Following his father and grandfather, who both became four-star admirals, into the forces, he enrolled in the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. He served as a pilot based on various aircraft carriers during in the Vietnam War , before he was captured after being shot down on a bombing mission over Hanoi in October Over the following six years, Mr McCain was held as a prisoner-of-war, often being tortured and sustaining injuries that left him with life-long physical disabilities. He was released in after refusing an early repatriation offer from his captors when they discovered his father was a high-ranking Naval officer.
Mr McCain entered politics in the early s after leaving the Navy and was elected to the House of Representatives in He was elected to the Senate in and failed to gain the Republican nomination for president in , losing out to George W Bush. In he did win the nomination, but lost out to Mr Obama, a man more than two decades his junior who often appeared more youthful and energetic on the campaign trial compared to the thenyear-old Mr McCain. In his final years in politics, he often traded blows with Mr Trump, keeping up his criticism of the White House even while undergoing severe medical treatment in Arizona.
Mr McCain is likely to be buried in the next week, and plans to honour his legacy will no doubt come quickly. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Want to discuss real-world problems, be involved in the most engaging discussions and hear from the journalists? Try Independent Minds free for 1 month. Independent Minds Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Minds. It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. Our journalists will try to respond by joining the threads when they can to create a true meeting of independent minds.
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UK Edition. US Edition. Log in using your social network account. Please enter a valid password. Keep me logged in. Try Independent Minds free for 1 month See the options. Biographer Irwin Gellman, who chronicled Nixon's congressional years, said of his vice presidency:. Eisenhower radically altered the role of his running mate by presenting him with critical assignments in both foreign and domestic affairs once he assumed his office. The vice president welcomed the president's initiatives and worked energetically to accomplish White House objectives.
Because of the collaboration between these two leaders, Nixon deserves the title, "the first modern vice president". Despite intense campaigning by Nixon, who reprised his strong attacks on the Democrats, the Republicans lost control of both houses of Congress in the elections. These losses caused Nixon to contemplate leaving politics once he had served out his term.
Eisenhower was unable to perform his duties for six weeks. The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution had not yet been proposed, and the Vice President had no formal power to act. Nonetheless, Nixon acted in Eisenhower's stead during this period, presiding over Cabinet meetings and ensuring that aides and Cabinet officers did not seek power.
His spirits buoyed, Nixon sought a second term, but some of Eisenhower's aides aimed to displace him. In a December meeting, Eisenhower proposed that Nixon not run for reelection in order to give him administrative experience before a presidential run and instead become a Cabinet officer in a second Eisenhower administration. Nixon believed such an action would destroy his political career. When Eisenhower announced his reelection bid in February , he hedged on the choice of his running mate, stating that it was improper to address that question until he had been renominated.
Although no Republican was opposing Eisenhower, Nixon received a substantial number of write-in votes against the President in the New Hampshire primary election. In late April, the President announced that Nixon would again be his running mate. In early , Nixon undertook another major foreign trip, this time to Africa.
On his return, he helped shepherd the Civil Rights Act of through Congress. The bill was weakened in the Senate, and civil rights leaders were divided over whether Eisenhower should sign it. Nixon advised the President to sign the bill, which he did. In Montevideo , Uruguay, Nixon made an impromptu visit to a college campus, where he fielded questions from students on U. The trip was uneventful until the Nixon party reached Lima , Peru, where he was met with student demonstrations.
Nixon went to the campus, got out of his car to confront the students, and stayed until forced back into the car by a volley of thrown objects. At his hotel, Nixon faced another mob, and one demonstrator spat on him. On July 24, Nixon was touring the exhibits with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev when the two stopped at a model of an American kitchen and engaged in an impromptu exchange about the merits of capitalism versus communism that became known as the " Kitchen Debate ".
In Nixon launched his first campaign for President of the United States. Kennedy and the race remained close for the duration. A new political medium was introduced in the campaign: televised presidential debates. In the first of four such debates Nixon appeared pale, with a five o'clock shadow , in contrast to the photogenic Kennedy. There were charges of voter fraud in Texas and Illinois, both states won by Kennedy. Nixon refused to consider contesting the election, feeling a lengthy controversy would diminish the United States in the eyes of the world and the uncertainty would hurt U.
