In response to the all-toocommon sexual assaults on public transport, this artistic interpretation suggests some practical solutions. Sin embargo, nuevas perspectivas luchan por combatir este problema cultural vinculado al machismo. Katri Walker. Urban Ornithology. So ist es auch nicht verwunderlich, dass sie sich auf der niedrigsten Gehaltsstufe wiederfinden und die Mehrheit in der Gruppe derer bilden, deren Gehalt unter dem Mindestlohn liegt. Today the total number is unknown, but it continues to grow.
Supposedly, the structural origin of this problem lies in the unequal distribution of income and the lack of opportunities. Both the children and their families reflect social marginalization. Excluded from society, these children live in a vulnerable situation that makes reintegration difficult and casts them back onto networks of informality and illegality. Although this jigsaw puzzle is solidly anchored in a specific socioeconomic context, it is a complex problem and it has other causes besides financial ones.
They seek a sense of belonging and identity in a group, inhabiting public space and adapting themselves to it to survive. The street undoubtedly takes on another meaning for those who make their homes there. At the same time, they are a space of self-sufficiency and subsistence. These kids improvise their homes there, and look for a substitute for their damaged family relationships. They sniff glue to soothe their doubts and their hunger. Or they simply enjoy their freedom. The latter includes projects focused on social inclusion and participation, which primarily attend to the symptoms of this problem, though they tend to ignore one of the most important causes: the high levels of domestic violence.
B C4 The fifteenth birthday celebration of Ana Juliette, a street child who lived on the Insurgentes Roundabout before she and her friends were expelled from the area. Las calles seguramente asumen otro significado para quien hace de ellas su morada, constituyendo espacios de independencia y de subsistencia al mismo tiempo. Entre los diversos intentos civiles e institucionales por lidiar con este problema destacan dos estrategias: las represivas y las propositivas.
Heute ist die Zahl ungewiss, aber steigend. Man geht davon aus, dass der Ursprung dieses Problems in der ungleichen Einkommensverteilung und den fehlenden Chancen liegt. Sowohl die Kinder als auch ihre Familien spiegeln das Problem gesellschaftlicher Ausgrenzung wider.
Dabei gibt es sowohl repressive als auch. Sie alle lassen aber meistens eine der wichtigsten Ursachen unbeachtet: den hohen Grad an Gewalt in den Familien. Anchored in territoriality or socializing as modes of relating to each other and to the rest of the city, the young differentiate themselves on the basis of generation, origin, and social class. With territory-based identities, the different groups were organized around both legal and illegal means of survival. From the mids on, their proliferation intensified, and by the s there were approximately 1 gangs with an average.
At the same time, the radio opened up new spaces for youth to express their worldview. Nowadays, music — hip-hop in particular — builds bridges of communication. Meanwhile, graffiti and stencils allow young people to express street confrontations and drug use. New gangs also include those whose identities are based on a given attitude rather than a collective way of surviving or certain principles or artistic expressions; but who still used the street to hang out and define their style.
These are the urban tribes, and they are mainly from middle-class backgrounds. These youths, who take on melancholy and androgynous appearance, have to face the ridicule of other urban groups with more defined characters, as well as a chauvinistic and conservative. Los enfrentamientos entre los Panchitos de Observatorio y los B. Bandas Unidas Kiss de Tacubaya marcaron el inicio de la era de las bandas juveniles. Partiendo de una identidad ligada al territorio, los diferentes grupos se organizaron alrededor de formas de supervivencia tanto legales como ilegales.
Se les conoce como tribus urbanas y pertenecen, en su. Rap, hip-hop, goth, heavy metal, electronic, post-punk, aggressive-melodic, household appliance pop, pre-Hispanic death metal, and scream are the voices of the youth who sing, reclaim, and address the city. From the center to the periphery, street altars, tattoos, and posters proliferate, and on the first day of each month 5, people congregate in the streets of one of the working-class neighborhoods that surround the center to pray the rosary to Death. Linked with illicit activities and violence as a result of having so many followers in the prisons, the origins of this cult are still disputed.
In any case, both the rituals and the prayers seem to be a reflection of the social discontent dominating a broad section of society, not only criminals. The devotees, skeptical of the economic and judicial systems, turn to the altars of Saint Death not only to pray for fair trials for those who languish in prison, or for protection for those in risky jobs, such as prostitutes, but also to ask for work and for the strength needed to carry on in adverse circumstances.
In this sense, there are those who suggest that Saint Death represents the death of the state, since she is linked to the roles that the state has ceased to fulfill, such as the delivery of justice and social welfare. On the other hand, in opposition to the attitude of resignation advanced by Catholicism, the worshipping of Saint Death has become a form of protest.
While not rejecting Catholic tradition, it has aggravated the crisis in credibility of the Mexican Catholic Church in the wake of numerous corruption and paedophilia scandals. Moreover, the devotion to Saint Death, characterized by tolerance, expresses a key element of contemporary urban identity. The Traditional Catholic Church MEX-USA, one of the promoters of this cult, is a good example since its very name encompasses This cult also finds itself in confrontation with local authorities, who in started a campaign to dismantle all the street altars, arguing that they are an invasion of public space.
