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Software Tools 2. Install the Cables 3. Upgrade the Motherboard 3. Operating System Upgrades 5. Startup Modes 5. IP Addressing 6. Network Topologies 6. Internal Components 7.

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System Board 7. Mobile Operating Systems 8. Optimizing Printer Performance 9. Usernames and Passwords Data Backups Summary The course teaches you how to build a computer and troubleshoot problems that occur in everyday use. This student is usually pursuing a career in information technology IT or wants to have the knowledge of how a com- puter works, how to assemble a computer, and how to troubleshoot hardware and software issues.

Book Features The features in this book facilitate an understanding of computer systems and trou- bleshooting system problems. The highlights of each chapter are as follows: Q Objectives: Each chapter starts with a list of objectives that should be mastered by the end of the chapter.

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The objectives are framed as focus questions address- ing the concepts covered in the chapter. Q Key terms: Each chapter includes a list of the key terms identified in the chap- ter, listed in the order in which they appear in the chapter. The key terms reinforce the concepts introduced in the chapter and help you understand the chapter material before you move on to new concepts. You can find the key terms highlighted in blue throughout the chapter, in the context in which they are most important. Q Explanatory text, lists, figures, and tables: This book contains figures, proce- dures, and tables to accompany the thorough text explanations of the objective content and to help explain and visualize theories, concepts, commands, and setup sequences.

Q Chapter summaries: At the end of each chapter is a summary of the concepts covered in the chapter. The summary provides a synopsis of the chapter and serves as a study aid. Q Virtual Desktop activity and Virtual Laptop activity references: Designed and developed by the Cisco Networking Academy, these activities are virtual learning tools to help you develop critical thinking and complex problem- solving skills.

In addition, the questions reinforce the concepts introduced in the chapter and help test your understand- ing before you move on to subsequent chapters. Answers to the questions are available in the Appendix. However, you can also get easy access just to these activities if you register this Companion Guide on the Cisco Press website. Once you have an account and have registered your book, follow the Access Bonus Content link to view the downloadable activities.

Note that you need to have the Packet Tracer software to use these Packet Tracer activity files. Packet Tracer is available only through the Cisco Networking Academy. Ask your instructor for a copy of this software. Also note that the most current files will always be found within the course on Netspace. Access to these files on the Cisco Press site is intended only for convenience of access for those of you using the Companion Guide textbook accompanying your course.

A computer is an electronic machine that performs calculations based on a set of instructions. A computer system consists of hardware and software components. This chapter discusses hardware components found in a computer system, selecting replacement com- puter components, and configurations for specialized computer systems. Safety guidelines help protect individuals from accidents and injury and protect equipment from damage.

Some of these guidelines are designed to protect the environment from contamination by discarded materials. You will also learn how to protect equipment and data and how to properly use hand and software tools. As a technician, you must work in a logical, methodical manner when working with computer components. It is important that you develop advanced skills in installation proce- dures, troubleshooting techniques, and diagnostic methods. This chapter discuss- es the importance of component compatibility across hardware and software. In this chapter, you will learn general guidelines for creating preventive maintenance programs and trouble- shooting procedures.

These guidelines are a starting point to help you develop your preventive maintenance and troubleshooting skills. In this chapter, you learn about the components, func- tions, and terminology related to the Windows , Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7 operating systems. The different types of network topologies, proto- cols, and logical models, in addition to the hardware needed to create a network, are also discussed in this chapter. Configuration, troubleshooting, and preventive maintenance are covered. You also learn about network software, communica- tion methods, and hardware relationships.

During the course of your career, you will be expected to know how to configure, repair, and maintain these devices. The knowledge you acquire about desktop computers will help you service lap- tops and portable devices. However, there are important differences between the two technologies. This chapter examines these differences and how to tech- niques to use specific to laptops.

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Like a desktop or laptop computer, mobile devices use an operating system to run applications apps and games and play movies and music. It is important to become familiar with as many different mobile devices as possible. You may be required to know how to configure, maintain, and repair various mobile devices. Mastering the skills nec- essary to work on mobile devices is important to your career advancement.

This chapter focuses on the many features of mobile devices and their capabilities, including configuration, synchronization, and data backup. You will learn how printers operate, what to consider when purchasing a printer, and how to connect printers to an individual computer or to a network. Failure to implement proper security procedures can have an impact on users, computers, and the general public. Private information, company secrets, financial data, computer equipment, and items of national security are placed at risk if proper security procedures are not followed.