Local and national Republican leaders encouraged Nixon to challenge incumbent Pat Brown for Governor of California in the election. The furor drove Smith and his program from the air,  and public sympathy for Nixon grew. In the Nixon family traveled to Europe, where Nixon gave press conferences and met with leaders of the countries he visited. President; when Goldwater won the nomination, Nixon was selected to introduce him at the convention. Although he thought Goldwater unlikely to win, Nixon campaigned for him loyally.
The election was a disaster for the Republicans; Goldwater's landslide loss to Johnson was matched by heavy losses for the party in Congress and among state governors. Nixon was one of the few leading Republicans not blamed for the disastrous results, and he sought to build on that in the Congressional elections.
He campaigned for many Republicans, seeking to regain seats lost in the Johnson landslide, and received credit for helping the Republicans make major gains that year. At the end of , Nixon told his family he planned to run for president a second time. Although Pat Nixon did not always enjoy public life  for example, she had been embarrassed by the need to reveal how little the family owned in the Checkers speech ,  she was supportive of her husband's ambitions.
Nixon believed that with the Democrats torn over the issue of the Vietnam War , a Republican had a good chance of winning, although he expected the election to be as close as in One of the most tumultuous primary election seasons ever began as the Tet Offensive was launched in January President Johnson withdrew as a candidate in March, after doing unexpectedly poorly in the New Hampshire primary.
In June, Senator Robert F. Kennedy , a Democratic candidate, was assassinated just moments after his victory in the California primary. Nixon secured the nomination on the first ballot. Nixon's Democratic opponent in the general election was Vice President Hubert Humphrey , who was nominated at a convention marked by violent protests.
Agnew became an increasingly vocal critic of these groups, solidifying Nixon's position with the right. Nixon waged a prominent television advertising campaign, meeting with supporters in front of cameras. Johnson's negotiators hoped to reach a truce, or at least a cessation of bombings, in Vietnam prior to the election. On October 22, , candidate Nixon received information that Johnson was preparing a so-called " October surprise " to elect Humphrey in the last days of the campaign, and his administration had abandoned three non-negotiable conditions for a bombing halt.
While notes uncovered in may support such a contention, the context of said notes remains of debate. In a three-way race between Nixon, Humphrey, and American Independent Party candidate former Alabama Governor George Wallace , Nixon defeated Humphrey by nearly , votes seven-tenths of a percentage point , with electoral votes to for Humphrey and 46 for Wallace.
I congratulated him for his gallant and courageous fight against great odds. I also told him that I know exactly how he felt. I know how it feels to lose a close one. Nixon was inaugurated as president on January 20, , sworn in by his onetime political rival, Chief Justice Earl Warren.
Pat Nixon held the family Bibles open at Isaiah , which reads, "They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks. In these difficult years, America has suffered from a fever of words; from inflated rhetoric that promises more than it can deliver; from angry rhetoric that fans discontents into hatreds; from bombastic rhetoric that postures instead of persuading. We cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another, until we speak quietly enough so that our words can be heard as well as our voices. Roosevelt and Harry Hopkins.
Nixon laid the groundwork for his overture to China before he became president, writing in Foreign Affairs a year before his election: "There is no place on this small planet for a billion of its potentially most able people to live in angry isolation. They collaborated closely, bypassing Cabinet officials. With relations between the Soviet Union and China at a nadir— border clashes between the two took place during Nixon's first year in office—Nixon sent private word to the Chinese that he desired closer relations. A breakthrough came in early , when Chairman Mao invited a team of American table tennis players to visit China and play against top Chinese players.
Nixon followed up by sending Kissinger to China for clandestine meetings with Chinese officials. The announcements astounded the world. In February , Nixon and his wife traveled to China. Nixon made a point of shaking Zhou's hand, something which then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had refused to do in when the two met in Geneva. On Nixon's orders, television was strongly favored over printed publications, as Nixon felt that the medium would capture the visit much better than print.