Citambulos Mexico City by Luis Rodriguez - Issuu
In Catholic tradition, votive offerings often take the form of tiny paintings on metal, which give thanks to a saint for granting a miracle; in the heterodox cult of Saint Death they take the form of tattoos. Im Gegensatz zu der von der katholischen Kirche verbreiteten Resignation hat sich der Kult der Santa Muerte zu einer lebendigen Form des Protestes entwickelt.
It is now the great metropolitan areas, rather than rural ones, which send migrants to the north. This is the case of Mexico City, which has moved from being a point of attraction to one of expulsion. While in the s the city received great waves of internal migrants in search of work, today it is the city population which heads for the northern border seeking better opportunities.
Annually some , migrants leave the Federal District for the US, most of them young single people who want independence, or to help their families. With so many of them involved in the building industry as construction workers, migrants send their families plans, sketches, and photographs of their dream houses for them to return to, to be built with their remittances — though this return will often never occur.
So long-distance phone calls are spent discussing building. However, migration has not only introduced American cultural patterns, but Mexican-American ones too. The Cholos — the children of Mexicans born in the US — have created an identity neither American nor Mexican, but rather a mix of both, which has returned from east Los Angeles and New York to the outskirts of Mexico City.
In admiration of the family members who have left, young people still here speak Spanglish, wear the same baggy trousers as their cousins or uncles, wear hairnets in homage to the millions working in American restaurants, listen to rap and hip-hop, and adopt the names of gangs from Los Angeles or New York for their own. The Cholos, the children of Mexicans born in the United States, have constructed a cultural identity which is neither US-American nor Mexican but rather a mixture of both, and which has a strong presence in the outskirts of Mexico City.
My husband is in Florida, in Clearwater. In the morning he works in maintenance and in the evening in a restaurant. He brought some plans from over there to build a house. Since we saw it we liked it and we said that this is the one we want. But it was almost all wood, so we had to use other materials. His dream is to finish the house, come back to be with his family, and carry on our taco business.
Mein Mann ist in Florida, in Clearwater. Morgens arbeitet er bei einem Wartungsdienst und nachmittags in einem Restaurant. Seit wir es zum ersten Mal gesehen haben, waren wir begeistert und haben gesagt, das ist das Haus, das wir wollen. Taro Zorrilla. Dream House. Many Mexican migrants to the US send their families plans and photographs of typical American houses, together with the money to build them, even though they have to use other materials. Los ingresos procedentes del trabajo de los migrantes constituyen una importante fuente de recursos para quienes habitan la periferia de la ciudad.
Mexico City is notorious not only for its overpopulation, but also for its internal fragmentation. Zooming in, however, the distribution is more heterogeneous. There are numerous residential enclaves that are not connected to each other in spite of their proximity. This is the result of both geographical conditions and a lack of urban planning, as well as high levels of social segregation.
The great number of closed-off streets and gated communities reveal a distancing from public life and a withdrawal to the private sphere. This has been the case in Mexico City since at least , due to the economic crisis, when many people lost large amounts of property and the crime rate went up exponentially. Although delinquency came down again in the following years, it has remained at a high level ever since, with robbery of pedestrians being the most frequent offense.
This is partly due to the fact that in Mexico police training only lasts six months, while in other parts of the world, including Europe, police undergo a two-year training period. Moreover, the Mexican policeman has to work in precarious conditions: inadequate equipment, a deficient insurance system, and salaries so low that corruption is inevitably attractive. The government, in turn, has chosen to involve the armed forces in order to improve public safety, rather than undertake radical institutional changes.
With a state unable to protect its population, security has become big business. Frightened citizens are consumers of the security industry, although this may not wholly guarantee their peace of mind. On average, the inhabitants of the city invest dollar per year in private security. Safety has become the privilege unsafe areas. The level 2 is for basic protection. Armouring of this kind will protect against commercial low-calibre weaponry, like a Magnum The saleswoman generally recommends Security Level 4 Plus. With this one, your safety is assured, since this level will resist the impact of an AK47 or the explosion of up to four hand grenades.
Un blindaje de este tipo protege contra armamento comercial de bajo calibre como las Magnum La vendedora generalmente recomienda el Nivel de Seguridad 4 Plus. En promedio, los habitantes de la ciudad invierten 10 pesos anuales en su seguridad privada. De esta manera, la seguridad se convierte en un privilegio de los que la pueden comprar, dividiendo la ciudad, aunque sea ilusoriamente, en zonas seguras e inseguras. Caza-Hummers, Dies hat zur Folge, dass die Stadt — wenn auch lediglich in der subjektiven Wahrnehmung — in sichere und unsichere Gegenden unterteilt.
Da allerdings 75 Prozent der ca. The latter plays the more important role in the perception of safety in the city. The Federal District government makes enormous efforts to show that it is permanently on the fight against crime, through increased police presence and advertising campaigns that highlight falling crime rates.
The paranoia and sense of powerlessness in the face of this situation take on alarming forms, such as vigilantism. Since there have been sixteen cases of lynching in Mexico City. The most recent was in the south of the city on November 24, In that episode, the inhabitants of the neighborhood burned alive three members of the Federal Police whom they had mistakenly believed were kidnappers.
