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Certainly, Spanish American vanguardismo and Brazilian modernismo are eloquent demonstrations of the close ties between economic conditions and the level of artistic production. One is struck by the fact that, given the enormous productivity of Latin American modernism, a bibliography such as this one has not previously been compiled.

But, then, poetry, outside of work on a handful of prominent figures like Paz, Neruda, Vallejo and Borges by derivation from his prose , continues to be the understudied genre of Latin American literature, with even work on drama and the theater overshadowing it. The organization of their project is simple and straightforward: provide coverage of general works and then provide coverage for the individual countries in alphabetical order.

Within each section there is a listing of Reference Works, followed by Sources from the Period especially useful, since the economic prosperity allowed for a huge output of literary reviews, manifestoes, and early critical studies, in addition to the works themselves , Individual Works i. The latter is a single alphabetical listing by critic as opposed to perhaps a more arguably chronological listing. Although the entries as a whole are accompanied by descriptive annotations, the latter are particularly useful for the critical studies, indicating scope, points of contention, conclusion, critical approaches, and relations to other critical studies.

Although annotated bibliographies often only mean repeating in English as an annotation the descriptive content of the title, Forster-Jackson provide useful coverage. What is more, and again because of the proliferation of material during the period, some of the references are not easily available in any but the most extensive research collection, and in this scene the annotations play an important discriminating function.

It should, however, be noted that it is the user who will be doing the discriminating, since the annotations do not in any event assess the cultural and intellectual importance of the references -i. Historically, this term only makes sense in Spanish and only refers to the Spanish American poets. Brazilian literary history speaks of modernismo , never vanguardismo , and there is some discomfort in making Brazil toe the taxonomic line along with Spanish America, and then moreover in English.


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Perhaps using the English modernism or simply a chronological designation would have avoided the ever-touchy problem of how to interface Spanish American and Brazilian literature without implying that Brazil merely fits in between Argentina and Chile, with language and, therefore, sociocultural differences being of minor consequence. This sort of caviling aside, one is pleased to see Brazil represented, since Brazilian literature usually gets ignored by Latin Americanists.

Since that country had one of the most spectacular modernist productions in all of the continent, the decision to incorporate Brazil in the listing is particularly important. The bibliography, which enjoyed the support of the National Endowment for the Humanities and fine computer resources, is superbly prepared. Accuracy is exemplary. Vanguardism in Latin American Literature constitutes a fine bibliographic standard and will be a widely consulted reference work. This well-written volume of critical commentary on the work of Adolfo Bioy Casares takes its place on the narrow shelf of book-length studies devoted to the close friend of Jorge Luis Borges and the husband of Silvina Ocampo.

In the second chapter the critic explores his detective fiction, a genre he cultivated with Borges with remarkable success. Guirnalda con amores , a book often overlooked by critics, is the subject of chapter 3. Bioy's interest in humor and dictionaries, an interest he likewise shared with Borges, is studied in chapter 4.

The last two chapters are summaries of the themes and techniques found in the first five chapters. The sixth deals with the author's predilection for island settings in his early works and his later preference for settings either in the city of Buenos Aires or in the province surrounding the city. The volume contains an extensive bibliography of primary works and critical studies as well as an onomastic index. Camurati clearly recognizes the signal importance of these two works, but she successfully makes a case for renewed critical attention to his later novels and short stories.

His use of humor, for example, is not evident in the first two works. The idea that Bioy Casares primarily uses island settings is another result of critical emphasis on his first two novels. It contains examples of his use of humor and dreams, the latter either a foretaste of life after death or a nightmarish vision of earthly existence. In the final pages of the novel the dedication of the photographer, the book's protagonist mentioned in the title, to artistic endeavors triumphs over his feelings of love and desire.

Implicit in Camurati's conclusion is that Bioy Casares throughout his career has shown equal dedication to the task of producing fine literature. There can be no doubt that Camurati is a well-informed critic of the prose fiction of Bioy Casares. Her study is carefully organized, carefully documented, and free from any technical errors; the ones that do occur are primarily in the first two chapters.

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I think Peavler has chosen a felicitous classification; he arranges the stories in a kind of continuum that goes from those works containing a maximum of fantasy and unreality to those based on reality. The key to the classification is verisimilitude in terms of character depiction, ambience, and the narration of the events in the work.

