During the didactic sessions, students were taught critical language and theory underlying each of the selected competencies.
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Our didactic sessions were highly interactive, discussion-based lessons. This format was achieved by illustrating concepts with realistic scenarios from academic medicine while challenging students to pinpoint the origin of a problem or describe the forces at work. Students often contributed examples from their own experiences that related to each topic and practiced applying new learned techniques via interactive exercises built into each lesson.
An overview of the workshop, including a sample of specific content addressed under each leadership competency, is provided in Figure 1. In reviewing the literature on leadership, Avolio, Walumba, and Weber 19 concluded that interventions designed to enhance participant leadership tended to have positive impact on ratings of leader performance even when the length of the intervention was as little as a day or less. Accordingly, we thought that a short, intensive experience would have a positive impact on students.
We considered alternative formats such as a seminar series and concluded that a two-day workshop would be most appropriate given the time constraints imposed by the MSTP curriculum and our overall goal of generating deep, substantive thought and discussion about investigative leadership among the student attendees. The management and education faculty members have more than 20 years of combined experience in teaching cases and facilitating experiential exercises. Therefore, the committee decided that they would facilitate the workshop. Student committee members remained actively engaged in the workshop presentation, serving as process observers and subgroup facilitators for experiential activities.
Ultimately, inclusion of leadership content experts as workshop facilitators was invaluable in achieving our goal of active participation by student attendees. These faculty members were highly proficient in teaching the content and eliciting high-quality discussion among the group participants. We concluded that students would benefit most from the workshop after having spent sufficient time in a laboratory to acquire some fluency in lab cultural norms and exposure to the unique challenges of the research team environment.
Furthermore, we wanted to address the sharp contrast between the conventional hierarchical nature of training in clinical medicine and the highly variable and less-structured environments encountered by research teams, and the attendant requirements for different leadership competencies in each. Concurrently, we sought to reach students sufficiently early in their training to provide an immediate opportunity to practice new skills in the laboratory setting before returning to medical school.
Therefore, we chose students in their first and second years of graduate training third and fourth years in the program as the target audience for our workshop. Additionally, students are encouraged to return to the workshop as senior students; returning participants benefit from revisiting and revising their concepts of leadership, while other workshop participants benefit from discussions enriched by the experiences of senior students.
Students completed evaluations at the close of each workshop to assess participant reaction to the program Were there any topics or skills you wish the workshop had covered that were not included? Was the workshop well balanced in terms of presenting didactic information versus teaching practical skills? What are the one or two greatest strengths of the workshop? What are the one or two greatest opportunities for improvement? We are able to draw several conclusions from the three workshops offered thus far in , , and Data from our Likert-scale evaluation questions indicate that, overall, students agree that each component of the workshop was both well organized and executed as well as relevant to leadership; the mean of all scores in both categories combined was 3.
The evaluations also indicate that the participants placed significant value on the interactive nature of the workshop. Likert-scale evaluation responses following the Vanderbilt MSTP leadership workshops conducted in , , and Our success in engaging students in active learning was evident by observing students participating in the workshop. During didactic sessions, unplanned topics often arose as the discussion led to new questions and ideas, stimulating meaningful conversations that we had not anticipated.
We pursued these topics while encouraging students to consider new issues in the context of the leadership competencies covered earlier in the workshop.
Is rewarding success by individual laboratory team members acceptable? What is the best way to do so? There was not much consensus in the evaluations about opportunities for improvement. In the strongest theme that emerged was that while students appreciated the examples that were included to illustrate most concepts, some concepts still came across as abstract.
To address this weakness for the workshop, we examined each of the main teaching points and added as many examples and illustrations as possible. The participants indicated that the main weaknesses of the workshop were related to scheduling: inconvenient hours and too fast a pace to cover each topic in appropriate depth. To address these concerns for the next installment, we are considering narrowing the focus of the workshop to fewer topics that will allow each one to be addressed in more depth, leaving students with a short list of take-home points.
Concordantly, we recognize the importance of emphasizing to students that our workshop should be considered an introduction to a vast and important field. First and foremost, we hope that our students leave the workshop with an appreciation of the necessity of acquiring leadership competencies to achieve success in investigative medicine, along with a solid understanding of a few basic concepts and the motivation to seek opportunities for future leadership development training. We have also considered strategies to assess the long-term impact of the training obtained in the workshop on the subsequent careers of our students.
While formal outcomes such as appointment to leadership positions e. These include surveying former participants at designated intervals after completing the workshop e. This process could also provide an opportunity for former participants to contribute additional real-life case studies to the workshop curriculum and offer fresh insights into the application of leadership competencies as a form of peer consulting.
An alternative idea for assessing the effectiveness of the workshop is to generate a written exam to test the ability of participants to apply workshop competencies to a new set of case studies. This evaluation tool could be applied at various intervals after the workshop. However, since the goal is to provide leadership skills that students will continue to develop and apply long after the workshop is completed, we think that testing immediately after completion of the workshop may not be very meaningful.