In , Mexico was in second place in the world index of kidnappings, ahead of Colombia, Brazil and Nigeria. Even though the majority of the population is aware of virtual kidnapping, it is nonetheless effective. The ease with which this type of crime may be carried out has led to perhaps the greatest paradox to challenge the city: that a. A mother with both her daughter and her dog on a lead to take them for a walk in a dangerous park. When violence has no limits and everyone involved — government, media, citizens and criminals — actively participates in the perpetuation of this crazy spiral of violence, fear in itself becomes a problem, making it impossible for the residents of Mexico City to achieve peaceful coexistence and solidarity.
There are people who become vagrants in prison. When I got here, they extorted money from me. But I had a friend here, who lucky for me was from the mafia. Then I leave it and hang up, but. With this business you live through a lot of stress. Hay que pagar por todo: para pasar lista, para comer, para dormir. Porque ellos [sus familiares] no me traen dinero, sino que yo les doy. Si te aplicas y trabajas, sale. Testimonial of a virtual kidnapper from inside prison En un secuestro real no tienes salida. Con el fon no hay pedo.
Y entonces he colgado para no seguirle, pero luego la gente no entiende y me vuelve a llamar y casi me mete en broncas. Denn sie bringen mir kein Geld, sondern ich gebe ihnen welches. Wenn man sich anstrengt und arbeitet, dann kommt man zu etwas. Als ich hierher gekommen bin, bin ich erpresst worden.
An der Strippe dagegen ist das kein Ding. Obwohl es mir manchmal schon leid tut, weil ich merke, dass die Leute, die ich erpresse, genauso arme Schweine sind wie ich. Manchmal lege ich dann auf, um nicht weiterzumachen, aber das verstehen die Leute nicht, und dann rufen sie mich wieder an und bringen mich beinahe in Schwierigkeiten.
Erwin Wickert: Ein undiplomatischer Diplomat und die Freiheitsliebe
Carlos Ranc. Wallpaper created from photographs of barbed wire in Mexico City. Ein solcher kann in diesem Fall nicht helfen. This reveals a tendency towards a loss of the sense of community, which leads to numerous problems, both social and practical. Whether transiting the streets of Mexico City on foot or by car, it is common to encounter fences, railings, chains, tires, old paint tubs and crates that arbitrarily impede free passage, and make parking very difficult.
Taking into account that almost 3. Many bars and restaurants offer a valet service whereby cars are parked on the streets close to the establishment in question for a variable charge. An informal version of this service also extends throughout the city to any streets where people tend to park their cars, with young men offering to look after cars in exchange for a tip or even a weekly payment.
Although drivers may be. Pavka Segura. Objects to reserve parking places. Objetos para apartar lugares de estacionamiento. The appropriation of the public way is not, however, just a business; many people tend to adopt the portion of street in front of their homes using crates, tires and even permanent structures , to be used as their private parking space.
Some residents even go so far as to close off the whole street where they live — without permission — and pay for guards, to increase the sense of security and endow it with greater exclusivity. This extension, which in many cases aims to make up for the lack of a garage and a garden, or simply seeks isolation from the chaos of the city, is a deterrent to free access to public space.
For many years the government washed its hands of the responsibility for defending the inclusive aspect of public space, which resulted in such privatizations spreading widely. Nevertheless, the highway laws penalize obstructing the public way with a fine double that of driving the wrong way down a one-way street or. Together with the fight against corruption, this suggests a more encouraging outlook. Si se toma en cuenta que casi 3. Muchos bares y restaurantes ofrecen un servicio llamado valet parking en el que, por una tarifa variable y dentro de una relativa informalidad, se estacionan los coches en las calles cercanas a los establecimientos.
Hieran erkennt man einen wachsenden Verlust an Gemeinsinn, was verschiedene, sowohl soziale als auch praktische Probleme hervorruft. However, the recreational use of public space is threatened by the infrastructure of the streets, which prioritizes vehicular traffic and discourages walking. Paradoxically, avoiding public space because it is considered dangerous is a self-fulfilling attitude, as a lack of people willing to make the streets their own effectively hands them over to the criminals.
The association of recreation with consumerism and the shortage of open spaces in the densely-packed suburbs have turned shopping malls, cinemas, and sports clubs into the only places where people spend their free time. In the last decade, the government of Mexico City has launched notable initiatives aimed at recovering public space and restoring its value for people of all classes.
Behind her, the swimming pools are full, framed by lines of swimmers who await their turn with wristbands of the same colour. Al fondo, las albercas repletas, enmarcadas por la fila de nadadores que aguardan su turno con pulsera del mismo color. Ich bin noch nie am Strand gewesen, ja, ich kannte nicht einmal das Meer. Report from the beaches of the Federal District. Roberta Vassallo. Skating rink, Christmas Pista de hielo, Navidad Eisbahn, Weihnachten Sozialisierung eine feste Tradition. With spontaneity, humor and cheekiness, citizens open doors in different parts of the city to say who they are and what they think about their city.