It also gave him the opportunity to snub the print journalists he despised. Nixon and Kissinger met for an hour with Mao and Zhou at Mao's official private residence, where they discussed a range of issues. The following day, Nixon met with Zhou; the joint communique following this meeting recognized Taiwan as a part of China, and looked forward to a peaceful solution to the problem of reunification.
The visit ushered in a new era of Sino-American relations. When Nixon took office, about American soldiers were dying each week in Vietnam,  and the war was broadly unpopular in the United States, with ongoing violent protests against the war. The Johnson administration had agreed to suspend bombing in exchange for negotiations without preconditions, but this agreement never fully took force. According to Walter Isaacson, soon after taking office, Nixon had concluded that the Vietnam War could not be won and he was determined to end the war quickly.
Nixon approved a secret B carpet bombing campaign of North Vietnamese and, later, allied Khmer Rouge positions in Cambodia in March code-named Operation Menu , without the consent of Cambodian leader Norodom Sihanouk. Initial talks, however, did not result in an agreement. Amid protests at home demanding an immediate pullout, he implemented a strategy of replacing American troops with Vietnamese troops , known as " Vietnamization ". Nixon announced the ground invasion of Cambodia to the American public on April 30, When news of the leak first appeared, Nixon was inclined to do nothing; the Papers, a history of United States' involvement in Vietnam, mostly concerned the lies of prior administrations and contained few real revelations.
He was persuaded by Kissinger that the Papers were more harmful than they appeared, and the President tried to prevent publication. The Supreme Court eventually ruled for the newspapers. The agreement implemented a cease fire and allowed for the withdrawal of remaining American troops without requiring the , North Vietnam Army regulars located in the South to withdraw.
North Vietnam conquered South Vietnam in On taking office in , he stepped up covert operations against Cuba and its president, Fidel Castro. He maintained close relations with the Cuban-American exile community through his friend, Bebe Rebozo , who often suggested ways of irritating Castro. These activities concerned the Soviets and Cubans, who feared Nixon might attack Cuba and break the understanding between Kennedy and Khrushchev which had ended the missile crisis.
In August , the Soviets asked Nixon to reaffirm the understanding; despite his hard line against Castro, Nixon agreed. The process had not yet been completed when the Soviets began expanding their base at the Cuban port of Cienfuegos in October A minor confrontation ensued, which was concluded with an understanding that the Soviets would not use Cienfuegos for submarines bearing ballistic missiles. The final round of diplomatic notes, reaffirming the accord, were exchanged in November. The election of Marxist candidate Salvador Allende as President of Chile in September spurred Nixon and Kissinger to pursue a vigorous campaign of covert resistance to Allende,  : 25 first designed to convince the Chilean congress to confirm Jorge Alessandri as the winner of the election and then messages to military officers in support of a coup.
Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace. Following the announcement of his visit to China, the Nixon administration concluded negotiations for him to visit the Soviet Union. Nixon engaged in intense negotiations with Brezhnev. Nixon and Brezhnev proclaimed a new era of "peaceful coexistence". A banquet was held that evening at the Kremlin. Seeking to foster better relations with the United States, China and the Soviet Union both cut back on their diplomatic support for North Vietnam and advised Hanoi to come to terms militarily.
I had long believed that an indispensable element of any successful peace initiative in Vietnam was to enlist, if possible, the help of the Soviets and the Chinese. At worst, Hanoi was bound to feel less confident if Washington was dealing with Moscow and Beijing. At best, if the two major Communist powers decided that they had bigger fish to fry, Hanoi would be pressured into negotiating a settlement we could accept.
During the previous two years, Nixon had made considerable progress in U. Nixon considered proposing a comprehensive test-ban treaty, but he felt that he would not have time to complete it during his presidency. As part of the Nixon Doctrine , the U. During the Nixon administration, the U. Nixon believed that Israel should make peace with its Arab neighbors and that the United States should encourage it.
