Zij zijn ontworpen en georganiseerd op het lokaal vlak en steunen op de rehabilatatie van de regelsystemen in de gemeenschap. Nous nous excusons par avance d'une approche trop franco-centrique. Comment se. Des mots et des chiffres. De nouveau, une courte pause. A l'occasion du colloque d'Arras, en , P. Bourdieu et A. Gurr Why men rebel.
Ainsi le livre de Cl. Qu'est-ce qui change sous nos yeux? Il y a un continuum entre les taggeurs anonymes et les Keith Harring ou J. Les politiques locales. This is what is important to me. Progress for me is a very complicated word.
Why Choose the EUI
As progress, for some, is not necessarily the same as for others. Thus, it is as if we have returned to the time of colonisation when colonies said that they were bringing civilisation. But when we look at the way in which they have done it, there was nothing civilised in their way of doing. Therefore progress for me is Because progress for Bush is not progress for me. His aspirations are not my aspirations. I have many problems with progress because I am African, because I live in one of the poorest countries. I see that we cannot even choose the directions that we want to take when we want to do something as a nation.
We must have the backing of the West, or the support of the banks from which we must beg for money here and there, for resources. People come from the outside and decide on how you must live because if you do not follow what they recommend, you will not have the support which you need from them. Therefore for me progress is not something that can be imposed on others; it is something that people must decide by themselves.
I had so many dreams! Firstly, I am the last of the family; therefore I had big brothers and sisters who went to school. Therefore I knew that I wanted to study and study as much as possible no matter what. I wanted to study. Then, I became an athlete, I was very athletic, I wanted to become an athlete.
And I changed my mind. After I started to study the guitar a little bit and I then wanted to become a musician, which I became. But when I was really very young, I do not focus on a dream in particular. The environment in which I lived did not allow me to be able to think like this. I grew up automatically, as a woman: got married, had children and made everybody happy around me. But I always wanted to teach myself. Oh my God! I do not know because I do not believe that there is a recipe for happiness.
Because I think that happiness comes when we are satisfied. And it is very difficult to be satisfied. I think that I could easily reach Happiness when I was young; small things could make me forget everything. You know, happiness becomes so real and sometimes, you find yourself laughing and smiling, but you are not so happy on the inside, because all the time you have so many problems. I think that for everybody, to be totally happy, we must be totally satisfied, which is a very difficult thing, but at least we can make it halfway, be at least half satisfied.
Then we have the chance to be happy, because it is so important to be happy. Not for myself, most of the time, for me, I continue with my music, whether or not I sell it, I am doing what I love the most. But for people around me, for the family, for the children, for everybody, they want to see your success, because when you have it, you are then able to help them. And the family knows that when you have success, this means that they have nothing to fear.
My greatest fear at times is My other fear does not come from myself; it comes from the world in which we live. I am afraid of this division with the West, and the people who are only focussed on always making more money, and having more power, and ignoring In Maasai country, we say many prayers and many are those sung by women. Many of these songs come from my childhood.
And there is this one song that I really like, where a woman says: "Since you are the giver, "give me another day, "give me the children that I ask of you, give me goats, give me cows. This merger has been authorised by the merger control authorities on December 30, and the privatisation of Transdev has been approved by the Ministry of Economy. The actual completion of this merger has taken place on March 3, and has resulted in: - the outflow of capital from RATP into Transdev, - the creation of a competitiveness promotion fund, managed by an independent manager, approved by the competition authority, - the capital increase of million euros in cash of Transdev subscribed by the CDC prior to the merger - the contribution of the shares of Veolia Transport held by Veolia Environnement and those of Transdev Menus by the CDC to Veolia Transdev becoming the parent company of the new merger.
As of this date, Veolia Environnement has lost the exclusive control of Veolia Transport. In the end, as of December 31, , present employees have been transferred. These transfers will start as of January 1, Detailed quantitative information is provided insofar as possible, in the form of tables and expressed in thousands of Euros. More specifically, the modes and methods of evaluation described below have been selected for the various items of annual accounts. The intangible business assets are evaluated at the acquisition cost. Since January 1, , in accordance with the regulations on assets, these assets are no longer amortised.
They are depreciated if the market value is less than the net book value. The prices are published at least twice a month, currently on a daily basis. Reimbursements and remuneration for distribution services in Switzerland 4. Place of execution and competent authority Concerning shares distributed in Switzerland or from Switzerland, the place of execution and the competent authority are established at the offices of the registered branch of the Swiss Representative. Fees and Expenses The Fund Manager is responsible for the payment, deducted from its fees, from the annual fees of the Swiss Paying Agent and from the reimbursement to the Paying Agent on the assets of the relevant Sub-fund for all reasonable expenses incurred by it within the framework of the execution of its duties, subject to appropriate supporting evidence.
This remuneration will be payable once the agreement of the FINMA given to the Swiss Representative in order to represent and distribute the Sub-funds in a professional manner in Switzerland. Remuneration will be paid each quarter on a pro-rata temporis basis on 31 March, 30 June, 30 September and 31 December of each year. We are committed to taking all reasonable measures so that any complaint is treated seriously and with the diligence, transparency and objectivity required.