Con espontaneidad, humor y frescura, los habitantes abren puertas en distintos puntos de la urbe para expresar lo que son y lo que piensan de su ciudad. The solidarity and self-organization that emerged among the citizens in the face of the tragedy gave birth to a new era in which people took on new responsibilities and demanded a corresponding improvement in the performance of the authorities.
Since then, the city has undergone remarkable improvement, although it remains to be seen whether, when faced with major challenges, the authorities and inhabitants will be able to consolidate a new kind of politics that is truly concerned with the common good. Seither hat Mexiko-Stadt entscheidende Fortschritte gemacht. This process, however, has not been without conflicts, above all between the property business, which seeks to promote a neat, clean city, and the street vendors.
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The first organizations of street vendors emerged as a result of a twofold neglect of the center. It was neglected both by the property owners, who no longer. Plaza Tlaxcoaque: Recovering the Center. The people of the city — as well as from the provinces — come to the Historic Center principally to purchases low-value, mass-produced goods. In the s the zone, which had only residents, received 1. The election of the first city government chosen by the will of the people renewed the interest in changing the appearance of a city center that had come to be seen as a reflection of the social decline of the entire country, and as a paradigm of urban chaos.
In , the Council for the Rescue of the Historic Center was established, with the aim of restoring the 9. This organization, in which both the federal and city governments are involved, is led by Carlos Slim, the wealthiest and most prominent businessman in Mexico. Tax incentives and capital gains on property have encouraged private capital to invest in improving the urban and residential infrastructure of the Historic Center, as well as its cultural offerings, with the idea that it become a tourist attraction and leisure space for the middle classes.
Nevertheless, the street vendors have fought tooth and nail to preserve their place in the center, arguing that they solve part of the unemployment problem and that they cater to the lower end of the market. The present head of the city government, in turn, has allocated ten million dollars in financial support for street vendors, with the aim of relocating them to new. Nonetheless, a deeply-rooted culture of street commerce and a fragile economy make it difficult to predict what aspect the city center will have in the decades to come. Sin embargo, este proceso no ha estado exento de conflictos, sobre todo entre el negocio inmobiliario, que busca promover una ciudad ordenada y limpia, y el comercio ambulante.
Seither kommen die Stadtbewohner, aber auch Menschen aus entfernteren Regionen, in die Altstadt, um sich mit allem Notund nicht so Notwendigen auszustatten. Mit Steueranreizen und dank der antizipierten Wertsteigerung der. The Magnate and the Street Vendors struggle for control of the real estate and streets in the Historic Center. Ihr Hauptargument ist, dass sie das Problem.
The student uprising reflected the first demands for political rights by the people living in Mexico City. But it was the devastating earthquake of that created an opportunity to reclaim control over the city, without the mediation of the legal system. Faced with a government paralyzed by the scale of the tragedy, citizens took to the streets to help their neighbors, both friends and strangers, in defiance of the curfew.
Thanks to them, not only were 4 people rescued from the rubble, but services were re-established and the process of relocation of those affected and the reconstruction of the city were quickly begun. However, what took place was not only a phenomenon relating to a specific moment in history. If Mexico City functions at all, despite its enormous defects, it is thanks to the self-organizational abilities of its own citizens, itself largely based on extended families and neighborhood networks.
At this distance from the disaster, it can be seen that at a local level overcome the lack of urban infrastructure and of recreational spaces. In some parts of the city, one observes the private become public, and the public become communal. Arena Azteca Budokan, Frente a un gobierno paralizado por las dimensiones de la tragedia, los habitantes salieron a las calles para ayudar a sus vecinos, conocidos y desconocidos, desobedeciendo la orden gubernamental de permanecer en sus hogares. Mientras los vecinos de Iztapalapa encargan una escultura.
Dank dieser Initiative konnten nicht nur 4 Menschenleben gerettet werden, sondern es konnte auch die Versorgung wiederhergestellt und schnell mit der Umsiedlung der Opfer und dem Wiederaufbau der Stadt begonnen werden. Wenn Mexiko-Stadt ihrer Einwohner zu verdanken, die in erster Linie auf den weitverzweigten Familienverbindungen und dem nachbarschaftlichen Zusammenhalt in den Wohnvierteln beruht.
A wall was built by Federal District authorities to prevent the spread of illegal building into a conservation area. However, on the other side of the mountain, in the State of Mexico, the city continues to grow into this area. MAVM, spread out in an almost continuous urban sprawl, extending over sixteen boroughs of the Federal District, fifty-nine municipalities of the State of Mexico and, until now, one municipality from Hidalgo state.
However, the metropolis subtly changes size every day, still expanding over the beds of dried lakes, forested and agricultural areas, barren ground or extinct volcanoes, though nowadays more slowly than in the years of demographic explosion. The official integration of the city of Pachuca together with another twenty-eight municipalities in Hidalgo State in will make the MAVM the largest metropolitan area in the world.