Based on the feedback we collected during its three initial installments, we think the leadership workshop provides an effective introduction to investigative leadership for MSTP students. Our participants have helped us identify several keys to our success: involving students in curriculum design; using expert facilitators who are knowledgeable and engaging; placing emphasis on interactive learning; and employing real-world case scenarios to illustrate key concepts. We will continue to offer our workshop biennially and incorporate improvements based on student feedback.
Following up with workshop participants as they progress through their careers will allow us to measure qualitative long-term outcomes and make appropriate changes to maximize the workshop's impact. Dr Cornet, an energetic assistant professor, is studying a new signaling pathway that leads to apoptosis of tumor cells following treatment with resveratrol.
She was recently awarded her first R01 grant to extend her preliminary results. It was clear early on that her regimented work style clashed with that of Thomas, a postdoctoral fellow she recruited to work on the resveratrol project. He is talented at the bench and was very productive as a graduate student, but works erratic hours and has been known to sleep in the lab overnight while his assays are running.
Though he spent months repeating the experiments Dr Cornet cited in her grant application, Thomas was unable to reproduce her preliminary findings. I don't see the resveratrol effect. You aren't in grad school anymore. This angered Thomas, as he had chosen a career in science so he could work his own hours. Besides, he had many projects going and was generating data from all of them. He went back to Dr Cornet's pathway, and this time after including all of the controls he was able to replicate the earlier data. However, the more he learned about the signaling intermediaries, the more he became convinced that there was nothing novel about this pathway.
Meanwhile, his side project uncovered an extremely interesting finding: not only did resveratrol induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an intrinsic pathway, but it also rescued MHC expression, allowing for efficient killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. As months went by, Thomas and Dr Cornet's relationship became increasingly strained. Finally, Thomas barged into her office and slammed a notebook on her desk. I have checked it again and again and we are chasing nothing!
Dr Cornet was not pleased to see her carefully orchestrated research plan and well-oiled approach scoffed at. You need to stop wasting your time with the mice and get back to the project you were hired to do! After Thomas stormed out, Dr Cornet picked up the phone and dialed her closest colleague. He has been working on my new R01, and his experimental results just don't make sense in terms of our preliminary studies. His data seem solid, but he omits controls because he is too interested in pursuing side projects. Pat, he just doesn't listen, what am I going to do? Meanwhile, Thomas found Sarah for lunch.
I have spent the last six months showing repeatedly that there is nothing novel about her hypothesis, and I think the underlying assumptions are flat wrong. But every time I meet with her, she tells me to do more experiments. I have never seen such clear negative results.
But Dr Cornet refuses to listen. I have way more interesting data in our mouse model, and this work could lead to a publication in Science or Nature. What do you think I should do? How would you describe Dr Cornet's leadership style? How would you manage Thomas if he were your employee? How might this scenario be different if Thomas was a graduate student in Dr Cornet's lab?
Dr Ferrell is an established investigator who has spent 20 years studying S. His lab team has been productive and he has secured consistent and ample NIH funding.
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He knows that his research is unlikely to be immediately applicable to human disease, but Dr Ferrell loves science for the thrill of discovery and the opportunity to train students and fellows. Dr Ferrell has recently become intrigued with the biodefense literature. With a PhD in microbiology, he knows about the organisms implicated in possible acts of bioterrorism. He was amazed to learn that although much is known about how microorganisms cause cellular injury, very little progress had been made in the development of new therapies.
Upon learning that peptidase activity contributes to the toxicity of botulinum neurotoxin, Dr Ferrell began to wonder whether S. Dr Ferrell is excited about this possible new line of research. He hypothesizes that cellular injury caused by botulinum neurotoxin can be prevented by a drug that targets the essential toxin peptidase. The research would make extensive use of his yeast model, and would provide Dr Ferrell an exciting change in research philosophy, providing a clear end goal: to characterize a drug target and identify a new intervention strategy.
Dr Ferrell is currently in the last year of his major R01 grant, which he has held continuously for 15 years. He has never had problems renewing grants, but with reductions in NIH funding he was more anxious about the upcoming competing-renewal application than others in the past. He notes that despite budget cutbacks, biodefense research is being well funded. Although he thinks his new ideas about botulinum neurotoxin have substantial merit, this is a field with which he is relatively unfamiliar. He is concerned that his first attempt at submitting a biodefense grant application may be unsuccessful.
At a recent lab meeting, Dr Ferrell proposed the change in research direction, and was disheartened to hear that many lab members had strong reservations. Jamie is a research assistant who has mastered yeast culture and cloning techniques, and her concern is that the new project will employ more cell- and animal-based techniques with which she is completely unfamiliar. She worries that she will be replaced. Mark is a second-year graduate student who is currently writing his thesis proposal and generating data to support his specific aims.
While he is excited about the biodefense idea, he has concerns that his past year of work in the lab would be rendered worthless. Furthermore, he is a month away from getting married and does not want the onerous task of reading lots of biodefense papers before being able to make an informed decision about changing his project. Praveet is six months into his postdoctoral fellowship. He applied for an F32 grant, but the application did not receive a fundable score.