Sending a complaint to us The fastest way of informing us of your problem is to contact: - your bank manager, - the manager of your Branch. If, despite everything, you are not fully satisfied with the response which is given to you, you can send a complaint to us either by post, e-mail, fax or telephone: Banque BCP, S. Upon receipt of your complaint, we will process your file and will send you a written response within one month at the latest. When a response cannot be given to you within ten working days from the date of receipt, an acknowledgement of receipt will be sent to you in order to provide you with the details of the person in charge of your file.
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A community that listens to its members In April , a first version of the website was launched. At the invitation of the Leadership Team, and with a view to continuous improvement, members and friends of the congregation were asked to put forward their suggestions. In recent months, all comments received have been analysed and several changes made. A redesign inspired by the latest trends With the help of a specialised company, the new tree structure of the website today revolves around new lines of communication, which allows for a more targeted referencing of subjects.
In summary, the services offered by the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary are now easier to find and better presented. Pourriez-vous confirmez cette affirmation? As it is now at the end of its research, the organisation wishes to submit to you some of our research concerns in order to obtain certain additional information in the hope of addressing certain shortcomings and receiving your opinion on the project, before the publication of said report planned for 30 March We would be most obliged if you could clarify the following aspects: 1.
Why has KCC paid key money to Africa Horizons even though it is not affected by the tripartite agreement on royalties? In light of the reading combined with these foregoing provisions, it is apparent that the two companies KCC and GCM ought to carry out surface prospecting which should probably lead to determining the replacement reserves that will be transferred to KCC and will count as replacement reserves.
Could you confirmer that contrary to the dispute settlement convention which refers to a write-off of nearly million USD which would result in the company being fully impacted financially; the actual impact of the write-off would be less than million USD. Which is the entity that is absorbing this flow in favour of GCM? The conclusion of our analysis is that, as of 31 December , only ,, USD is covered by declarations in terms of key money versus million contractual USD which should have been paid. This is a shortfall of 1,, USD. Could you confirm this assertion?
In practice, these reserves ought to generate significant revenue for GCM in terms of key money for any additional reverses. Which entity would benefit from this revenue if the situation of the previous collection of key money by AHIL has not been clarified? It is therefore incomprehensible that KCC needed to pay revenue beyond what it owed under the royalties.
We therefore request from you information which could allow us to understand these discrepancies and possibly any factors taken into account by your accounts department in order to allow us to harmonise, if and where appropriate, our figures. Proactively, we thank you for agreeing to provide us, using the contact details at the bottom of the page, with the information sought after by 25 March YYY has filed a criminal complaint based on these events that have taken place on January 9, Interviewed by the police on January 9, , the defendant has confessed to the events of which it has been accused.
Avec tous nos remerciements. It is my pleasure to present to you the website that I and Sophie have created: www…….. This is about appealing sales communication intended for Thai tourists and cyclists and for foreign tourists. This marketing tool should facilitate information for cycling clubs and cycling stores in Bangkok and throughout Thailand and at the same time serve as a sales window of opportunity for Pung Waan Resort.
I will be back in Pung Waan Resort at the beginning of June and propose that we meet at this time. With all our thanks. Ce parc offre autonomie et souplesse pour une livraison des conteneurs directement chez vous ou chez vos clients. Via son appartenance au groupe Challenge International, XP LOG vous propose un large panel de prestations de transit et de commission en douane. We manage your priorities, you thus minimise your parking costs.
All transfer orders are tracked electronically. We control the supply chain. Secure and customs bonded, our container yard extends over more than 20, m2. Situated at the port of Le Havre, it allows your goods to be stored outside at a lower cost. Inside or outside, in bulk or in pallet racks, your products are stored according to their characteristics. Each day, our teams prepare the orders and deliveries, inspect the conformity of the goods and take responsibility for your road transport across France and Europe.
Our radio terminals radio frequency system offer a traceability of all the physical flows onto the platforms. Our aim is to make your management of stock more reliable, as well as optimising it. This yard offers autonomy and flexibility for a delivery of the containers directly to your premises or to your customers. The fleet, regularly renewed, is equipped with a geolocation system, giving you in real time, the location of your goods. Our chartering unit takes charge of the piloting and organisation of your road transport from our warehouses to your customers. XP LOG also organises the transportation of your abnormal loads.
Our role is to bring you advice about the optimisation of your stock, constantly aiming for both quality and competitiveness. Through its membership of the Challenge International group, XP LOG offers you a wide range of customs bonded transit and commission services. The XP LOG experts will know how to direct you to the different agencies for an optimal worldwide service. This certificate issued since is recognised on a European level. It certifies the commitment of XP LOG to take external and internal measures guaranteeing the safety and security of the goods.
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From start to finish! Translation - English Will I always be wandering and affected by the same curse as Cain who, it is said, found refuge in a land inhabited by monkeys, if we are to believe Darwin? I hope so. Translation - English Those who were worrying about the content of the Sting concert, on Saturday evening on the Plains of Abraham, have quickly been reassured. The British singer, dressed in white with a smile across his lips, preferred to link together the great successes of his career - Message in a Bottle, Englishman in New York as well as Fields of Gold; skilfully mixing the songs by The Police, a group in which he was the bass player, with those which he made his mark with as a solo artist.