The president believed that—except during the Suez Crisis —the U. The Arab-Israeli conflict was not a major focus of Nixon's attention during his first term—for one thing, he felt that no matter what he did, American Jews would oppose his reelection. Israel suffered heavy losses and Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses, cutting through inter-departmental squabbles and bureaucracy and taking personal responsibility for any response by Arab nations. More than a week later, by the time the U. The truce negotiations rapidly escalated into a superpower crisis; when Israel gained the upper hand, Egyptian President Sadat requested a joint U.
When Soviet Premier Brezhnev threatened to unilaterally enforce any peacekeeping mission militarily, Nixon ordered the U. This was the closest that the world had come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis. Brezhnev backed down as a result of Nixon's actions. Because Israel's victory was largely due to U. After the war, and under Nixon's presidency, the U. I believe that, beyond a doubt, we are now facing the best opportunity we have had in 15 years to build a lasting peace in the Middle East. I am convinced history will hold us responsible if we let this opportunity slip by I now consider a permanent Middle East settlement to be the most important final goal to which we must devote ourselves.
Nixon made one of his final international visits as president to the Middle East in June , and became the first President to visit Israel. At the time Nixon took office in , inflation was at 4. The Great Society had been enacted under Johnson, which, together with the Vietnam War costs, was causing large budget deficits. Unemployment was low, but interest rates were at their highest in a century. Nixon was far more interested in foreign affairs than domestic policies, but believed that voters tend to focus on their own financial condition, and that economic conditions were a threat to his reelection.
As part of his " New Federalism " views, he proposed grants to the states, but these proposals were for the most part lost in the congressional budget process. However, Nixon gained political credit for advocating them. He then announced temporary wage and price controls, allowed the dollar to float against other currencies, and ended the convertibility of the dollar into gold.
Harriet Tubman - Life, Quotes & Facts - Biography
His opponents could offer no alternative policy that was either plausible or believable since the one they favored was one they had designed but which the president had appropriated for himself. Nixon's policies dampened inflation through , although their aftereffects contributed to inflation during his second term and into the Ford administration. After Nixon won re-election, inflation was returning. The price controls became unpopular with the public and businesspeople, who saw powerful labor unions as preferable to the price board bureaucracy.
Nixon advocated a " New Federalism ", which would devolve power to state and local elected officials, though Congress was hostile to these ideas and enacted few of them. Nixon was a late supporter of the conservation movement. Environmental policy had not been a significant issue in the election, and the candidates were rarely asked for their views on the subject. Nixon broke new ground by discussing environmental policy in his State of the Union speech in He saw that the first Earth Day in April presaged a wave of voter interest on the subject, and sought to use that to his benefit; in June he announced the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency EPA.
After Congress overrode his veto, Nixon impounded the funds he deemed unjustifiable. In , Nixon proposed health insurance reform—a private health insurance employer mandate, [b] federalization of Medicaid for poor families with dependent minor children,  and support for health maintenance organizations HMOs. Nixon was concerned about the prevalence of domestic drug use in addition to drug use among American soldiers in Vietnam.
He called for a War on Drugs and pledged to cut off sources of supply abroad. He also increased funds for education and for rehabilitation facilities. As one policy initiative, Nixon called for more money for sickle-cell research, treatment, and education in February  and signed the National Sickle Cell Anemia Control Act on May 16, The Nixon presidency witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South. Soon after his inauguration, he appointed Vice President Agnew to lead a task force, which worked with local leaders—both white and black—to determine how to integrate local schools.
Agnew had little interest in the work, and most of it was done by Labor Secretary George Shultz. Federal aid was available, and a meeting with President Nixon was a possible reward for compliant committees. By September , less than ten percent of black children were attending segregated schools. By , however, tensions over desegregation surfaced in Northern cities, with angry protests over the busing of children to schools outside their neighborhood to achieve racial balance.
Nixon opposed busing personally but enforced court orders requiring its use. In addition to desegregating public schools, Nixon implemented the Philadelphia Plan in —the first significant federal affirmative action program. Nevertheless, he appointed more women to administration positions than Lyndon Johnson had. After a nearly decade-long national effort , the United States won the race to land astronauts on the Moon on July 20, , with the flight of Apollo Nixon spoke with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their moonwalk.
