It did bring into current use a new vehicle — the romance heroico. When one places an approximate rime like vowel assonance 22 syllables apart, the resuit is not far from blank verse. It is a flexible form and hampers dialogue scarcely at ail. It seems probable that it was the Spanish answer to the French Alexandrine couplet, and was introduced with the pseudo-classic school.
The curious phenomenon of Spanish verse drama
Henee its substitution by the romance heroico and other approximations, as will be seen. The followers of the old school presented a watered-down version of the Lopean formula. In other words, they tended to abandon lyric stanzas and approximate to blank verse. On the other hand, cultivators of the new French pseudo-classic drama were not quick to abandon the old Spanish verses. Still it is not so wholly untrammeled as the romance heroico, the other substitute.
Leandro F. SimpUcity could hardly go farther, in short-line verse. Don Leandro's detested foe, the unhappy Luciano Cornelia , can be judged by me only from the brief extracts fumished in Carlos Cambronero's article1; according to them, he employed nothing but romance and romance heroico. Were it not for the Uve Spanish tradition of verse, surely these biting Uttle dramatic cuadros would have been cast in prose.
One might well expect that the Romantics would abjure all the pseudo-classic traditions of verse and invent something new and revolutionary. The versification in Espronceda's Estudiante de Salamanca is full of variety.
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And, since there is a definite rela- tionship between these novel meters and the melodrama of Me- tastasio 2, it would be natural to expect considerable variety in Romantic drama. But such is not the case. Just as French Ro- manticism produced in dramatic versification no greater innovation than to break the Alexandrine into three parts instead of two it never occurred apparently to the wild-eyed Hugo to dis-.
What is the case with the three-act comedies? The Duque de Rivas in. Don A haro mingled prose and verse ; and the verse shows some ingenuity. It is true that in Don Juan Tenorio he introduced an added lyric touch in the compli- cated octavillas italianas and ovillejos, surely as little adapted to dialogue as Jorge Manrique's coplas. One may well ask too whether his stricture on the ovillejo does not apply in some degree to all short-lined lyric verse when used for drama.
The Romantic dramatists of Spain continued or revived , then, the siglo de oro tradition of lyric forms, without adding new features of much importance. And why should they not? After all, this was Romantic drama, and as such, properly cast in a lofty lyrical mould.
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The plot was not in the least realistic, why should the language be? Those who were only partly swept away by the Romantic cur- rent, who kept their heads above water and surveyed the scene objectively, nevertheless followed the trend of versification. His extraordinary facility in juggling meters, especially the asonantes agudos of romance, incited him to practise them. Marcela is possibly the most varied of his comedies. The extreme example of this idiosyncrasy followed immediately.
Once more a French influence came upon Spain like a wave ; this time it was that of the preachers, led by the younger Dumas and Emile Augier. The fine gifts of Tamayo y Baus were directed into many branches of his art, and it is not easy to type him. The classic tragedy Virginia was composed entirely in romance heroico, as one might expect.
Seven years later, Lances de honor goes back to the prose of the French inasters.
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It would appear that Tamayo decided against verse for a modem realistic play. He did not carry the country with him, however.
Most of the thesis plays of that time are in verse, and precisely in that fact lies the most distinctively Spanish quirk in this whole subject. Poirier in octosyllables, or The Second Mrs. Tanqueray in iambic pentameters. But that is just the course that the Spanish imitators of Dumas and Augier took. Lances de honor. El tanto por ciento , El nuevo don Juan and Consuelo stick exclusively to romance and redondilla ; the same is true of La cruz del matrimonio and the many other preachy dramas of Eguilaz. About half of all his many plays are in verse, and the rest in prose.
The style of both is undistingrished.
The verse shows the usual alternation of romance and redondilla with here and there a little romance heroico. One might expect the neo-Romantic plays to be in verse, and the dramas of modem life in prose, but such is not the case. The Ro- mantic historical melodrama on a Hu. There may be a reason for it that I have not discovered. Ibsen, well known to Echegaray, also cultivated both prose and verse in his dramas, but it is a easy to see why Brand and Peer Gynt should be cast in poetry, and An Enemy of the People and A DolVs House in prose. Ibsen gave his own reasoning in the letter quoted at the beginning of this article.
That original spirit Enrique Gaspar agreed with Ibsen, and renounced verse when he began to take his vocation as a social critic seriously. The play, which has English supertitles and runs a little over two hours with intermission, follows the parallel journeys of Lucas and Luciana, a brother and sister who return to Cuba during the Papal visit after an almost year absence. As children, the two were sent unaccompanied to the United States as part of Operation Peter Pan, an exodus of Cuban children at the beginning of the Cuban Revolution. As was the case for many children, Lucas and Luciana ended up in an orphanage for what remained of their childhood.
File:Descendimiento de la Cruz, por Juan Correa de Vivar.jpg
The siblings also harbor a dark, secret attraction for one another that binds and repels the estranged siblings. This is the emotional backdrop as the play opens on two psychologically damaged adults, hoping to find redemption in Cuba. These symbols reappear throughout the play, underscoring the idea of travel as a deeply personal and intimate experience. Grettel Trujillo is magnetic as Luciana, a woman who is guarded and weary. In Cuba though, Luciana reveals a childlike, vulnerable side to her personality.
Trujillo plays the complex role with a straightforward simplicity that allows the emotions to come through fluidly and not become mired in melodrama. Themes of childhood trauma and disillusion are complemented with moments of laughter and hope.
Reina Ivis is fantastic as Delita, a woman prone to fits of laughter and histrionics. Their boyish crushes on Luciana and fraternal bickering bring humor to the stage. Veteran actress Martha Picanes brilliantly delivers a matriarchal figure whose mysticism is fueled by faith and ferocity. Kaplan, ed. His poetry was very popular during his lifetime and has continued to be so without interruption until the present.
Garcilaso was born in Toledo between and , the second son of nobleman who granted him an extensive education and after his death a sizeable inheritance. Garcialso mastered five languages Spanish, Greek, Latin, Italian and French and learned how to play many music instruments. In he joined the imperial guard of Charles V and in was made a member of the Order of Santiago.