Although he allowed himself to deviate from the eagerly-anticipated Roxanne with a stunning — and long — passage where the bass dominated, Sting more often than not respected the original versions. Une innovation majeure qui pourrait transformer leur quotidien. The first biotherapy against dupilumab, this complex disease of which little is known, has just been launched in France for adult patients who require a systemic treatment.
A major innovation which could transform their everyday life. Since then, it has been a real suffering in her everyday life, both visible and invisible, for this social worker and mother who speaks about it with humility: from the overwhelming pains when showering to the attempts of hiding the marks and scars with her clothes, to remembering her tears when being mocked and to the lack of understanding encountered at times during her teenage years.
It is also difficult to discuss her illness with her loved ones. She felt extremely vulnerable… Now, the young female, monitored by a new specialist, is feeling optimistic. Whereby their sleep is regularly disturbed… The result of this vicious spiral is that nearly one out of two patients presents anxiety or depression symptoms.
And both studies and work life suffer from it.
Without even mentioning their social life and leisure activities: a person covered with lesions will, for example, hesitate in going to the swimming pool… Atopic dermatitis can begin in early childhood but, for one out of five patients, it can develop after the age of All age brackets are affected by this complex disease whose origin is still not fully known. Due to an abnormal immune response and skin barrier defect, it involves immunological, genetic and environmental causes.
Worse still, it is often associated with other atopic diseases such as asthma, conjunctivitis or allergic rhinitis. The key point is that there is often a genetic predisposition. Dupilumab: a new era in the treatment of atopic dermatitis How are we treating atopic dermatitis? The treatments offered are mainly local but, in cases of se-vere or uncontrolled forms, a systemic treatment is indicated.
Up to now, the solutions were limited to cyclosporine A, used for nearly thirty years. Enabling a rapid and significant improvement in the extent and severity of lesions, it is particularly a source of hope for any patient for whom, up to now, therapy was no longer an option. The next stages for this molecule: developments in other indications, including asthma and atopic dermatitis in teenagers for whom dupilumab should be launched in the coming years. There is now renewed hope for thousands of patients JM : Absolument.
Prenons les magasins de sport par exemple. And for good reason, the requirements for the store of the future have never been as precise, paving the way for new growth prospects for store managers. From the generalisation of web-to-store, to the autonomous checkout system and connected changing rooms, all these innovations describe the potential of "phygital". Monoprix is not to be outdone and with the generalisation of the mobile checkout system is doing very well. These lab stores are currently booming and should rebalance the relationship of media and technological strength between Amazon and the other retailers.
FB: Actually, all the attention of the ecosystem of the retail players is turning towards Amazon due to a certain media omnipresence, even a strategic omnipotence resulting from a shrewd acquisition strategy Whole Foods. Beyond this, Amazon does not possess any more experience and expertise than French retailers on the physical side of things. FB: As an exhibitor at the exhibition, we have been able to identify a few salient points.
Data control for more operational efficiency, on the one hand. Beyond further developing the strategy of the decision-makers, it allows to optimise all the in-store operations with great precision, from the management of in-store personnel to stock, etc. The discussion surrounding in-store mobility solutions for personnel, both for advising consumers and for cashing in on them, is going to gain traction.
More important still, the automatic checkout system: long waiting queues should quickly disappear, thus enhancing the consumer experience. Obviously, we have heard about the arrival of voice technologies, artificial intelligence, but this is left to foresight. This involves the provision of tools to vendors which allow to improve their productivity, by unifying the various retail channels as well as the customisation and immediacy of their advice to consumers. There needs to be a fluid transition between e-commerce and store experience.
FB: The vendor-consumer relationship has clearly changed. What influences all this is that now the consumer is arriving with a better knowledge that the vendor, both about the product and its availability as they have all the necessary information online. How are digital tools transforming the everyday in-store experience? The solutions must be connected to one another in order to be available on mobile devices tablets, telephones.
Everybody can then have access to a common dashboard, understood by everyone. The data must, however, be sorted in order not to bamboozle the member of staff and give rise to precise actions. Training vendors on digital tools is becoming increasingly important. Therefore, it is essential to allow for this change. JM: Absolutely. In response to the multiplication of consumer decision journeys, omnichannel retail then becomes a valuable asset as it allows vendors to have all the necessary data to improve the consumer experience.
It is no longer the retailer who is imposing a vendor network, but rather the consumer who is in control of their own. But should we go as far as to say that technologies are going to replace vendors? The consumer comes to the store to look for what they cannot find on e-commerce site, which is human contact, service and customised advice tailored to their needs.
He accordingly drew up a formal declaration of the aims of the expedition, showed it to Franklin, and the latter added an introduction. In commenting on this worthy design, the French editors agreed that it is not only more noble but more useful to conquer the hearts than to exhaust the strength and riches of a newly-acquired colony, but they felt that the project was suitable only for Eng- land, a land in which the people were really at ease and in which agriculture flourished. For other nations the project would be premature, since it would be absurd to carry products to the ends of the earth which are needed for home consumption.
France, in particular, would be better advised to wait until wealth and pros- perity flourished at home before engaging in philanthropic proj- ects elsewhere. The printing of Franklin's project had far-reach- ing results. A Dutch nobleman, having read it in the Epheme- rides, wrote to Franklin November 12, that although im- pecunious and burdened with four children, he coveted the honor of contributing four Holland ducats to the noble purpose.