Whether Peavler's comments cover one page or are limited to fifteen lines, he manages to strike at the core of each narration as regards theme, meaning, or technical aspects. Peavler handles well the ambiguities, uncertainties, and temporal-spatial displacements that give these stories their particular Cortazarian dimension and aesthetic appeal.

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When necessary, Peavler reviews the opinions of other critics concerning particular texts, and then either corroborates or refutes these interpretations. In some cases, Peavler interprets the stories he discusses here as involving real events, whereas many previous critics have considered these same events as imaginary or hallucinatory. Peavler presents a good analysis of El examen , but correctly dismisses it as unimportant artistically. Rayuela, modelo para armar , and El libro de Manuel are analyzed very soundly, but I feel that Peavler should have given more of his critical attention to these novels than he has elected to do.

Peavler is to be congratulated for writing this very useful, informative, and critically sensitive book. I recommend it with much enthusiasm. Jaramillo, unveils historical realities embedded in the work, and the second, by the author himself, highlights its historical underpinnings and salient motifs. But the liveliest exchange of ideas informs the section focusing on Colombian sociologist Orlando Fals Borda's four-volume work, Historia doble de la Costa.

The first piece, by Raymond Souza, presents a balanced, coherent introduction to Fals' study, emphasizing both its factual and literary contents. While undoubtedly based on sound academic principles, Bergquist's lengthy critique may nevertheless strike some readers as pedantic, especially in light of Fals's forceful, point-by-point rebuttal. Ricardo Feierstein Argentina, has earned attention for a series of novels, each developing the concerns of its predecessors.

His first work won sporadic notice, applying concepts from architecture Feierstein's profession to narrative. In the late s, Feierstein became a much more interesting writer by centering on a set of issues. He examines unexpected outcomes of Israeli statehood, such as the undiminished vigor of Jewish life in the Diaspora and the inevitably imperfect correspondence between Jewish and Israeli cultural identity. Also explored are the effects on collective and individual self-image or shifting from vivid utopianism kibbutz or 60ss left to business as usual; the puzzle of Latin Americanness enters in.

Middle-aged discontent grows more acute; the humdrum professional career confronting the hero of Escala is one of unemployment, and the character's response to crisis has escalated from unhappiness and anger to disorientation and memory loss. While these factors start Mestizo on a cheerless note, a story of recovery quickly reveals itself.

The background -newly recivilianized Argentina- suggests renewal, and Mestizo pays tribute to human understanding as friends and family help David search for memory and self. Even the police, who need David to recall a murder, wait patiently for him to heal himself by his own methods. These include taking oral histories from immigrant Jewish Argentines quite absorbing material , recreating in conversation the days of heady activism and violent repression, and even such painless therapies as sharing the rapture of a great soccer triumph with a teenage son.

David's amnesia is the symptom of an uneasy relation with the Jewish heritage and Argentine past, recent political history, and other troubling legacies. As the title hints, healing comes through acceptance of the mixed and unspecifiable nature of one's cultural and social being. It is fair to say that readers have been more drawn to Feierstein for thematic than formal innovations.

A new restraint also characterizes the use of dialogue. This is not to suggest that Feierstein has foresworn experiments with form one episode in Mestizo is narrated as a screenplay, another as a comic strip or weighty debate the hero once sits between a pro-Palestinian Arab and a Jew voicing anxiety over Israeli and Jewish survival. But here he tactfully lets readers decide what to focus on. Mestizo 's afterword by Avellaneda skillfully summarizes where the novel stands in the author's oeuvre.

Avellaneda justly presents Mestizo as an example of fiction with a documentary component, and sees its unmarked structure as artlessness suited to testimonial literature, with its field-notes effect. Mestizo appears in Mild's series Imaginaria, a thoughtful list of creative works elaborating Jewish thought and concerns. Ocho Mundos is a text intended for use by beginning or early intermediate learners of Spanish. This new edition of Ocho Mundos differs from previous editions in that the primary focus of the text has shifted from the development of reading skills to the acquisition of vocabulary and the development of vocabulary skills.

In this edition of Ocho Mundos , the readings are intended to be used primarily as a means of reinforcing vocabulary acquisition and secondarily as a means of acquiring and practicing reading skills. The text is divided into eight chapters, each of which focuses on a different theme of cultural or social interest. Among the themes covered in the text are: the family, student life, holidays, refugees, life in the future, mysterious occurrences, travel, and communication.