It is the merging of Mexico City with the metropolitan areas of Toluca and Pachuca that make it a megalopolis. This metropolitan condition brings to the fore the problem of the administrative and political borders that fragment it: one federal government, three state governments and seventy-six — soon to be — local. This multiplicity of administrations leads to regional management rapidly descending into chaos, even more so if we consider that the Executive Commission for Metropolitan Coordination, set up precisely in order to unify efforts, has no effective legal basis with which to back up its proposals.
This fragmentation directly affects inhabitants in different ways, for example when moving around the city or in their access to educational and legal institutions. The outlook, however, is not all bleak. Recent projects, such as the suburban train — coordinated by the federal government in conjunction with the governments of the Federal District and of the State of Mexico —, are generating a network of efficient and affordable transport for the millions of people that travel daily from the outskirts to the center of the city.
This type of initiative shows that governments have really begun to work together, in clear contrast to past measures that failed due to their unilateral nature, such as a containment wall built to limit urban sprawl, which only prevented the advance of new houses from the side of the Federal District, but not that of the State of Mexico.
Metropolitan Integration: Public Transport. Este tipo de iniciativas demuestra que los gobiernos han. Invisible borders in the life of the metropolitan area. Testimonio de Rosario Cipriano: Fronteras invisibles en la vida de la zona metropolitana. Solche Initiativen zeigen, dass die Regierungen begonnen haben, erfolgreich zusammenzuarbeiten. Sie stehen. Many streets lack the basic elements required for safe transit, such as signs, lights, or barriers. One of the most notable causes of road infrastructure problems is the fact that public works are seen as campaign tools by the majority of politicians with the next elections in mind.
As a result, projects carried out in previous electoral periods do not receive the necessary attention, and public works extending over more than a single term are not attractive. Such is the case of the Peripheral Ring Road begun in the s and the Inner Ring Road started in , neither of which has been completed. It must be acknowledged, however, that not all problems are a consequence of a lack of political will, but are also based on structural challenges the scope of which surpasses the budget of local authorities.
New funding mechanisms in partnership with private enterprise are an emerging solution. More successful recent initiatives include the Metrobus or the suburban train, connecting the north- western metropolitan area with the city center. A notable campaign promoting civil awareness in the streets must be mentioned together with these projects, which needless to say are not entirely free of political opportunism.
The campus of the National University, which is almost a city in itself, has developed an effective model for the diversification of mobility, combining a frequent roads are now concentrated in car parks in the outskirts of the campus. Mobility in University City. In Mexico City the bicycle is a work tool, a shop, a taxi, a pickup truck, a food stand — everything, paradoxically, except a means of solo transport for the inhabitants. El camino a la sustentabilidad.
Aus diesem Grund werden die in vergangenen Regierungszeiten entstandenen Projekte nicht ausreichend instand gehalten, und Bauarbeiten, deren Umsetzung mehr als eine Regierungsperiode erfordert, sind wenig attraktiv. Ein weiteres Beispiel ist die vor Kurzem eingeweihte Stadtbahnlinie, die den Nordwesten des Ballungsraums an das Stadtzentrum anbindet.
They are rods, screws, bolts, and metal plates on pavements and pedestrian areas that serve no purpose and that obstruct the paths of pedestrians, who will not easily forget their encounters with them. Hence their name. ONOs are usually inserted in the ground, making their total extrication difficult, though in some cases they are used as anchors for the temporary constructions of the street vendors or as niches for wild plants.
Recent evidence also indicates some people actually use them to create their own tiny gardens. In the best cases, when they have been skillfully created, they are metal handicrafts, like some sort of piercing, adorning the concrete pavement. The great variety of these objects is on display at every corner, allowing identification of whole families and species of ONOs making up a highly creative universe. They take so many forms that they may be categorized according to their aesthetic qualities — what would be your taxONOmy?
Onology classifies them as active or wild, passive or integrated, depending on the degree of danger they represent or their level of integration into their surroundings. However, some experts have ventured a distinction between first and second generation ONOs, that is, between those that were created when a job, for which they were meant to be the base, was left unfinished a post, a column, a traffic light , and those which were formed when someone tried — unsuccessfully — to remove an object from the pavement a sign, a stall, a pipe.
Apart from revealing the attitude towards their work of those in charge of the urban infrastructure, the ONOs are living proof of a scam: a job that was never carried out or, in the best of cases, was finished badly. However, they are not only found in developing countries. Experts in the field have discovered ONOs in cities advances, pedestrians have to get used to walking among these objects, the products of both irresponsibility and involuntary humor. Lucy Roberts. Nachbildungen von mexikanischen ONOs in Berlin.
Mientras avanzan los estudios sobre su naturaleza, los peatones se acostumbran a circular entre estos objetos, productos de la irresponsabilidad y del humor involuntario. Normalerweise sind ONOs fest im Boden verankert und daher schwer zu entfernen. During the pre-Hispanic era, Mexico-Tenochtitlan established itself as the heart of the Aztec empire. For more than seven centuries, Mexico City has been the center of economic activity and the political heart of the country, as well as having the greater part of the cultural infrastructure concentrated in it.
Though Mexico has been a federation since independence, in practice everything revolves around this city, which is not only the capital, but also the great office, the great market, the great stage and the great arena. At least in principle, each of the problems affecting the nation as a whole are solved here; any type of goods can be found here and the best educational and health services are established here.