Nine Oneida Warriors passing near a certain hill, not far from the head of Sasquehanah, saw a most beautiful young Woman descend naked from the clouds, and seat herself on the ground upon that hilL Then they said, this is the great Manitta's Daughter, let us go to her, welcome her into our country, and present her some of our venison. They gave her a fawn's tongue broiled, which she eat, and thanking them, said, come to this place again after twelve moons, and you will find, where I now sit, some thing that you have never yet seen, and that will do you good.
So saying she put her hands on the ground, arose, went up into the clouds, and left them. They came accordingly after twelve moons, and found growing where she had pressed the ground with her right hand, corn, where with her left hand, beans; and where her back parts had pressed it, there grew tobacco. When the "Captivity of William Henry" appeared in the London Chronicle, Franklin attempted to foster the illusion that it was an extract from a complete book of pages. Assuming the style of a reviewer, therefore, he introduced his remarks with a sup- posed condensation of the unessential narrative details of the book.
Bloc-notes : la France, en attente de preuves d’amour - Liberté d'expression
This Writer, who is an Englishman, gives a plain short account of his education in human learning at an academy in Northampton; his settlement in America as a trader with the Ohio Indians; his be- ing surpriz'd and made prisoner at the breaking out of the late war; his spiritual change or conversion during his sickness and other afflictions; and then among a multitude of other particulars, re- lating to the Indians, says.
Immediately after this introduction appear the pretended direct quotations from the imaginary William Henry. After three years of captivity, Henry had succeeded in learning the Indian language and in so doing had gained the respect of his captors. He fre- quently engaged in conversation with "Old Canusatego," a "War- rior, Counsellor, and the chief man" of the village. In real life this Canusatego had been an actual Indian chief whom Franklin had known on the Pennsylvania frontier in In other passages Franklin rather severely ridicules his principles o formal rhetoric.
When not orating, Old Canusatego occupies a role similar to that of the King of the Brobdingnagians in Gulliver's Travels. This cosmogony is not allowed to go unchallenged, for all the young Indians laugh heartily at the origin of tobacco described therein, and Old Canusatego rebukes the narrator for telling this foolish Oneida tale to their white captive. If there were but one, how unhappy must he be without friends, without companions, and without that equality in conversation, by which pleasure is mutually given and received!
I tell you there are more than a hundred of them. Every country has its great good Manitta, who first peopled that country. Having dedicated the land to red men, who are the best of men, the good Manitta strewed the fertile fields of Onondaga with five handfuls of red seeds, like the eggs of flies. Little worms came out of the seeds, and penetrated the earth, where the spirits who had never yet seen the light entred sic into and united with them. Manitta watered the earth with his rain, the sun warmed it, the worms with the spirits in them grew, putting forth little arms and legs, and moved the light earth that covered them.
After nine moons they came forth perfect boys and girls. Manitta covered them with his mantle of warm purple cloud, and nourished them with milk from his finger ends. Nine summers did he nurse, and nine summers more did he instruct them how to live. One does not have to be a Freudian to wonder how much of this imagery Franklin intended as sexual and embryological. On the surface, however, it remains simply a myth of cosmogony the Five Nations springing from the five different handfuls of seeds.
In a loose paraphrase of the second chapter of Genesis, Old Canusatego pictures the great good Manitta assembling his five children, naming them Mohocks, Oneidas, Sennekers, Cayugas, and Onondagoes , and providing each with a characteristic food- stuff. Manitta crowns his act of creation with a forecast of things to be. The bodies I have given you will in time grow old and wear out, so that you will be weary of them; or from various accidents they may become unfit for your habitation, and you will leave them. I have enabled you therefore, among yourselves, to produce new bodies, to supply the place of old ones, that every one of you when he parts with his old habitation may in due time find a new one, and never wander longer than he chuses under the earth, deprived of the light of the sun.
We may well pause at this point to inquire how much of this system of metempsychosis and pre-existence Franklin intended seriously and how much as straight burlesque. His cosmogony of the naked woman from the clouds is not a serious substitute for the first and second chapters of Genesis; neither is it a master- piece of primitive wisdom, as it was interpreted by the editors of the Ephdmerides. But although Franklin has rejected orthodoxy, he is still speculating on the plurality of worlds, and realizing the ethereal nature of his speculation, he finds amusement in his own attempts to solve the problem of life and individual identity.
Metempsychosis and pre-existence are no more seriously intended than is the character of Old Canusatego himself. The latter is so wise and so philosophically erudite and he expresses himself with such vigor and grace that he could almost serve as an Indian Franklin.
Yet just as Franklin ascribed some realistic traits and practical comments to the ancient chief, he probably thought seriously about some of the esoteric metaphysical concepts he in- troduces. He may, on the other hand, have been merely lightly mocking himself for retaining such esoteric notions, the persist- ence of which may have both annoyed and amused him. In the remainder of the work, Franklin discards metaphysics and tackles the economic system.