In addition to a specific thematic focus, each chapter also focuses on one of several verb tenses usually introduced during the first year of Spanish instruction. The tenses studied in order of presentation include: present, preterit, imperfect, future, conditional, perfect tenses, formal commands and subjunctive.

Each chapter contains a vocabulary list which presents words and expressions related to the overall theme of the chapter, three reading selections also related to the overall theme of the chapter, and a variety of vocabulary and grammar exercises. There are also communicative activities which allow learners an opportunity to express themselves in some manner or to interact with other learners in pairs or small groups.

Finally, all reading selections in each chapter are accompanied by post-reading activities designed to test learners' comprehension of the passage and most are also accompanied by pre-reading activities designed to activate learners' previous knowledge of the topic. With respect to the reading selections, the first is a pedagogical text, in most cases written by the author. The other two are adaptations of articles that appeared in Spanish language periodicals.

Each reading selection in a particular chapter is intended to highlight both the vocabulary and the verb tense which correspond to that chapter. By correlating reading selections with the introduction of particular verb tenses. The reading selections deal with a variety of interesting topics which should appeal to a wide range of learners. However, they seem somewhat contrived due to the fact that they have been manipulated to conform to the thematic and grammatical focus of the different chapters.

By simplifying and glossing the reading selections while at the same time strictly controlling the vocabulary and grammar they contain, the author does not challenge the learners to go beyond what they already know. This contradicts the empirically supported view that learners can indeed comprehend vocabulary and grammatical structures to which they have not been exposed.

Regarding the vocabulary and grammar exercises included in the text, the majority are mechanical in nature. Learners are asked to fill in the blanks with words or verb conjugations, match words with their equivalent in the other language, and complete cloze passages. One exception to these types of exercises are the pair and group activities included in each chapter.

These activities, which generally take the form of interviews or group discussions, provide good opportunities for interaction between learners. Similarly, while most of the exercises and activities associated with the readings are traditional and mechanical e. These types of pre-reading activities have been shown to facilitate comprehension.

In conclusion, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course; however there are several caveats to consider before adopting it. First, the vocabulary and grammar presented in Ocho Mundos are too limited for it to serve as the basic text in a first-year Spanish course; however, Ocho Mundos could be used to complement and reinforce the vocabulary and grammar presented in a standard basic text.

Secondly, with some exceptions, the activities and exercises included in Ocho Mundos are traditional and mechanical. Therefore, instructors must devise more interesting and less traditional activities to be used instead of or at least in conjunction with the activities and exercises found in Ocho Mundos. Finally, the reading selections strictly limit and control learners' experience with reading in Spanish.

Consequently, instructors using Ocho Mundos should also expose their learners to truly authentic texts in Spanish in order to broaden the learners' experience with reading in Spanish and challenge them to go beyond what they already know. For these reasons, Ocho Mundos may prove to be useful in a first-year Spanish course, but only as a supplement to other materials and not as the basic text nor as the only source of activities or reading materials. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Readers of Hispania were recently treated to a thorough assessment and bibliography of studies dealing with Spanish historical linguistics see Thomas J.

Hispania 73 [], Several hundred copies were evidently offered as a Christmas gift to the clients of a particular banking institution. Hence, the lack of a bibliography and the usual critical apparatus. The text itself consists of eleven chapters designated and arranged as follows: 1. La Familia Indoeuropea; 2. As the above index shows, the author has managed to cover the salient topics pertaining to the subject.

These are presented, moreover, in a straightforward and at times delightfully humorous manner. Many readers will no doubt appreciate the author's ability to transform what is potentially a very dry and technical mass of material into a highly-readable and entertaining narrative. It is somewhat difficult, of course, for a specialist in the area of Spanish philology to predict the reaction of a neophyte audience to Alatorre's presentation.

The chapters on literary development seem extremely uneven and sketchy. One also wonders to what extent a non-specialist reader will be able to comprehend, much less appreciate, the synthesized explanations of sound change such as that afforded the development of the Old Spanish sibilant system in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries of the phonological differences between Castilian, Galician-Portuguese, Mozarabic, Leonese and Aragonese.