He called the conversation "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House". Paine drew up ambitious plans for the establishment of a permanent base on the Moon by the end of the s and the launch of a manned expedition to Mars as early as Nixon rejected both proposals due to the expense. On May 24, , Nixon approved a five-year cooperative program between NASA and the Soviet space program , culminating in the joint mission of an American Apollo and Soviet Soyuz spacecraft linking in space.
Nixon believed his rise to power had peaked at a moment of political realignment. The Democratic " Solid South " had long been a source of frustration to Republican ambitions. Goldwater had won several Southern states by opposing the Civil Rights Act of but had alienated more moderate Southerners. Nixon's efforts to gain Southern support in were diluted by Wallace's candidacy. Through his first term, he pursued a Southern Strategy with policies, such as his desegregation plans, that would be broadly acceptable among Southern whites, encouraging them to realign with the Republicans in the aftermath of the civil rights movement.
He nominated two Southern conservatives, Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, but neither was confirmed by the Senate. Nixon entered his name on the New Hampshire primary ballot on January 5, , effectively announcing his candidacy for reelection. He dismissed the Democratic platform as cowardly and divisive. With some of his supporters believed to be in favor of drug legalization, McGovern was perceived as standing for "amnesty, abortion and acid". McGovern was also damaged by his vacillating support for his original running mate, Missouri Senator Thomas Eagleton , dumped from the ticket following revelations that he had received treatment for depression.
The term Watergate has come to encompass an array of clandestine and often illegal activities undertaken by members of the Nixon administration. Those activities included "dirty tricks," such as bugging the offices of political opponents, and the harassment of activist groups and political figures. The activities were brought to light after five men were caught breaking into the Democratic party headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.
Nixon downplayed the scandal as mere politics, calling news articles biased and misleading. A series of revelations made it clear that the Committee to Re-elect President Nixon , and later the White House, was involved in attempts to sabotage the Democrats. Senior aides such as White House Counsel John Dean faced prosecution; in total 48 officials were convicted of wrongdoing.
In July , White House aide Alexander Butterfield testified under oath to Congress that Nixon had a secret taping system that recorded his conversations and phone calls in the Oval Office. These tapes were subpoenaed by Watergate Special Counsel Archibald Cox ; Nixon provided transcripts of the conversations but not the actual tapes, citing executive privilege.
The gap, while not conclusive proof of wrongdoing by the President, cast doubt on Nixon's statement that he had been unaware of the cover-up. Though Nixon lost much popular support, even from his own party, he rejected accusations of wrongdoing and vowed to stay in office.
On November 17, , during a televised question-and-answer session,  with Associated Press managing editors Nixon said, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got. The legal battle over the tapes continued through early , and in April Nixon announced the release of 1, pages of transcripts of White House conversations between him and his aides. The House Judiciary Committee opened impeachment hearings against the President on May 9, , which were televised on the major TV networks. These hearings culminated in votes for impeachment.
Even with support diminished by the continuing series of revelations, Nixon hoped to fight the charges. But one of the new tapes, recorded soon after the break-in, demonstrated that Nixon had been told of the White House connection to the Watergate burglaries soon after they took place, and had approved plans to thwart the investigation. In a statement accompanying the release of what became known as the "Smoking Gun Tape" on August 5, , Nixon accepted blame for misleading the country about when he had been told of White House involvement, stating that he had had a lapse of memory.
Rhodes told Nixon that he faced certain impeachment in the House. Scott and Goldwater told the president that he had, at most, only 15 votes in his favor in the Senate, far fewer than the 34 needed to avoid removal from office. In light of his loss of political support and the near-certainty that he would be impeached and removed from office, Nixon resigned the presidency on August 9, , after addressing the nation on television the previous evening.
Nixon stated that he was resigning for the good of the country and asked the nation to support the new president, Gerald Ford.