This chapter covers why security is important, security threats, security procedures, how to troubleshoot security issues, and how you can work with customers to ensure that the best possible protection is in place. In fact, troubleshooting is as much about communicating with the customer as it is about knowing how to fix a computer. In this chapter, you learn to use good communication skills as confi- dently as you use a screwdriver.

Advanced troubleshooting can sometimes mean that the problem is unique or that the solution is difficult to perform. In this chapter, you will learn how to apply a troubleshooting process to solve com- puter problems. Q Glossary: The Glossary provides you with definitions for all the key terms iden- tified in each chapter.

After becoming certified, you will be qualified to work as a computer support pro- fessional and technician in a variety of work environments and industries. Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same con- ventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: Q Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown.

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In actual configuration examples and output not general command syntax , boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user such as a show command. Q Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. Q Vertical bars separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. Q Square brackets [ ] indicate an optional element. Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to answer the following questions: Q What are safe working conditions and Q What tools and software are used with procedures? Q What procedures help protect equipment and data?

Q What is proper tool use? Q What procedures help to properly dispose of hazardous computer components and related material? Key Terms This chapter uses the following key terms. You can find the definitions in the Glossary. Introduction 2. Safety guidelines help protect individuals from accidents and injury. They also help to protect equipment from damage. Some of these guidelines are designed to protect the environment from contamination caused by improperly discarded materials.

Safe Lab Procedures 2. General Safety 2. A safe workspace is clean, organized, and properly lighted. Everyone must understand and follow safety procedures. Follow the basic safety guidelines to prevent cuts, burns, electrical shock, and damage to eyesight. As a best practice, make sure that a fire extinguisher and first- aid kit are available in case of fire or injury.

Poorly placed or unsecured cables can cause tripping hazards in a network installation. Cables should be installed in conduit or cable trays to prevent hazards. This is a partial list of basic safety precautions to use when working on a computer: Q Remove your watch and jewelry and secure loose clothing. Q Turn off the power and unplug equipment before performing service.

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  4. Q Cover sharp edges inside the computer case with tape. Q Never open a power supply or a CRT monitor. Q Do not touch areas in printers that are hot or that use high voltage. Q Know where the fire extinguisher is located and how to use it. Q Keep food and drinks out of your workspace. Q Keep your workspace clean and free of clutter. Q Bend your knees when lifting heavy objects to avoid injuring your back. Electrical Safety 2. Power supplies and CRT monitors contain high voltage.

    Caution Only experienced technicians should attempt to repair power supplies and CRT monitors. Do not wear the antistatic wrist strap when repairing power supplies or CRT monitors. Some printer parts become hot during use, and other parts might contain high voltage. Check the printer manual for the location of high-voltage components. Some components retain a high voltage even after the printer is turned off.

    Make sure that the printer has had time to cool before making the repair. Electrical devices have certain power requirements. For example, AC adapters are manufactured for specific laptops. Exchanging power cords with a different type of laptop or device may cause damage to both the AC adapter and the laptop.

    Fire Safety 2. To avoid an electrical shock and to prevent damage to the computer, turn off and unplug the computer before beginning a repair. Fire can spread rapidly and be very costly. Proper use of a fire extinguisher can prevent a small fire from getting out of control. When working with computer components, be aware of the possibility of an accidental fire and know how to react.

    Be alert for odors emitting from computers and electronic devices. When electronic components overheat or short out, they emit a burning odor. If there is a fire, follow these safety procedures: Q Never fight a fire that is out of control or not contained. Q Always have a planned fire escape route before beginning any work. Q Get out of the building quickly. Q Contact emergency services for help. Q Locate and read the instructions on the fire extinguishers in your workplace before you have to use them. Be familiar with the types of fire extinguishers used in your country or region. It is important to know how to use a fire extinguisher.

    Q A: Aim at the base of the fire, not at the flames. Q S: Squeeze the lever. Q S: Sweep the nozzle from side to side. Procedures to Protect Equipment and Data 2. This section identifies potential threats to systems and describes procedures to help prevent loss and damage. Follow proper handling guidelines, be aware of environmental issues, and use equipment that stabilizes power to prevent equipment damage and data loss. Static electricity is the buildup of an electric charge resting on a surface. Electrostatic discharge ESD occurs when this buildup jumps to a component and causes damage. ESD can be destructive to the electronics in a computer system.

