The Father of Communism, Karl Marx , a German philosopher and economist, proposed this new ideology in his Communist Manifesto , which he wrote with Friedrich Engels in The manifesto emphasized the importance of class struggle in every historical society, and the dangerous instability capitalism created. Though Marx died well before a government tested his theories, his writings, in conjunction with a rising disgruntled working class across Europe, did immediately influence revolutionary industrial workers throughout Europe who created an international labor movement.
As envisioned by Marx, Communism was to be a global movement, inspiring and expediting inevitable working-class revolutions throughout the capitalist world. Though the book had not yet been published, these revolutions had already started in early in France. The new urban working class that lived and worked in terrible conditions throughout Europe got fed up with their life of squalor as they saw upper-class citizens the bourgeois as Marx labeled them in the Manifesto living lives of luxury.
The ideas and goals of communism appealed strongly to the revolutionaries even after the revolutions collapsed. For the next several decades, fed-up lower class workers and peasants held tight to the legacy of the revolutionaries and communist ideology waiting for the right moment to capitalize. Communism was adopted in Russia after the Russian Revolution, a series of revolutions that lasted throughout For centuries leading up to World War I, Russia was ruled by an absolute monarchy under which the lower classes had long suffered in poverty.
This tension was exacerbated by the nationwide famine and loss of human lives as a result of World War I. The first revolution began when the Russian army was sent in to control a protest led by factory workers who had recently lost their jobs. However, large gaps still remain, particularly on the timing and internal justification of Stalin's decision to side with Hitler, as well as on the working out of the secret protocol to the pact of August 23, For example, the Katyn documents held in sealed packets in the Presidential Archives.
Kremlin, were declassified to support charges of criminal activity against the CPSU b. Copies were given to President Watesa of Poland in October , probably as a gesture of Russian good will to strengthen that country's links with Russia. Finally, though some Russian historians have, since , obtained access to many hitherto classified documents and could publish them, Stalin's wartime thinking and goals are still the subject of controversy for lack of authoritative documentation. British and U. Churchill and Franklin D. Japan, and other states at different periods of the war.
But today, as we near the sixtieth anniversary of the outbreak of World War II. Stalin's prewar, then wartime thinking and goals regarding Poland, the western powers, and other states — must do so mainly by extrapolation from actions recorded in documents written by Soviet officials, supplemented by his speeches and the Soviet press. The declassification of Central Committee and Politbiuro documents on foreign policy, as well as NKVD documents and more AVP materials for the years , is necessary to obtain a full picture of Stalin's thinking, and thus of Soviet foreign policy during this period.
Let us hope that they will be declassified soon so that historians can stop guessing and proceed to fill a yawning gap in twentieth-century history. New Haven. May English language studies that give some coverage to the Polish question include: Martin Kitchen. Between Churchill and Stalin. Of those that deal specifically with Poland, the most important are: Detlet Brandev Irosshntanien und seine osteuropiiischen Alliertcn. U Munich. Jaime Reynolds. Poland Cheat Britain, the Soviet I 'nion and the Polish government in exile The Great Powers and Poland The strange allies.
- The True Story of the Death of Stalin.
- Dog Eat Dog?
- Mistral ... und weit ist der Himmel (German Edition).
- Adventure at 63- Backpacking to Istanbul!
The I'mted States and Poland Knoxville. Britain and Poland The betrayed ally Cambridge. For a study of the Polish communists in the period X. Stosunki polsko-. See: Anna M. I9XX : Id.. Al, 4 ft : ; Id.. Sec: Anna M. November 1". March There is a parallel Russian edition : Antony Polonsky. The treat Powers and the Polish question A documentary study in Cold War origins London.
Boleslavi Drukier. December 1 September I : On the military history of the war. White cjgle. Soviet-Polish relations. Joseph Pilsudski: A European federalist. See estimates by Dr. See: Wojciech Materski. Zawodny: Katyn. Documents ot genocide Warsaw , See also the five small volumes in the series: 7.
Related History documents
Albin F. Noskova et al. See also: Gennadij A. Adam Koseski. Gennadij F. Matw iejew. Polish transi iteration of Russian names. Struktury podleglosci. Wojciech Materski. Zolotorev ctuL. SSSR i Pol'shu. Velikaia Otechcbtvennuia Moscow : Terra. The editors state erroneously that general W. Anders served in the German army in 19IX. Tom 1. Nataliia Lebedeva and archiv ist Nclli A.
Petrosova as the responsible Russian editors. Lebedeva listed as the responsible Russian editor: W. Materski was the responsible Polish editor though not designated as such. This work was published in the series: "Rossiia. XX Vek" with a preface bv Aleksandr lakovle v. See Nataliia S. Prestuplenie protiv ehclovechestx a Moscow. See notes by Jakub Berman. Genezu PPR. Warsaw, : see also: N. For an English language history of the Polish communists, see: B.
The communists of Poland.
Revision Menu – Stalin’s Russia (IGCSE)
An historical outline. For the Polithiuro's decision on the prisoners, Voroshilov's order of September For lists of names of executed prisoners from the three camps and names of prisoners who were spared, see. Mord u K. X57; these included military officers as well as civilians, mostly civil service officials. For Beriia's directive of September For studies on the Soviet regime in eastern Poland. Resolution from abroad. Sower conquest of Poland's western I'kraine and western Belorussia Princeton.
Deportation and exile. For studies on deportations based on Russian documents, see: V.
- Castigate My Sin.
- Between the Image and the Word: Theological Engagements with Imagination, Language and Literature (Ashgate Studies in Theology, Imagination and the Arts).
- Black Beauty, The Autobiography of a Horse by Anna Sewell (Illustrated).
On Polish communists in western Belorussia and western Ukraine, see N. Lebedeva, "The Comintern and Poland Mikhail M. In October Dimitrov himself had sent the NKVD two letters with lists of persons suspected of "provocatory" actions in connection with the activity of the Ukrainian and Belorussian communist parties, see ibid. The Soviet takeover For the sudden emphasis on Polish history and culture in October These are diary notes by a young Polish psychologist, covering the period Earlier rumors about the raising of "Red Polish Legions" in former eastern Poland were reported by the British representative in Kaunas.
Polish ambassador to the Vatican. They may have been connected with a Soviet-inspired proposal made in London in late June to the head of the Polish government- in-exile, general Wtadyshm Sikorski.
Krakow, : , also A. Cienciala, "The question of the Polish- Soviet frontier For Beriia's note to Stalin of November 2, with information on groups of selected Polish officers, see: W. The full text is available in the Archives of the President of the Russian Federation. For these declarations, made on June Sec A. Cicnciala, "General Sikorski On the Wasilew ska-Stalin talks at the end of January Wy bor Warsaw.
VII, 1 19X5 : Ill: it should be VII. See note 19 above. On Stalin's special files, see Raymond L. For a catalog of these special tiles for the years I: "Osobuiu pupku" I. Katalog dokiimenun Moscow.
Stalin Internet Archive
According to the established declassification schedule for the AVP. Cold War International History Project. See: J. Arch Getty. Kratkii putevoclitel'.
Fondy v kollektsii. See: Michael David Fox. David Hoffmann. For Wasilewska's memoirs, see note 18 above; for J. Berman's papers, see: AAN. Lebedeva, M. See N. Narinsky, "Dissolution of the Comintern in ," International Affairs. Many of these documents were published in The 37 radio telegrams in this collection cover the period June See also AAN. Warsaw: "Archiwum lewicy polskiej. Sec: W.
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