Here his distress at moral defi- ciencies is genuine and earnest. He introduces an apologue con- cerning the discord caused by economic competition and greed, a narrative that in its sombre invective resembles the style of Swift. In this section Franklin repeats the same principles of free trade he had expressed in the earliest of his works to appear in the Ephemerides, "On the Price of Corn"; however, in suggest- ing that free trade could have prevented the commercial wars be- tween the English and the French, Franklin uses much stronger language than he had used in the mild and good-humored letter "On the Price of Corn.
With obvious irony, Wil- liam Henry disclaims sympathy with the Indians and categorically asserts the superiority of western orthodox beliefs. Now it is well known that some who have before me been among these Indians, have reported highly of their stories, as if there were something superexcellent in them.
I have therefore given this story of theirs at full length translated as well as I am able; and I can faithfully assure my readers it is one of their very best, by which may be seen the miserable darkness these poor creatures labour under, and how far inferior their best instructions do appear when compared with the unerring oracles that we possess, and the histo- ries contained in them.
The title of the French version, Remarques sur la politesse des sauvages de I'Amerique septentrionale, emphasizes the characteristics of primitive nobil- ity which had delighted the editors of the Ephdmerides. Pre- sumably Franklin did not intend either piece for general publi- cation. After learning of their appearance in London in , he wrote to Benjamin Vaughan to inquire concerning the cir- cumstances of their being printed.
Asaph's family afterwards had my whole packet of your pieces for many weeks. Nine years later he paraphrased the incident in a letter to Peter Collinson, May 9, The com- missioners at the close of the treaty had informed the Indians that there existed an academy at Williamsburg with funds for the education of Indians. They invited the Indians to send six of their young men to learn the language and customs of the white people.
The day following, the Indians gave their reply. We are convinc'd. But you, who are wise, must know that different Nations have different Conceptions of things; and you will therefore not take it amiss, if our Ideas of this kind of Education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some Experience of it; Several of our young People were formerly brought up at the Colleges of the Northern Provinces; they were instructed in all your Sciences; but, when they came back to us, they were bad Runners, ignorant of every means of living in the Woods, unable to bear either Cold or Hunger, knew neither how to build a Cabin, take a Deer, or kill an Enemy, spoke our Lan- guage imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for Hunters, Warriors, nor Counsellors; they were totally good for nothing.
We are how- ever not the less oblig'd by your kind Offer, tho' we decline accept- ing it; and, to show our grateful Sense of it, if the Gentlemen of Virginia will send us a Dozen of their Sons, we will take great Care of their Education, instruct them in all we know, and make Men of them. Translating it as "Anecdote sur les Sauvages de TAmerique septentrionale," he sent it to the Journal de Paris y where it ap- peared as an anonymous work, April 7, It is apparent that the sections of both the "Captivity" and the Remarks that appealed most to French readers were those ex- hibiting the naive wisdom of the Indians.
The cosmogony of the beautiful woman descending from the skies is common to both works but serves two quite distinct purposes. Perhaps in the interim between the publication of the two works, Franklin realized that regardless of its absurdity or disharmony with his own religious beliefs, the tale had great narrative and character interest.
The "Captivity" is a satire on universal human frailties exemplified by the religious myths of braves and missionaries and the eco- nomic policies of the British Empire, while the Remarks, on the other hand, is an amusing local color sketch of Indian character and customs. The "Captivity" bristles in the satirical vein of Jonathan Swift deriding the Lilliputians; the Remarks glows in the tolerant spirit of Joseph Addison discoursing indulgently on fans and patches.
- Écrire hors des pages.
- The Price of Deception (Book Two The Legacy Series).
- GIVE - All The Bible Teaches About.
The editors of the Ephdmerides found in the "Captivity" only what they wished to find "Mithologie et Morale Iroquoises. The Way to Wealth is a compilation of proverbs from an almanac that Franklin had edited and published in Pennsylvania from until To make his almanac more entertaining than those of his competi- tors, Franklin had invented a harassed husband, Richard Saunders, and his determined spouse, Bridget.
In the preface to the almanac for nearly every year in which it appeared, Saunders or his wife wrote about each other or their competitors in the vein of Isaac Bickerstaff, the imaginary astrologer of Jonathan Swift and Notes to this chapter begin on page In addition to prefatory essays, poetry, and do- mestic hints, the pages of the almanac were filled with a variety of proverbs.
In the summer of while on a packet en route to England, Franklin looked over his almanacs for the preceding two decades, extracted the best proverbs concerning thrift and industry, and combined them in an ingenious narrative. This narrative he pub- lished as the Preface to the Almanac for and gave it the title The Way to Wealth. The scene is a country fair in Pennsylvania, where Poor Richard, passing by on horseback, pauses to hear a hoary patriarch, named Father Abraham, haranguing the crowd on taxes and hard times.
The best weapons to combat both, main- tains the old man, are labor and economy; his immediate counsel to his auditors is to abandon the folly of the fair. Nearly each one of his sentences contains a proverb or two most of them drawn from previous almanacs and introduced with some variant of the phrase, "As Poor Richard says. The only one to be visibly influenced is Richard Saunders himself, whose vanity has been touched by hearing his name mentioned throughout, and who goes away without buying the coat he had attended the fair to acquire.
During his middle age Franklin was fond of amusing himself by constructing magic squares and circles numbers arranged in various patterns to produce identical sums when added in various directions. His Way to Wealth is essentially a tour de force of the same nature the construction into a continued narrative of a series of proverbs on a single theme taken from a larger collection of heterogeneous sayings.