While the author had promised to avoid using the technical vocabulary of the specialist i. It is clear that Alatorre writes with expertise and affection about the language he remembers having been introduced to in written form at the age of four. The general reader who is curious enough to follow him in his journey throughout the centuries will no doubt find much along the way to stimulate the palate. The entries, relating to the Spanish-speaking world and Brazil, were taken from previous works of this nature, but the compilers, both law librarians, also contributed additional terms by gleaning the treatise reviews of the various U.

They subsumed the legal abbreviations if the documents already contained a list; otherwise, they perused the materials in search of such abbreviations. To be even more complete the compilers solicited contributions from colleagues in the field. The result is the present dictionary wherein each of the entries has the following annotation: 1 the acronym as it appeared in the original work, 2 the meaning of the phrase in Spanish or in Portuguese unfortunately written without accent marks , 3 the country or countries of origin of the term and finally, 4 the English translation.

The previous listings of legal abbreviations, brief though they may be, should have been noted either in the introduction or in a bibliography. Likewise, a cross section of the types of materials consulted for legal abbreviations as well as the U. Since so few bilingual reference books are extant on the fields of Spanish and Portuguese laws, a very brief bibliography of nine or ten titles would indicate not only the scope of the field but more importantly other valuable resources for the user: Louis A. Eugene P. Sheehy's Guide to Reference Books lists six additional tools.

Since the legal system of the Iberian world derives from sources different from those of the English-speaking world, it may be possible that the English translation is only an approximation due to the absence of a more precise term in English. Useful would be a glossary of deceptive cognates and other words difficult to convey to the English monolingual: amparo, asesorar, contestar, declarar, and demandar. Latin American Legal Abbreviations fills a need in legal reference; however, the disparateness of Roman and Anglo Saxon legal systems requires more scholarly accouterments for the user.

This plus more attention to source of materials would have considerably enhanced the present work. This volume, dedicated to the memory of Joseph H. Silverman , states that its principal objective is to offer a number of points of view on teaching Spanish Golden Age drama on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. By editorial de sign, the first essays are more applicable to undergraduate courses, while the rest are geared more for graduate teaching. In brief prefatory remarks, Hesse outlines some chronological stages in the development of approaches to the teaching of Golden Age plays, leading up to the great variety of modern approaches manifested in the eight essays which comprise this collection.

With the advent of New Criticism, scholars came to scrutinize with much greater care the texts themselves. Hesse cites the work of A. Parker in , and the reactions published in by James A. Parr as significant contributions to the development of a more modern and relevant approach to criticism which would come to examine the form, structure, imagery, irony, language, and human values found in a play.

Many of these new perspectives are exemplified in the work of the eight colleagues who are at the same time both noted scholars and experienced teachers of Golden Age drama. Anne M. Donald T. In applying this approach to the teaching of Fuenteovejuna , Dietz avowedly shifts emphasis from Lope's play to the affective reaction which the play produces in his students. Only after weeks of discussing the basic human concerns elicited by the reading of the play does Dietz engage in traditional study of its historical background and artistic qualities.

Susan L. DiPuccio attempts to rectify an unfortunate misconception according to which the apparently nihilistic premise of the discipline has been overemphasized. In deconstructing El pintor de su deshonra , DiPuccio shows how deconstruction can contribute two useful aids to literary criticism: it encourages the critic to look for multiplicity of meaning, and it prevents reducing the text to a set of maxims that conveniently suit the critic's, the reader's, or the author's preconceived notions on life and literature.

Hesse and Vern G. Williamsen, completes the volume. Any overall evaluation of this monograph would have to recognize the scholarly value of the essays therein published. Collectively, however, and particularly in light of the plays which they analyze, they do not represent a balanced overview of Spanish Golden Age theater. No other Golden Age dramatist is represented. As individual essays, they are good, although the orientation of most is scholarly rather than pedagogical.

There is no doubt that this volume will be valuable to all devotees of Spanish Golden Age theater, even though the avowed pedagogical thrust of the title seems somewhat misleading. The twelve chapters adhere to an unvarying format. Each opens with a discussion of a literary period, its major authors, and their best-known writings, followed by an anthology of brief excerpts from selected works, questions on the chapters's content, and a self-test composed of multiple choice items. A basic bibliography containing twenty-three items, an onomastic index, and an answer key to the self-tests complete the volume.