Nixon went on to review the accomplishments of his presidency, especially in foreign policy. Sometimes I have succeeded and sometimes I have failed, but always I have taken heart from what Theodore Roosevelt once said about the man in the arena, "whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again because there is not effort without error and shortcoming, but who does actually strive to do the deed, who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, who spends himself in a worthy cause, who at the best knows in the end the triumphs of high achievements and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly".
Nixon's speech received generally favorable initial responses from network commentators, with only Roger Mudd of CBS stating that Nixon had not admitted wrongdoing. Black opined that "What was intended to be an unprecedented humiliation for any American president, Nixon converted into a virtual parliamentary acknowledgement of almost blameless insufficiency of legislative support to continue. He left while devoting half his address to a recitation of his accomplishments in office. Nixon's resignation had not put an end to the desire among many to see him punished.
The Ford White House considered a pardon of Nixon, even though it would be unpopular in the country. Nixon, contacted by Ford emissaries, was initially reluctant to accept the pardon, but then agreed to do so. Ford insisted on a statement of contrition, but Nixon felt he had not committed any crimes and should not have to issue such a document. Ford eventually agreed, and on September 8, , he granted Nixon a "full, free, and absolute pardon", which ended any possibility of an indictment.
Nixon then released a statement:. I was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy. No words can describe the depth of my regret and pain at the anguish my mistakes over Watergate have caused the nation and the presidency, a nation I so deeply love, and an institution I so greatly respect. In October , Nixon fell ill with phlebitis. Told by his doctors that he could either be operated on or die, a reluctant Nixon chose surgery, and President Ford visited him in the hospital.
Nixon was under subpoena for the trial of three of his former aides—Dean, Haldeman, and John Ehrlichman —and The Washington Post , disbelieving his illness, printed a cartoon showing Nixon with a cast on the "wrong foot". Judge John Sirica excused Nixon's presence despite the defendants' objections. In December , Nixon began planning his comeback despite the considerable ill-will against him in the country.
He wrote in his diary, referring to himself and Pat,. So be it. We will see it through. We've had tough times before and we can take the tougher ones that we will have to go through now. That is perhaps what we were made for—to be able to take punishment beyond what anyone in this office has had before particularly after leaving office. This is a test of character and we must not fail the test.
By early , Nixon's health was improving. He maintained an office in a Coast Guard station yards from his home, at first taking a golf cart and later walking the route each day; he mainly worked on his memoirs. Nixon admitted that he had "let down the country" and that "I brought myself down. I gave them a sword and they stuck it in. And they twisted it with relish. And, I guess, if I'd been in their position, I'd have done the same thing. Nixon had wanted to return to China, but chose to wait until after Ford's own visit in Ford won, but was defeated by Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter in the general election.
The Carter administration had little use for Nixon and blocked his planned trip to Australia, causing the government of Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to withhold its official invitation. Nixon chose not to present any defense. He was shunned by American diplomats and by most ministers of the James Callaghan government.
Two other former prime ministers, Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath , declined to meet him. Nixon addressed the Oxford Union regarding Watergate:. Some people say I didn't handle it properly and they're right. I screwed it up. Mea culpa. But let's get on to my achievements. You'll be here in the year and we'll see how I'm regarded then. Carter had not wanted to invite Nixon, but Deng had stated he would visit Nixon in California if the former president was not invited. Nixon had a private meeting with Deng and visited Beijing again in mid Though Nixon had no official credentials, as a former president he was seen as the American presence at its former ally's funeral.
Throughout the s, Nixon maintained an ambitious schedule of speaking engagements and writing,  traveled, and met with many foreign leaders, especially those of Third World countries. In , Nixon addressed a convention of newspaper publishers, impressing his audience with his tour d'horizon of the world. Bush , as well as their wives, Betty , Nancy , and Barbara. Pat Nixon died on June 22, , of emphysema and lung cancer. Her funeral services were held on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace. Former President Nixon was distraught throughout the interment and delivered a tribute to her inside the library building.