Civil and religious celebrations take place here, as do the battles that define the direction the country will take. This centralism has, however, been slightly diminished in recent years thanks to the greater prominence of other cities such as Guadalajara and Monterrey. It occupies a privileged space in the Mexican collective imagination, as a kind of aleph which symbolically enshrines the entire history of the country.
Buildings representing the different estates of power surround the plaza: the Cathedral, the National Palace — previously, the palace of the Aztec Emperor and later, of the Viceroy —, the Supreme Court of Justice, and the Government of the Federal District. In , the student movement took over the plaza, recovering its role as a space for civilian protest. In , the Zapatista march beginning in the south of the country ended in the Zocalo, and five years later, the plaza was also the last and most important station of a three-month street occupation that extended over 12 kilometers along Reforma Avenue , in protest against the results of the presidential elections.
Yet above all, it is the. It is usual, however, that the claims of those who come here are ignored: the National Palace, official headquarters of the Executive Power, is mostly empty. Since , the president has lived in Los Pinos, surrounded by the woods of Chapultepec Park in a residence that is safely isolated from the world outside.
The body, the physical presence, is the message. Hier befinden sich die mit Abstand besten Bildungs- und Gesundheitseinrichtungen des Landes. Throughout the twentieth century Mexico City underwent a process of excessive concentration of commerce and state industries, which for several decades made it the economic center of the country. Many industries moved to other areas of the country and the city began its transition towards a center for service industries. Later on, with the influence of globalization, the city was able to recover its dynamism and reconsolidate its financial power based on the mediation between national production and global trade.
The impact of the adjustments were still felt very strongly at a local level. Unemployment and low salaries forced many to diversify their sources of income, which meant that informal activities multiplied exponentially. The city and its inhabitants became multi-purpose. Although informality is most evident in activities such as street trading, there are many sectors of the economy, including the avalanche of imports, where the boundary between the formal and the informal is undefined.
Sometimes this even reaches a point that suggests that the two sides share a symbiotic relationship. El desempleo y los bajos salarios obligaron a muchos a diversificar sus fuentes de ingresos, con lo que las actividades informales se multiplicaron exponencialmente: la ciudad y un alto porcentaje de sus habitantes se volvieron milusos.
Mit der Krise der 80er Jahre aber wurde der wirtschaftliche Beitrag der. Hauptstadt zum ersten Mal geringer. In the case of Mexico City, beyond traditional open-air markets, which date back to pre-Hispanic times, street trading has taken on the most diverse forms: markets on wheels, cars with photocopying machines in the trunk, mobile coffee shops, baskets of tacos on bicycles, etc. With more flexible hours than other jobs, and with the possibility of starting a family business that gradually becomes more established, street trading represents for many access to a better quality of life than that they could ever aspire to with a poorly-paid formal job.
For many women it also means the opportunity for financial independence, without having to give up care of the home. Besides its deep cultural roots and its role as an escape from unemployment, street trading has also long been a source of votes for political parties. The exchange of tolerance for political loyalty — a patronage system practiced by the local authorities during the financial crises that affected the country from to — is one of the main causes of the surge in street commerce, mainly in the city center.
This expansion is also a by-product of globalization: the opening-up of trade and disloyal competition means the products of US-registered companies based in Asia are re-labelled in the US, and enter untaxed into Mexico where, given their low cost, they sell heavily in the network of street markets. On the other hand, the mass production of cheap trinkets in China, together with deficiencies in import controls such as corruption , have allowed. Additionally, Mexico is in third place, after China and Russia, in the world rankings for pirated goods.
It is worth noting that the social function of junk products and of imitations is not the same. Another contradiction is found in the fact that street markets are both a physical obstruction and a place of social. The complexities surrounding their negative and positive aspects and the need to find more sophisticated ways to regulate them are evident.
Mauricio Rocha, Arturo Mera. The pirated goods are not only a means of survival for some, but also a way for those with little disposable income to become consumers. Saints, powders, prayers, candles, incense, and oils are all the result of a religious syncretism that goes back to the era of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, enriched more recently by the influence of Afro-Caribbean witchcraft. Records from the Inquisition show that from the seventeenth century different sectors of the population would resort to less orthodox means when it came to solving quandaries involving love, theft, or abuse.
While the caste system divided, magic brought people together in complicity. Each group Spanish, Indigenous, and Africans could supply part of the ingredients required for the white magic rituals, which are still practiced in the city today.
Spanish ladies would go to their maids in order to use spells to find out whether or not their husbands were being unfaithful. Black female slaves who used substances to stop their masters beating them find a contemporary parallel in those who seek concoctions at the Sonora market to guarantee happiness in their love lives and the jobs they desire. Today as in the past, diverse sectors of society converge in the use of these rituals.
Esoteric practices are a cultural trait that unifies people: the have-nots to get what they need, the haves to avoid losing what is theirs or to prevent the envious from stealing it. On the other hand, the inhabitants of the city have strengthened their devotion to Catholic saints based on the efficiency with which one or the other resolves their material concerns. The latter, responsible for difficult cases and protector of street vendors, provides a more direct answer to the present-day problems of the city.