While this manual does not improve on the coverage and critical insight of Anderson Imbert, whom he frequently quotes, it is, without question, the most up-to-date work of its kind currently available. Shimose, a Bolivian poet, has written a highly readable narrative, but the flow of his prose is plagued by lengthy catalogs which, regrettably, appear all too often. In some cases he provides plot summaries or a few remarks about content or significance but in others he merely lists authors and enumerates principal works. Sketchy treatment is given not only to minor literary figures but also to the contemporary period as a whole.

By way of contrast, the older literature receives considerably more space e.

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Armando Valladares and Luisa Valenzuela are likewise absent from the chapters on contemporary writers. This erratic coverage can convey a false impression of the relative worth of a particular work or author in comparison with another and may prove confusing to the unwary. His historical exposition, more descriptive than critical, fails to elude the usual hazards of this type of writing inevitable errors, inconsistent coverage, and infelicitous classifications. In addition, the overly abbreviated anthology selections actually hinder comprehension by not allowing readers to get a feel for the works presented.

To his credit, Shimose disguises his nationalistic pride, offering a fair and equitable assessment of authors regardless of their origin. His inclusion of many obscure writers especially Bolivians not found in the standard reference sources and his listing of pen names are two of the volume's major virtues. These features, combined with the currency factor, make this a useful reference source for student and scholar alike. However, as with all works of this nature, it should be consulted with a certain amount of caution.

Taking his cue from a statement made in by Harri Meier that the complex field of Spanish expressions of futurity has yet to be studied. Gerhard Bauhr has undertaken the challenge for peninsular Spanish. He analyzes the two primary methods of expressing the future, cites percentages from his corpus, and then suggests possible factors that determine the use of one form over the other. His corpus is drawn from fifty theatrical works written between and by such authors as Antonio Buero Vallejo, Carlos Llopis, Jorge Establier Llopis, Miguel Mihura and Alfonso Sastre, but his preliminary discussion of previous work includes four studies of American Spanish as well as three of peninsular Spanish.

After citing previous work in the field, Bauhr addresses the concept of verbal temporality. Bull and Guillermo Rojo Bauhr's example sentences involve such verbs as nevar , clarear and desmayar , which communicate the natural consequence of a process that is already present at the moment of utterance. Bauhr next examines the future constructions in the light of aspect and concludes that they are both aspectually neutral.

The final section of the book analyzes the distribution and use of the two future constructions in various syntactic environments. As a scholarly work, Bauhr's effort is exemplary. The text is admirably free of errors, there is a table of abbreviations, a series of tables of distribution figures, and an excellent index. There is also a five-page summary and a five-paragraph abstract, both in English.

Each selection in the corpus is given with enough context for readers to grasp its essential meaning, and errors that occur within the cited material are designated by sic. Although teachers of Spanish and generalists can be enlightened by the differing grammatical environments that elicit one or the other of the future constructions and may enjoy scanning the corpus, the technical arguments that Bauhr elaborates are basically there for the delectation of linguistics specialists.

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These Negros Congos are members of ritualistic societies which celebrate during the pre-lenten Carnival season in historically-syncretic, African-and-Hispanic ceremonies. Their celebrations are characterized by speech patterns peculiar to them called congo speech. Lipski's stated purpose 2 and his plan of attack 8 are to describe linguistically the Costa Arriba congo speech patterns generally incomprehensible to the uninitiated, and to measure the evolution of this speech with regard to patterns of creolization and African influences on the Spanish of Latin America.

He succeeds brilliantly in both efforts. The five chapters that comprise this text present an overview of the congos , their speech, and their rituals. The rituals, inherently tied to their speech patterns, are in fact demystified in this book. Chapter 1 defines concretely and concisely the topic and the methods Lipski plans to use.

Chapter 2 handles morphological, syntactic, and semantic traits of the speech, ranging from verbal restructuring to those vestigial attributes shared with speakers of American Spanish varieties found in the United States. The third and fourth chapters deal with phonological traits of congo speech and comparisons with general Panamanian Spanish; herein Lipski's work reveals interesting correspondences between congo speech and other American Spanish varieties. Finally, in chapter 5, Lipski speculates on the possible bases for congo speech patterns and characteristics; he strongly suggests that congo speech shows little or no connection with creole or bozal Afro-Iberian dialects.