Nixon suffered a severe stroke on April 18, , while preparing to eat dinner in his Park Ridge , New Jersey home. He was 81 years old. Nixon's funeral took place on April 27, , in Yorba Linda, California. Bush, and their wives. Richard Nixon was buried beside his wife Pat on the grounds of the Nixon Library. He was survived by his two daughters, Tricia and Julie , and four grandchildren. John F. Stacks of Time magazine said of Nixon shortly after his death,.
An outsize energy and determination drove him on to recover and rebuild after every self-created disaster that he faced. To reclaim a respected place in American public life after his resignation, he kept traveling and thinking and talking to the world's leaders Clinton, whose wife served on the staff of the committee that voted to impeach Nixon, met openly with him and regularly sought his advice.
Tom Wicker of The New York Times noted that Nixon had been equalled only by Franklin Roosevelt in being five times nominated on a major party ticket and, quoting Nixon's farewell speech, wrote,. Richard Nixon's jowly, beard-shadowed face, the ski-jump nose and the widow's peak, the arms upstretched in the V-sign, had been so often pictured and caricatured, his presence had become such a familiar one in the land, he had been so often in the heat of controversy, that it was hard to realize the nation really would not 'have Nixon to kick around anymore'.
Ambrose said of the reaction to Nixon's death, "To everyone's amazement, except his, he's our beloved elder statesman. Upon Nixon's death, almost all of the news coverage mentioned Watergate, but for the most part, the coverage was favorable to the former president. The Dallas Morning News stated, "History ultimately should show that despite his flaws, he was one of our most farsighted chief executives. The artist urges his audience to sit down; the work will take some time to complete, as "this portrait is a little more complicated than most".
Hunter S. Historian and political scientist James MacGregor Burns asked of Nixon, "How can one evaluate such an idiosyncratic president, so brilliant and so morally lacking? According to Ambrose, "Nixon wanted to be judged by what he accomplished. What he will be remembered for is the nightmare he put the country through in his second term and for his resignation. Yet even in a spirit of historical revisionism , no simple verdict is possible. Some historians say that Nixon's Southern Strategy turned the Southern United States into a Republican stronghold, while others deem economic factors more important in the change.
Nixon's stance on domestic affairs has been credited with the passage and enforcement of environmental and regulatory legislation. In a paper on Nixon and the environment, historian Paul Charles Milazzo points to Nixon's creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA , and to his enforcement of legislation such as the Endangered Species Act , stating that "though unsought and unacknowledged, Richard Nixon's environmental legacy is secure".
Nixon saw his policies on Vietnam, China, and the Soviet Union as central to his place in history. While the criminal farce of Watergate was in the making, Nixon's inspirational statesmanship was establishing new working relationships with both Communist China and the Soviet Union. Historian Keith W. Olson has written that Nixon left a legacy of fundamental mistrust of government, rooted in Vietnam and Watergate.
Olson suggests that legislation in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks restored the president's power. Nixon's career was frequently dogged by his persona and the public's perception of it. Editorial cartoonists and comedians often exaggerated his appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow.
Nixon had a complex personality, both very secretive and awkward, yet strikingly reflective about himself. He was inclined to distance himself from people and was formal in all aspects, wearing a coat and tie even when home alone. Biographer Elizabeth Drew summarized Nixon as a "smart, talented man, but most peculiar and haunted of presidents". He assumed the worst in people and he brought out the worst in them He clung to the idea of being 'tough'.
He thought that was what had brought him to the edge of greatness. But that was what betrayed him. He could not open himself to other men and he could not open himself to greatness. Nixon believed that putting distance between himself and other people was necessary for him as he advanced in his political career and became president. Even Bebe Rebozo, by some accounts his closest friend, did not call him by his first name. Nixon stated of this,. Even with close friends, I don't believe in letting your hair down, confiding this and that and the other thing—saying, 'Gee, I couldn't sleep' I believe you should keep your troubles to yourself.
That's just the way I am. Some people are different. Some people think it's good therapy to sit with a close friend and, you know, just spill your guts Not me. No way. When Nixon was told that most Americans felt that they did not know him even at the end of his career, he replied, "Yeah, it's true.