Later on, it transpired that it was all part of a political charade to involve a relative of the former president in the accusation. Yet beyond the fraud this kind of practice often implies, it is clear that Mexico City remains deeply baroque, and that its citizens build their everyday lives. Besides devotion to the saints, a strong belief in magic has permeated the political scene. In , taking advantage of the credit people give to the esoteric.
Religious solutions [ 1 ] Authentic Anti-Envy Water. Spray yourself with great faith. Must be placed on an altar to Saint Death to attract economic health. Man muss sie auf einem Altar zu Ehren der heiligen Frau des Todes deponieren, um finanziellen Wohlstand anzuziehen. Better life. Fast money. Mejor vida. Besseres Leben. Aus den Aufzeichnungen der Inquisition geht hervor, dass seit dem Wenn die gesellschaftlichen Schichten die Menschen trennten, dann einte sie die Magie.
Diese Rituale werden bis zum heutigen Tage in der Stadt abgehalten. Soluciones religiosas. Die Mittellosen greifen zur Magie, um reich zu werden und die Reichen, um zu verhindern, dass Neider ihnen. Emergency Kit: the Sonora Market offers a huge range of esoteric remedies for economic crisis and disaster. If we took into account the strong tendency among the inhabitants of Mexico City to sort out and keep all kinds of bits and parts of broken equipment, in case they are useful one day to repair something else, that number would be considerably larger.
This deep-rooted scavenging spirit, far from being an ecological way of inhabiting the world, responds to a need many people have to save or deal with the shortages they face every day. Although this form of recycling is mainly a result of practical concerns, it also leads to the creation of ingenious new designs: doors made from crates, bottle caps used as washers, or walls made of plastic bottles. Still unresolved, however, is the problem of pollution — of both the atmosphere and the water table — by the rubbish accumulated in the big dumps.
De acuerdo con cifras oficiales, en el Distrito Federal hay 17 mil pepenadores. Bricolage technology is the peak of recycling. It answers the practical necessities of everyday life, is an effective way of saving, exercises the imagination and makes use of an unconscious ecological awareness. Wie Gera in Stuttgart? Wie gehts wie stehts? Offiziellen Zahlen zufolge gibt es im Bundesbezirk 17 pepenadores. Frases chilangas. Phrases in Mexico City slang frequently make use of words as though they were recycled materials.
The sound elements are played on in order to allude to other meanings. Los elementos sonoros son aprovechados para aludir a otros significados. Die Klangelemente werden genutzt, um verdeckt auf andere Bedeutungen anzuspielen. This form of urbanization has exposed the existing unbalanced relations of power between the makers of the city and its dwellers. While the developers accumulate enormous monetary wealth and power, the city dwellers have been gradually confined to serialized sleeping quarters, excluded from the production of their own environment and ultimately pushed into urban poverty.
We propose a unitary-relational urbanism with the following main intentions: decreasing the labor dependency on Mexico City center, amplifying local skills and cultural consciousness, empowering communities to become more autonomous through local production and trade, creating communal facilities for political manifestation and interaction, rebuilding pedestrian connections and sustainable public transportation, nationalizing toll roads and giving back the city to the citizens.
During the fourteenth century the population of the basin reached an estimated 1. The Basin of Mexico was probably the largest and most densely settled urban area in the world at that time. But the relationship with water has changed: the struggle against it defined the way the territory has been managed. The backbone of the project is the reorganization of public transport, beginning with the elimination of the current flow of buses and minibuses and concentrating all the public transport in a new dedicated-lane trolleybus system.
Currently Eje Central is around 20 meters wide, which will be reorganized to accommodate private vehicles, the trolleybus and a new cycle route running for The east side of the corridor will contain three lanes for regular vehicle circulation, while two central lanes are reserved for the trolleybus and the west side will be taken.
In each of the 26 junctions with new trolleybus stations gardens will be established on both sides of the pavement. This is to be achieved with the development of planning policies which allow redensification and favor mixed-use developments throughout the zone, increasing in height, encouraging social diversity and linking public transport into public space, housing with places of work and private investments with public ones. The most suitable area for internal growth is the northwest zone of Azcapotzalco and Miguel Hidalgo, currently in transformation from mid-twentieth century industry to post-industrial recovery.
However, this area has considerable infrastructure in comparison to districts in the east and south including water, drainage, and public transportation such as several metro lines. It also contains notable educational facilities. Several urban and architectural projects have been launched since Two of these are:. The Tecnoparque office campus will open around 10 jobs in the data and information areas call centers and service centers. New sustainability solutions in terms of water reuse and water harvesting have been incorporated, in a context of high quality environments and landscape.
The currently planned fifty-five hectare Ecological Park will provide amenities including an open air auditorium, a museum of energy and an electric train. The site will also accommodate offices and include a shopping area and restaurants. They emerge from childhood into an urban landscape, which they make their own by dint of inhabiting it. Without enough schools, without decent possibilities of a job, raised among families bitter from decades of suffering economic crises, the young people wander the city like a great nomadic tribe.