The references are minutiae of useful sources referring to Spanish dialectology and creole studies in several languages. The appendix occasions a view at what Lipski really undertook; it provides a script of many hours of taped interviews which give ample indication of the author's dedication to details. Indeed, he acquired the characteristics of a cultural anthropologist by becoming a part of the Costa Arriba Congo community over a period of months in the mid s.

The dearth of typographical errors specifically, p. Although the early pages of the text assume some prior knowledge of linguistics, the text would certainly be accessible not only to linguists, but also to anthropologists, sociologists, historians, folklorists, and other scholars interested in this area of study.

We as linguists can only hope Lipski will continue in his prodigious ways of producing superior, in-depth essays on little studied areas of Spanish dialectology. The novel in question, then, has suddenly sprung into a place of prominence in the Galdosian canon, with new accessibility being offered to general readers and specialists. The tragic ending -which presents the murder of the protagonist by his absolutist uncle- is that found in the manuscript, and is more in accord with the overall Galdosian vision of the Spain of Fernando VII.

The reader not familiar with Madrid and Spanish is probably left confused and the reader familiar with both, annoyed. For six of the novel's forty-three chapters Walter Rubin supplies historical notes. This reader did not find them especially helpful and wonders if a short, general historical introduction to the historical personages and issues of the times might not have been more advisable. They have supplied in an attractive, sturdy trade-paperback format an important Spanish novel of the nineteenth century in English.

Finally, classes in Latin American studies may find this picture of Spain during the time of American independence movements most revealing. The problems posed by such an enterprise are insurmountable. The resulting juxtaposition of humor and lyricism, poetic heights and occasional prosaic plunges, together with a potpourri of themes, is as disconcerting here as it is in the original. This is not a collection to be read from cover to cover; instead the book should be opened at random and savored bit by bit.

And when he succeeds -which is certainly not always- he soars. That's a hard thing for any translator to capture, especially when there is humor involved. Perhaps only another wizard of words would effectively recreate in English his brilliant and peculiar style. This novel is by no means an easy read, in the original Portuguese or in Rabassa's excellent translation, though in either case the reader's effort is well worth while. In other words, the English like its Portuguese predecessor , reads well what Rabassa translation does not? This current edition of Avalovara is actually a re-edition of a translation that appeared in , published then by Alfred A.

Given the novel's inherent structural and thematic challenges to the reader, however dedicated and resourceful, one wonders as to the motivation of the University of Texas Press certainly much less commercially-minded than the usual publishing venture , for the market will surely be at least somewhat limited. The translation, besides opening the novel to a non-Portuguese-reading public, also points toward the translator's interpretation of the text.

The current volume, then, is an act of critical scholarship, informed by the original novel and informing its subsequent readings, whether in English or in Portuguese. So Rabassa's translation should make Lins's text more accessible to readers, even if they are able to read Portuguese. The translation will serve as a useful tool for all students of the novel, given the multilingual light it can shed on it.

Throughout the novel, the translator succeeds in conveying the acute linguistic sensibility that characterizes the Brazilian original, making the reader in English feel the Portuguese behind and within his translation. The Portuguese text is like a yolyp, contained within the English version. Other languages also figure in this polyglot: expressions in Latin it is a palindrome in this language that describes much of the novel's basic structure , Italian, and French often are left in the original.

On occasion, even Portuguese figures in the text, though with the English equivalent in parentheses. This technique is not awkward at all, but rather serves to enhance the ratified aura of Lins's work. The question of who this is stands as only one of the mysteries of Avalovara. What is no mystery is that the translator would invest the kind of time and effort required to produce this sort of rendering.

Helena Parente Cunha's Woman Between Mirrors Mulher no espelho , one of the most striking and innovative novels to appear in Brazil in the nineteen eighties, is finally available in English thanks to a joint effort by Fred P. Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. This sensitive and highly readable translation should be welcomed not only by the general English-speaking public, but most especially by students and teachers in Comparative Literature and Women's Studies courses, who now have access to another quality text by a contemporary Third World writer.

Woman Between Mirrors bears unquestionable evidence that post-modern self-consciousness does not have to yield a cold and cerebral text, as is the case with so many North American metafictionists, but can be used, rather, to generate a fictional text in which innermost feelings and powerful emotions unabashedly play a central role. This is not surprising since, as the meditation on the nature of writing in Chapter 19 clearly indicates, fiction is viewed here as a liberating enterprise, to the extent that it allows one to recreate reality and transcend the repetitive banality of the quotidian.