Frank- lin, A second translation by Antoine Francois Qutant in immediately gained thou- sands of readers. Both Lesqui and Jean Baptiste Le Roy had begun translating some of Franklin's scientific works in , perhaps at Dubourg's instigation, but both gave up the task almost at its commencement, leaving it entirely in Dubourg's hands.
His work, therefore, represented the most complete collection of Franklin writings printed to that time. The first volume contains documents con- cerning Franklin's electrical experiments; the second volume, material on economic, political and miscellaneous subjects. Of the miscellaneous pieces, The Way to Wealth and an essay on demography, Observations concerning the Increase of Mankind, were the most influential. The latter essay was the only one to receive critical attention in the French press and the only one which stimulated Dubourg to extensive editorial comment.
To his translation Dubourg added a number of explanatory notes and a supplementary essay of his own, hoping by them to persuade Franklin to write further on the subject.
Dubourg felt that Franklin's comments on Pennsyl- vania should be extended to generalizations on the population of the entire world; he accordingly presented ten demographic principles of his own, which portray a broader international and humanitarian vision than that of Franklin. Dissenting from Franklin's observation that a nation is strengthened doubly by "increasing its own people, and diminishing its neighbours," Dubourg asserts that the advantages drawn from the misfortune of one's neighbors are often more imaginary than real, that the principles of justice and the sources of felicity are the same both for nations and for individuals.
Mirabeau, however, who saw Franklin's essay before its appearance in print, wrote on a manuscript translation in his possession in , "Observations on population by Mr. Franklin given by him to me before he had any notion of eco- nomics, and it is here apparent. In this same year, , appeared the new translation of The Way to Wealth by Qu6tant, La Science du Bonhomme Richard, ou Moyen Facile de payer les impots, a translation that went through four editions in two years and at least five others before the end of the century.
It was widely quoted in periodicals and extravagantly praised. In this dress, La Science du Bonhomme Richard came to be almost universally considered a work of sublime morality, and its sen- tentious maxims were compared to those of Bacon and La Fontaine. Let us review the chronological record. The Way to Wealth appeared originally in Philadelphia in , was widely reprinted in America and England, but remained unheard of in France until when it appeared as part of Franklin's complete works.
The editor, Dubourg, and one or two journalists recognized that it had literary merits beyond Franklin's other pieces, but it nevertheless fell into virtual neglect. Then a brief four years later a new translation brought the work widespread attention and effusive praise. The conclusions are inevitable. A comparison will show almost at a glance that the two trans- lations vary hardly at all in literary merit. Dubourg's is more literal and slightly more expansive than that of Qutant and in general preserves the constructions of the original, preferring to give an exact rendering of the English idiom than to convert to the French equivalent.
These characteristics may be seen in the rendering of the English proverb, "God helps those who help themselves," which Franklin probably took from James Howell's Lexicon Tetraglotton, An anecdote concerning this proverb has been recorded by Sainte-Beuve and associated with Franklin. Two prominent Jan- senists imprisoned in the Bastille were visited by the governor, who was in a very good humor.
Finding them in a tranquil frame of mind, he remarked upon it, "Doesn't God say in his Gospel, 'God helps those who help themselves? But we may well smile in turn at their astonishment, Sainte-Beuve added, so much has our Christianity been human- ized since and translated a la Franklin. Franklin's appearance and personality created an immediate sen- sation, not only among the scientists and philosophers who had known and admired him previously, but among the diplomats on one side and the common people on the other.
Les Memoires secrets reported February 4, that he had been much wined, dined, and applauded by the savants. The details of his appear- ances at court and in public we may read in newspapers, personal letters, and private memoirs; all agreed on Franklin's paternal and benevolent demeanor. His portrait was offered for sale in medallions of various sizes, "some to be set in the lids of snuffboxes and some so small as to be worn in rings; and," he wrote to his daughter, "the numbers sold are incredible. These, with the pictures, busts, and prints of which copies upon copies are spread everywhere , have made your father's face as well known as that of the moon, so that he durst not do anything that would oblige him to run away, as his phiz would discover him wherever he should venture to show it.
No better evidence of this can be given than the following description of Franklin by Hilliard d'Auber- teuil, a fellow member with Franklin of the Masonic lodge of the Nine Sisters. Everything in him announced the simplicity and the innocence of primitive morals. Franklin had lain aside the wig which for- merly in England hid the nudity of his forehead and the useless adornment which would have left him at the level of the other English. He showed to the astonished multitude a head worthy of the brush of Guide [a painter of old men] on an erect and vigorous body clad in the simplest of garments.
His eyes were shadowed by large glasses and in his hand he carried a white cane. He spoke little. He knew how to be impolite without being rude, and his pride seemed to be that of nature. Such a person was made to excite the curiosity of Paris. The people clustered around as he passed and asked, "Who is this old peasant who has such a noble air? Franklin himself, however, never had such a view of his work. There is little doubt that he included much of it to sell almanacs and that he gave little or no thought to either its practical value or moral tone.