Although he is eager to participate in the new project, he is concerned about funding needed to support his position. Barbara, the lab manager, thinks that Dr Ferrell knows what is best for the lab and that the hesitation to embrace fully the change in research directions by the other lab members is unfounded.
Dr Ferrell returned to his office bewildered by the resistance he was facing from his lab team in embracing this new change in direction. He had been convinced that it would invigorate the lab and benefit everyone. Now he is not so sure, and he lies awake at night wondering if he will be able to obtain funding or have to retire early. How should Dr Ferrell ensure that the change in research direction does not negatively impact any of the existing lab members?
Should alleviation of their concerns be a goal? No conflict of interest exists for any of the authors of this manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Med Educ Online v. Med Educ Online. Published online Aug Erin j. Ciampa , 1 Aubrey A. Hunt , 1 Kyle O. Arneson , 1 Daniel A. Mordes , 1 William M. Owens , 2 Mark D. Cannon , 3 and Terence S. Aubrey A. Kyle O. Daniel A. William M. David A. Mark D.
Terence S. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Tel: E-mail: ude. Ciampa et al. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Success in academic medicine requires scientific and clinical aptitude and the ability to lead a team effectively. Premises The Vanderbilt MSTP leadership curriculum has two primary goals: to expose MSTP students to the importance of proficiency in leadership skills for success in academic medicine, and to provide instruction in a set of core competencies for both immediate and long-term practice.
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Evaluation — How should the program be evaluated? Content Training experiences providing content relevant to the actual work to be done are more likely to produce learning that is usable in practice 14 , What do I need to know about team dynamics and team effectiveness?
Experiential activities A number of effective experiential activities specifically designed for use across disciplines currently exist within the wealth of educational tools for leadership and organizational behavior. Case studies The core of our workshop involved analysis of cases in investigative leadership. Table 1 Central themes from nine original cases developed to highlight key leadership concepts in the setting of academic medicine.
What are the potential pitfalls? Postdoctoral fellows? How can a PI encourage productivity among lab members whose motivation is lacking? Can there be positive consequences of conflict within a lab team? Does it matter who objects, and how and why? Knowing how to procure food or cook food is one of the primary life skills for teenagers. Teach them the below basic food skills so that they can survive in any part of the world. Your teenagers will not continue to dress themselves like the way you once dressed them. They may change their style completely owing to external influences, but the chances are that they are likely to get influenced by the wrong people.
So, here is how they get one of the everyday skills right. Grooming is a skill that children should be taught early on. Personal grooming is important to stay healthy and also have a good social or romantic life. Cleanliness is one of the tenets of hygiene. Teach your kid to keep hemselves as well as their surroundings clean and tidy. This is part of their personal grooming and home management skills.
Some of the basic things that your teen should be able to do include:. Among the critical things that teens should learn, as part of taking care of themselves, is to take care of their health. Important points to remember here are:.
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The best way to teach your kid about these everyday living skills is to help them take care of themselves when they are at home. Avoid doing everything for them. Teaching your child skills and manners that he or she must display in a social setting is essential if you want them to have a smooth social life.
Lack of organization is one of the factors that lead to poor time management. A poorly organized person is almost always searching for something. Sounds familiar? Imagine your pampered little child finally finishes college and starts a life of their own. But they might hates every moment of it if they does not know the basic home management skills. Every teen must learn these life skill activities early on. Driving is one of the most important life skills for teenagers to be self-dependant. But knowing how to drive a car is not enough. Your teenager should also know about auto care or what to do when there is vehicle trouble.
Teach them to:. Knowing how to drive a car is of no use if your teenager does not know the road he or she must take. Basic navigational skills are more important than being able to drive a car. That way, even if they do not have a car, they will be able to travel from one place to another. Some of the things they should learn include:. Communication may seem more like a business skill. Teaching your teen how to get his or her message across without offending another person is important. Communication is a critical skill that your teenager will need to master for interpersonal relationships in personal and professional lives.
The character of an individual shows in the way he or she behaves. Help your teenager build a strong personality by helping them develop healthy behavior. Here are a few basic things you can teach them. The only way to help your teenager learn about moral behavior, honesty, and character, is through practice. Parents should guide the kids through their growing years to inculcate healthy behavioral traits. When your teen is out in the world all by herself, it is important to know how to stay safe.
In fact, staying safe is one of the most important life skills for teenagers. Here are a few pointers that can help your teen to stay safe on the physical plane as well as the virtual plane online. Teenagers tend to see everything in black and white. Teaching them to cope will allow them to see that it is not all good or bad, there is something in between.
Coping and self-management skills that you can teach your teenager, especially girls, include:. Among the main life skills for youth is problem-solving. You cannot expect your children to come back to you for help every time they have a problem. What you can do is teach them to deal with problems like matured adults. Education is essential for living a comfortable and healthy life. There is no dispute about it. Your children would have learned to read, write and speak at home.