It is also important that during this transformation the protagonist becomes increasingly identified with Afro-Brazilian culture, not only because an analogy is developed between the enslavement of Blacks and the oppression of women, but also because the recovery of African roots by the protagonist represents the recovery of primordial freedom. In translating this magnificent novel, Ellison and Lindstrom were particularly successful at finding an American English equivalent for Parente Cunha's mellifluous poetic prose, without falling into a lofty, overblown rhetoricity. It is hard to find fault with this superb translation, but I would like to point out two problems that seem to be out of line with the quality of Ellison and Lindstrom's work.

The second problem is somewhat more serious. While in first grade, the protagonist is embarrassed by not knowing the meaning of bote , a less common Portuguese word for a small boat than barco or barquinho. The translators choose to use the English word boat , whereas perhaps a less common word such as dinghy might have been preferable. It seems unlikely that such a bright child as the protagonist wouldn't know the meaning of boat , although, at that age, it is conceivable that she wouldn't know what bote in Portuguese or dinghy in English meant.

This suggestion, however, is not meant to denigrate in any way the excellent translation by Fred Ellison and Naomi Lindstrom. We are lucky to have translators as sensitive to the nuances of the Portuguese language as our two colleagues from the University of Texas. Finally, I would like to call attention to the translators' preface, which contains an enlightening and lucid discussion not only of the problems they faced in translating Parente Cunha's novel, but of problems faced by translators in general.

This interesting preface is a welcome complement to a first-rate translation. A resposta, caso fosse dada, seria longa e transcenderia o escopo desta resenha. Os contos oferecem ao leitor a complexidade do universo seniano, bem como sua leveza no escrever e em compor teias e tramas. Her work has been making its way into English largely through the efforts of Ellen Watson, who has been publishing translations of Prado's poems in anthologies, magazines, and a chapbook.

The Alphabet in the Park offers a worthy, albeit monolingual, sampler of Prado's work. The cover photograph shows Prado looking equally earthy and elegant, accurately foreshadowing her poetry, grounded in primitive realities of life, yet knowingly conversant with the poetic past. Women's erotic expression has been a focus of the recent Brazilian cultural scene, and Prado has been attracting some of that attention. Intensifying the impression of an uncontrived, here and now poetry are the allusions to Catholic culture. Still, it is too easy to be enraptured by the notion of artless, but marvelous, poetry emanating from an earth mother.

Prado's poetry half-hides its intellectual and literary renovation that starts with Brazilian modernismo , with special reference to fellow mineiro authors. This verse stands in an instantly recognizable, but complex, relation to Drummond's work. Prado's originality is nowhere stronger than in her bonds with other writers' work. Watson's selections effectively showcase Prado for English-language readers.

Another Way to Be. Selected works of Rosario Castellanos. Edited and translated by Myralyn F. Foreword by Edward D. Terry, Athens: U. Translated with an introduction and notes by David Johnston. Cantigueiros , 2 Lexington: Society of the Cantigueiros, The Search for Order and Meaning. London: Tamesis Books, Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, Actualidades Video. Viewer's Manual prepared by Luis Verano.

New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Euphoria and Crisis. Essays on the Contemporary Mexican Novel. Fredericton, N. Canada : York Press, Los zapaticos de rosa. Montclair, N. J: Senda Nueva de Ediciones, Amsterdam: Rodopi, Rende Italy : Mediterranean Press, Tales from the Mountain. Translated from the Portuguese by Ivana Carlsen.

Uncorrected page proof. Fort Bragg, California: Q. Press, Quebec: Centre Internacional de Recherche sur le Bilinguisme, Hitler and Spain. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, Book Reviews. Index of Authors, Titles, and Reviewers. Cervantes and the Augustinian Religious Tradition. Boston: Twayne Publishers, Guardiola Alcover, Conrado. La verdad actual sobre los Amantes de Teruel. Teruel, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, Navajas, Gonzalo. Barcelona: Editorial Teide, Murcia: Universidad de Granada, Madrid: Espasa Calpe, Lorca's Late Poetry. Leeds: Francis Cairns Publications , New York: Peter Lang, Madrid: Castalia, Critical Studies on Gonzalo Torrente Ballester.

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