We have already pointed out that The Way to Wealth was drawn from the pages of Poor Richard's Almanac of previous years, that it was a careful selection of those passages inculcating thrift and industry. The complete Poor Richard does more than advocate worldly pru- dence; indeed, much of its philosophy is contradictory. In gen- eral, the sayings are bawdy and practical in the early years; para- doxically, moral and cynical in the later.
Several of them were derived ultimately from La Rochefoucauld. The French journalists who praised Bonhomme Richard for his sublime morality would have been surprised to learn that he had formerly advised his Philadelphia townsmen: Love your Neighbour; yet don't pull down your Hedge. His attitude toward sex, for example, is more cynical than sublime. You cannot pluck roses without fear of thorns Nor enjoy a fair wife without danger of horns.
Avarice and happiness never saw each other, how then should they become acquainted. Dog's dung and silver marks Are all one at the day of judgment. Despite the many editions and periodical reprints of Qutant's version, other translations followed. In Lausanne, The Way to Wealth appeared under the title Manuel de Philosophie Pratique, Pour seruir de suite a la Science du Bonhomme Richard as the nucleus of a collection of little-known English moral frag- ments.
A fourth translation by J. Castra appeared in his edition of Franklin's autobiography in 17Q8. This translator is unknown. Most French critics admired Bonhomme Richard for its sim- plicity, its appeal to the common man, and its sublime morality. Brissot, who had previously met Franklin in Pennsylvania and had praised him extensively in an account of his voyages, devoted an article in his periodical Le Patriote Francois to Poor Richard y portraying it as an indirect cause of the French Revolution.
As Franklin had established liberty in America, Penn had established the republic. Franklin in particular influenced his age through his simple, naive, and familiar style, which was as useful to the con- mon people as it was agreeable to those of literary culture. The Way to Wealth, which Brissot describes as proverbial exhortation, he concludes is a masterpiece of popular literature.
In a later address at the Jacobin's Club, Brissot repeated his political inter- pretation: "The patriot par excellence is a philosopher. Behold how Poor Richard and Franklin were always friends of the people. Apparently referring to Dubourg's translation, he stated that "Les Proverbes du Vieux Henri, la Science du Bonhomme Richard are in the hands of the learned and the ignorant: it is the most sublime practical morality presented for the common man; it is for all humanity the catechism of happiness.
On the one hand, he regretted that a young and pretty maiden should show in her demeanor nothing but good sense, for at the age of polite ac- complishments too much reason leads to misanthropy. On the other hand, he applauded her resolution since she gave endless pleasure by preaching in Poor Richard's style; even those whom she condemned by her principles involuntarily admired her moral sobriety. Grimm in his Correspondance litteraire was almost the only critic to say anything adverse about Bonhomme Richard although his general opinion is favorable.
Impressed chiefly by the eco- nomic features of the work, he pointed out its grand principle that personal extravagance may be more onerous than public taxes. Jean Baptiste Say, famous economist during the period of the Direc- tory and authority on public education, specifically asserted in reference to Franklin that practical economics and high morality are mutually dependent.
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In a work of Utopian fiction, Olbie, ou essai sur les moyens d'ameliorer les moeurs d'une nation, , he describes the erecting of temples celebrating the principal virtues, 17 with wall inscriptions of moral precepts chosen from among the most useful and practical that literature has to offer, including maxims of political economy, since they are conducive to morality. By this means, farmers, traders, and manufacturers who travel to other communities may read these maxims and may be apprised of their own true interests.
Among examples of proverbs notable for their simple forcefulness and ease of re- tention, Say gives one each from La Fontaine and Bacon and six from Franklin. La Science du Bonhomme Richard is a masterpiece of good sense, of concision, of simplicity one could almost add, of finesse, if a word so decried could be applied to the most sublime, the most useful notions of political and private economy. One senses how he had been obliged to make this light frame- work interesting by the manner in which he has carried it out.
At every moment one perceives his profound knowledge of the qualities and eccentricities of men. There are few works which comprise so many things in such a small volume. At every instant one encounters one of these maxims which as- tonish by their justness, their concision, their profundity.
That which an unpracticed mind does not grasp under one form, it grasps under another. One may say of Franklin as has been said of La Fontaine from another point of view: his writings are those of all ages, of all minds, of all conditions. Reporting on the offer, the Commission remarked, "To have named this work is to have eulogized it. Du Pont de Nemours, perhaps with this transaction still in his mind, prescribed The Way to Wealth as a textbook for the Amer- ican educational system.
In a discussion of national education in the United States, written while du Pont was in New York, he advocated The Way to Wealth as the only literary work in existence suited to the elementary grades; 21 an adequate ABC, he felt, was the most difficult type of textbook to prepare. I know only a single book which has the grace, the lightness, the deep sense, the art of dissimulating art, which this genre of work requires.
It is by Franklin. It is la Science du Bonhomme Richard. It has been imitated in France by the honest Mathon de la Cour in le Testament de Fortune Ricard; but what a great difference in talent and how little application it has to childhood.
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The Testa- ment has as its aim merely to demonstrate the value of thrift in spending and the accumulating of interest from capital and then to show the useful projects a government with several millionaires may undertake. POOR RICHARD 49 Franklin himself knew le Testament de Fortune Ricard and wrote to Mathon de la Cour July 9, that he had read it with pleasure and conceived a high opinion of its author; in- deed, it had such a strong influence upon him that he later at- tributed to it the impulse which led him to provide in his will for a trust fund of sterling for the cities of Boston and Philadelphia to be used in aiding "young beginners in busi- ness.
