info about that. Please send me info about religion. Where I can visit some church or something like that. Please can you send me the info in spanish? Thanks in advance. Please, keep up the good work Thamk you. I was looking at your web site and found it to be very interesting. Please add to your prayer list, my needs to have my papaerwork and closing on my house go smoothly this week.

I am running into obsticals, and this is my first house. I am a single mom, with a christian background who really wants a nice home for me and my son. I believe in prayer, so please add this to your list. Thank you very much, Beth prince. I am just a lowly, humble poet, and common working man trying to plant a seed in the heart of humanity. God bless you and Saint Angels Michael and Gabriel may protect you! Slava Isusu Christu! I want to thank you from this page site.

It's really good. But could you give on this page also texts in church-slavonic language. It will be better. Ps: Sorry for my not good English. My friend informed me about this site. This is the first time i am visiting, and i am really pleased. It will be helpful for my eagerness. I will give my Residential address, if you contact me in the above mail id. Thanking you, Nandhu. In my search for more information on the next WYC I stumbled apon this site through a friend.

I have not yet had the chance to explore all it's pages, but from what I've seen I intend be a regular visitor. Well done! This website as helped my friend and I understand about the church and bible, and helped understand how mediumship is wrong. We gave your one printout on the spirts and demons to a spirtualist and he would not go near it he was scared of the printouts, but it helped us get out point across to him for how wrong it was, it was strange considering it was written by a bishop they would not condsider the contents and said it was evil and cursed, they were actually reviled by it.

Thank you for your clear explantations. God Bless. Want to learn about being Orthodox.

Fernando Pessoa (1954) - Almada Negreiros (1893-1970)

Thank You E. General Information on the Orthodox Faith. Blogoslovit Vladiko! I am from a Russian Orthdox family, and in my city there is not Russian Church. I attend the jurisdiction of his Grace Bishop Jeremiah. Frequently we have youth orthodox russian activities. I would love to have a orthodox exchange and make new orthodox friends. This sit is wonderfull, there is the sensible spirit and knowledge of Orthodox Church, The Real Church of God, to many nations.

I wish you a wonderfull and blessed work! With Love in Christ! Vuestra Eminencia Obispo Alejandro: Le doy profundamente las gracias por que he aprendido mucho de la Iglesia Ortodoxa, y este conocimiento me lleva a descubrir mas a Dios. Sinceramente, Manuel Senderos Bracamonte. Blagoslovi Vladika! Thanks very much for your site, it has laid to rest many of the questions I had been dealing with, especially since I have moved away from home not long ago, and away from people I had always relied upon for guidance in religious matters.

Paz y Bien. He was baptized Russian Orthodox and his family are members of the Church in Belgium. He would like for us to be married in his Church and I would like more information about education and baptism in the Russian Orthodox church. Unfortunately, there are none in Southern Nevada. Do you have any contacts or suggestions for me? Sincerely, Kimberly Solmerin. Encontrei este site e gostei muito. Hello everyone. I have visited this sighted several times.

Always enjoy all the readings, and the gallery of photos. I wish that somehow, someway, the "white russians" can oneday unite together. There are so many of us scattered around the world, and we are all bound under our Orthodox Faith. The secularisation of the Republic constituted one of the main actions to be taken in the political agenda of the Portuguese Republican Party and the Freemasonry.

Monarchists in a last-ditch effort sought to outflank the republicans by enacting anticlerical measures of their own, even enacting a severe restriction on the Jesuits on the day before the revolution. The religious oath and other religious elements found in the statutes of the University of Coimbra were abolished, and matriculations into first year of the Theology Faculty were cancelled, as were places in the Canon law course, suppressing the teaching of Christian doctrine. Religious holidays turned into working days, keeping however the Sunday as a resting day for labour reasons.

As well as that, the Armed forces were forbidden from participating in religious solemn events. Divorce and family laws were approved which considered marriage as a "purely civil contract" [] []. Bishops were persecuted, expelled or suspended from their activities in the course of the secularisation. All but one were driven from their dioceses. In response to the several anticlerical decrees, Portuguese bishops launched a collective pastoral defending the Church's doctrine, but its reading was prohibited by the government.

This resulted in him being called to Lisbon by Afonso Costa, where he was stripped from his ecclesiastic functions. The secularisation peaked with the Law of Separation of the State and the Church on 20 April , [] with a large acceptance by the revolutionaries. The law was only promulgated by the Assembly in , but its implementation was immediate after the publishing of the decree. The Portuguese Church tried to respond, classifying the law as "injustice, oppression, spoliation and mockery", but without success. Afonso Costa even predicted the eradication of Catholicism in the space of three generations.

On 24 May , Pope Pius X issued the encyclical Iamdudum which condemned the anticlericals for their deprivation of religious civil liberties and the "incredible series of excesses and crimes which has been enacted in Portugal for the oppression of the Church. A major concern of the new republican government was recognition by other nations. In , the vast majority of European states were monarchies.

Only France , Switzerland and San Marino were republics. For this reason, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government, Bernardino Machado , directed his agenda exercising extreme prudence, [] leading him, on 9 October , to communicate to diplomatic representatives in Portugal that the Provisional Government would honour all the international commitments assumed by the previous regime. Since marshal Hermes da Fonseca personally witnessed the full process of transition of the regime, having arrived in Portugal on an official visit when the country was still a monarchy and left when it was a republic, [] it is not unusual that Brazil was the first country to recognise de jure the new Portuguese political regime.

On 22 October the Brazilian government declared that "Brazil will do all that is possible for the happiness of the noble Portuguese Nation and its Government, and for the prosperity of the new Republic". Less than a month after the revolution, on 10 November , the British government recognised de facto the Portuguese Republic, manifesting "the liveliest wish of His Britannic Majesty to maintain friendly relations" with Portugal. However, de jure recognition of the new regime only emerged after the approval of the Constitution and the election of the President of the Republic.

The French Republic was the first to do it on 24 August , [] day of the election of the first president of the Portuguese Republic. Owing to the tensions created between the young Republic and the Catholic Church , interaction with the Holy See was suspended, and the Holy See did not recognise the Portuguese Republic until 29 June From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Date 3—5 October Location Portugal. Main article: British Ultimatum.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Lisbon Regicide. Manuel II [85]. Main article: Flag of Portugal. Archived from the original on 19 January Archived from the original on 15 May Archived from the original PDF on 23 April Archived from the original on 22 June Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.

Soberania do Povo. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 30 August Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 27 August O Partido Republicano [ Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 23 July Campanhas coloniais de Portugal, — Livra Portugal. Archived from the original on 29 January Farol da Nossa Terra.

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