They are tired of being harassed by the police and of being told what to do and what not to do, in an effort to undermine their right to decide about the issues that matter to them: how they dress, tattoo or pierce themselves, their taste in music, sexual relations, drugs, political sympathies or antipathies. A powerful survival instinct pushes them to make culture into more than a form of identity: they set off on the road to music, graffiti, fanzines, centers of cultural recycling of their cult objects, dance, dating, partying — practising the fundamental right of all democratic societies: freedom of expression.
Where a council building had been planned, the Faro del Oriente Lighthouse of the East was to be raised, creating not only a space for youth culture, but a green oasis in an arid zone, a place for art and beauty in a part of the city threatened by crime and violence. A light for the young survivors of the shipwreck of the end of one century, and a port of departure for the rafts of the first to launch themselves into the one to come. The zone is also highly vulnerable to floods and exposed to open-air sewage and waste disposal sites. The way people build their identities reflects the elements that define them.
We believe that an intensification of already existing elements can lead to the emergence of a new type of urbanism. The potential contained in everyday public activities in urban space can generate social transformation. At the same time, they reveal different aspects of how people live and relate to urban space. Some of the key issues raised were the lack of communication between neighbors and within the community as a whole, insufficient public transport and commute times of up to four hours each way.
One of the outstanding projects is the construction of the new Plaza de Tlaxcoaque by It is a hybrid, which turns its heterogeneous nature into a strong statement of identity. The garden around the precinct will function as a buffer zone between the chaos of the city and the metaphysical character of the interior. In the V-shaped steel-plate beams various species of plants will grow and completely envelop the structure. The variety of species means the appearance of the Green Wall will change with the seasons, and their growth over the years will lighten the geometric structure.
Three major infrastructure projects are currently underway to improve travel times and safety. The first line was opened in June along Insurgentes Avenue, a key thoroughfare. The system runs on an exclusive, confined lane, which permits a high average speed and regular service. The first route opened in June and joins the northern suburbs with the Buenavista transport hub, linking into the Metro and Metrobus.
The kilometer journey will take 23 minutes, saving over an hour on travel by minibus. The principal bike-park connects with the principal university Metro station, and each faculty on the main campus has a smaller park to pick up or deposit them. Accessibility, mobility and the campus environment have now been transformed by the introduction of the Pumabus. A fleet of wheelchair-accessible, low-emission buses transports passengers to the main campus area from car parks located around the Olympic Stadium. Both parking and the bus service are free of charge for students and staff.
Linking into the Pumabus and Bicipuma networks, this establishes multi-modal connectivity with the urban public transport system. These covering elements emulate the tarpaulins or plastic sheets used in tianguis traditional markets all across Mexico which are often raised, separated or joined in a random fashion to let in natural light and ventilation.
The monochromatic building rises up stealthily, awaiting an enriching exchange with the multicolored goods to be sold there. The subjective interpretation of the space in the setting-out of each of the stalls will enhance the conceptual scheme chosen. Diabli o to e , Vocho-trajinera, The Beetle-barge synthezises the relationship between the former canals and rivers and the current streets of the city. It is also a tribute to the presence of Germany in Mexico, where for decades the VW-Beetle was the most popular car.
Leonardo Heiblum. How does Mexico City sound? What does Berlin look like? And what happens when you stroll around the second listening to the first? This is an experiment equivalent to eating an apple while smelling a mango. The soundtrack is provides by Mexico City, the streets are provided by Berlin.
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In Berlin this tear travels along the pipe system reused in the Tiergarten to prevent it dryingup. Wonach klingt Mexiko-Stadt? Wie sieht Berlin aus? Public relations: Cornelia Schwarte. Image scanning: Livia Radwanski. Book art: Katri Walker, Patricia Lagarde. Journey to the Mexican Megalopolis", published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, first shown in Berlin in su See More.
Alfredo Cottin pp.
The German Center for Architecture daz has dedicated the year to the observation of paradigmatic megacities. The exhibition links informal solutions to formal initiatives and completed architectural projects. La muestra es una her erfahren. Kraft und Lebendigkeit gibt.
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Nevertheless, Mexico City, while vulnerable and chaotic, Overflow deep socioeconomic inequalities fragmenting the population, has created is also resistant and dynamic. It is a city of contrasts in constant evolution. Washington, D. Collection of essays. Quellentexte zur Geschichte der Umwelt von der Antike bis heute. Quellensammlung zur Kulturgeschichte; Cambridge and Melbourne: Cambridge Univ. Technology and Science in the Industrializing Nations, Atlantic Highlands, N.
Control of Nature; x, pages; illustrations; bibliography. Reviewed by J. Dauben in Choice 36 Oct. Impact on the landscape of a German region of various industries, such as forestry, mining, and viticulture, from the middle ages through the 20th century. The impact of inventions on civilization.
Lincoln: Univ. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. A series of case studies on topics such as the role of the Patriot anti-missile system in the Gulf War, the Challenger space shuttle explosion, nuclear testing, economic modeling, the Chernobyl nuclear accident, treatments for AIDS, etc.
Reynolds, eds. Chicago: Univ. Cutcliffe and Terry S. Conrad, Jr.