Bastiat wrote to one of his friends at the age of 26, exulting over the discovery of a volume of Franklin's moral and political miscellanies, "I am so enthused over it that I intend to follow the same method to become as good and as happy as he. At this period in life, the young man needs reading material devoted exclusively to his needs, to satisfy his zest for noble thoughts and philosophic systems.
Introduction : du débat sur le crime et l'insécurité urbaine aux politiques locales
The editor, in reference to the pieces that he had selected with Bon- homme Richard as their nucleus, concluded that "morality is above all sophisms and essentially related to the maintenance of public felicity because of its direct influence on the happiness of individuals. A common printer [Franklin] did for America what the wisest governments have had the arrogance to neglect or the weakness to fear. He later gathered all of these lessons in the work so famous under the title of Bonhomme Richard, a unique work in which one cannot help recognizing the superior man without it being possible to cite a single passage where he allows his superiority to be perceived.
Noth- ing in the thoughts nor in the style is above the least developed intelligence, but the philosophic mind easily discovers noble aims and profound intentions. The expression is always natural, often indeed commonplace, and all the wit is in the choice of ideas. In order that his lessons might be most useful he did not reveal to his readers that a philosopher of the town had condescended to instruct them and he hid himself under the name of Poor Richard, pretending to be ignorant and humble like them. In the following year, Joseph Antoine Cerutti, famous Revo- lutionary figure, himself an exponent of adult education, pub- lished in his La Feuille Villageoise a similar interpretation of Franklin's career.
Al- though apparently without any specific knowledge concerning Franklin's extended editorial supervision of his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette, Cerutti felt that his own enterprise was similar to Franklin's. It was by this essentially simple proceeding that he succeeded in rectifying the common ideas and in creating in some measure for POOR RICHARD 51 the multitude a new spirit capable equally of braving perils and of avoiding excesses.
His paper had an enormous success; it fell into the hands of the ignorant and the intelligentsia; some of the ar- ticles it contained, worthy of Voltaire and of Montesquieu, have circulated throughout the entire world. Among them is La Science du Bonhomme Richard, a science made for our villagers. Poor Richard had absolutely no connection with the Gazette, and the famous po- litical tracts and moral pieces that contributed to Franklin's vogue in Paris were all written subsequently to his period as newspaper editor.
While Cerutti gives a fair statement of Franklin's pur- poses in the Gazette, he is completely mistaken about his achieve- ments, for although Franklin wrote a number of pieces of genuine literary merit for the Gazette, they were not at the time widely read. Cerutti by nature cared more for embellishment than for ac- curacy. The nature of Cerutti's treat- ment is well revealed in the conclusion of the piece, to which Cerutti gave a novel twist completely contrary to Franklin's end- ing.
According to Cerutti, As the old preacher finished his harangue, the people listened with mouths agape and smiling. They clapped their hands when he fin- ished speaking. Indeed they did even better; taking advantage of his advice, some ran to pay their debts, others went to take up their work, and still others remained for the sale, but bought only necessary articles; and all paid their taxes through the savings o virtue and the reform of vice. American national prosperity profited through the science and the proverbs of Bonhomme Richard. Since this famous discourse, no one in America pronounces a moral sen- tence, a political maxim, an aphorism of jurisprudence, a historical apophthegm, a popular proverb, a popular adage, or any kind of saying, without adding "as Poor Richard says.
In France, Bonhomme Richard became so closely associated with brisk, colloquial style that a periodical came out in with the title Le Bonhomme Richard aux Bonnes-Gens. Anti-revolutionary propaganda, it ran to only two issues, but in imitating the homespun style of Poor Richard, it attempted to reconcile workers, servants, and the unemployed with the status quo and to forfend further disturbances. During Year III of the revolutionary epoch appeared another periodical under the title of Journal du Bonhomme Richard, a political daily, presenting opinions corresponding to those of Bonneville and Fauchet.
The author, Antoine F. Lemaire, introduced Bon- homme Richard as a man with normal human characteristics and from time to time allowed him to present his moral thoughts. In a periodical dedicated entirely to the theater, for example, an author began a letter in the year after the Quetant translation with the phrase, "Bon- homme Richard is indeed right in saying," and ended the same letter with another proverb and the words, "as Bonhomme Richard also says.
Franklin, who wrote at least one ritual for his own private devotions and collaborated in the preparing of another for public use, would probably have been amazed to see his utilitarian proverbs regarded as a: religious and moral system. The editors apparently received inspiration or moral strength from the stark homily, spaced in the fashion of prayer books or meditations. Par exemple, notre paresse nous prend deux fois autant que le gouvernement; Notre orgueil, trois fois; Et notre imprudence, quatre fois autant encore. It may be worth noting that the section which the Theophilan- thropists changed most radically from the Quetant version is the only one in which Franklin departs from the theme of prudential economy to suggest the higher theme of social benevolence.
Franklin had stated that the good things of prosperity were of little value without the blessings of heaven, and he exhorted his readers to petition these for themselves and to care for their neighbors who lacked material and spiritual comfort, giving as an example the transition of Job from poverty to happiness.