And it's not necessary for them to know. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nixon" redirect here. For other uses, see Nixon disambiguation and Richard Nixon disambiguation. Spiro Agnew — None Oct—Dec. Pat Ryan m. This article is part of a series about. For more information on Nixon's congressional election campaigns, see California's 12th congressional district election and United States Senate election in California. Main article: United States presidential election.
Main articles: Richard Nixon presidential campaign and United States presidential election. Main article: Presidency of Richard Nixon. Main article: Foreign policy of the Richard Nixon administration. Main article: Nixon visit to China. See also: U. Further information: Nixon shock and s energy crisis. Further information: Space policy of the United States. Main articles: Watergate scandal and Impeachment process of Richard Nixon. Further information: Pardon of Richard Nixon.
Main article: Death and funeral of Richard Nixon. Merkley , p. Naval History and Heritage Command. February 18, Retrieved March 6, In that capacity he had temporary additional duty at various places, including Washington D. When he was released from active duty on 10 March He was promoted to Commander in the Naval Reserve on 1 June He is entitled to two engagement stars on the Asiatic—Pacific Campaign Medal for supporting air action in the Treasury—Bougainville operations from 27 October to 15 December and for consolidation of the northern Solomons from 15 December to 22 July Retrieved July 26, March 18, Simon and Schuster.
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Archived from the original on April 3, Retrieved April 2, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina press. Richard Nixon Foundation. June 2, Retrieved November 12, See also H. Haldeman's Notes from Oct. Litwak Cambridge UP. The American War Library. Retrieved June 22, The Walrus. Kiernan and Owen later revised their estimate of 2. Calculating U. The Asia-Pacific Journal. Retrieved November 15, Peterburg Independent. Bantam Books. In Cook, Susan E. Genocide in Cambodia and Rwanda. Archived from the original on March 9, Nguyen Co Thach recalls: 'Nuon Chea has asked for help and we have liberated five provinces of Cambodia in ten days.
New York: The New Press. Nixon himself later wrote, "[W]e decided to link progress in such areas of Soviet concern as strategic arms limitation and increased trade with progress in areas that were important to us -— Vietnam, the Mideast, and Berlin. This concept became known as linkage. Retrieved April 4, University of Arkansas Press. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Fall Retrieved August 22, April 1, August 11, Washington, D.
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Nixon: A Life in Full. New York: PublicAffairs Books. Blythe, Will New York: Harper Collins. Boger, John Charles Chapel Hill, N. Dallek, Robert Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power. Drew, Elizabeth The American Presidents Series. New York: Times Books. Evans, Rowland ; Novak, Robert New York: Random House. Washington D. Farrell, John A. Winston-Salem, N. Foner, Eric Give Me Liberty! New York: W. Frick, Daniel Reinventing Richard Nixon. Lawrence, Kans. Frum, David How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. Gaddis, John Lewis Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gellman, Irwin The Contender.
New York: The Free Press. Greenberg, David. Nixon's Shadow: The History of an Image Important study of how Nixon was perceived by media and scholars. Hall, Mitchell K. Hetzel, Robert L. The Monetary Policy of the Federal Reserve. New York: Cambridge University Press. Ingle, H. Larry Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Kornitzer, Bela Langguth, A. Our Vietnam: The War — New York: Simon and Schuster. Malsberger, John W. Westport, Conn. Morris, Roger Nixon, Richard No More Vietnams. Westminster, Md. Parmet, Herbert S.
Richard Nixon and His America. Perlstein, Richard New York: Scribner. Reeves, Richard President Nixon: Alone in the White House. Safire, William . Transaction Publishers. Originally published: Garden City, N. A Companion to Richard M. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. A Companion to American Foreign Relations.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Thompson, John B. Cambridge: Polity Press. Tyler, Patrick New York: Macmillan. White, Theodore H. The Making of the President New York: Antheneum. Nixon Library "Childhood". The Life. Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved July 16, Archived from the original on June 15, Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on February 16, Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved March 5, Lee, Meghan.
Other sources " President Nixon arrives in Moscow". June 11, Retrieved May 11, Delaney, Paul July 20, The Deseret News.