    At least volts of static electricity must build up before a person can feel ESD. For example, static electricity can build up on you as you walk across a carpeted floor. When you touch another person, you both receive a shock. If the discharge causes pain or makes a noise, the charge was probably above 10, volts.

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    By comparison, less than 30 volts of static electricity can damage a computer component. ESD can cause permanent damage to electrical components. Follow these recommendations to help prevent ESD damage: Q Keep all components in antistatic bags until you are ready to install them. Q Use grounded mats on workbenches. Q Use grounded floor mats in work areas. Q Use antistatic wrist straps when working on computers. Electromagnetic interference EMI is the intrusion of outside electromagnetic signals in a transmission media, such as copper cabling. In a network environment, EMI distorts the signals so that the receiving devices have difficulty interpreting them.

    EMI does not always come from expected sources, such as cellular phones. Other types of electric equipment can emit a silent, invisible electromagnetic field that can extend for more than a mile 1. There are many sources of EMI: Q Any source designed to generate electromagnetic energy Q Manmade sources like power lines or motors Q Natural events such as electrical storms, or solar and interstellar radiations. Wireless networks are affected by radio frequency interference RFI. RFI is caused by radio transmitters and other devices transmitting in the same frequency.

    For example, a cordless telephone can cause problems with a wireless network when both devices use the same frequency. Microwaves can also cause interference when positioned in close proximity to wireless networking devices. Climate Climate affects computer equipment in a variety of ways: Q If the environment temperature is too high, equipment can overheat.

    Q If the humidity level is too low, the chance of ESD increases. Q If the humidity level is too high, equipment can suffer from moisture damage. Power Fluctuation Types 2. The movement of electrons is called current. Computer circuits need voltage and current to operate electronic components. When the voltage in a computer is not accurate or steady, computer components might not operate correctly. Unsteady voltages are called power fluctuations. A blown fuse, damaged transformer, or downed power line can cause a blackout. Chapter 2: Lab Procedures and Tool Use Q Brownout: Reduced voltage level of AC power that lasts for a period of time.

    Brownouts occur when the power line voltage drops below 80 percent of the normal voltage level. Overloading electrical circuits can cause a brownout. Q Noise: Interference from generators and lightning. Noise results in poor quality power, which can cause errors in a computer system. Q Spike: Sudden increase in voltage that lasts for a short period and exceeds percent of the normal voltage on a line.

    Spikes can be caused by lightning strikes but can also occur when the electrical system comes back on after a blackout. Q Power surge: Dramatic increase in voltage above the normal flow of electrical current. A power surge lasts for a few nanoseconds, or one-billionth of a second. Power Protection Devices 2.

    A surge suppressor diverts extra electrical voltage that is on the line to the ground.

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    Q Uninterruptible power supply UPS : Helps protect against potential electrical power problems by supplying a consistent level of electrical power to a computer or other device. The battery is constantly recharging while the UPS is in use. The UPS provides a consistent quality of power when brownouts and blackouts occur. Many UPS devices can communicate directly with the computer operating system. This communication allows the UPS to safely shut down the computer and save data prior to the UPS losing all electrical power.

    Q Standby power supply SPS : Helps protect against potential electrical power problems by providing a backup battery to supply power when the incoming volt- age drops below the normal level. The battery is on standby during normal opera- tion. When the voltage decreases, the battery provides DC power to a power inverter, which converts it to AC power for the computer.

    This device is not as reliable as a UPS because of the time it takes to switch over to the battery. If the switching device fails, the battery cannot supply power to the computer. Procedures to Protect the Environment 2. This section describes tools and procedures that help identify these materials and the steps for the proper handling and disposal of the materials. Material Safety and Data Sheet 2. Hazardous materials are sometimes called toxic waste. These materials can contain high concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, or mercury. The regulations for the disposal of hazardous materials vary by state or country.

    Contact the local recycling or waste removal authorities in your community for information about disposal procedures and services. A Material Safety and Data Sheet MSDS is a fact sheet that summarizes information about material identification, including hazardous ingredients that can affect personal health, fire hazards, and first-aid requirements.

    The MSDS contains chemical reactivity and incompatibility information. It also includes protective measures for the safe handling and storage of materials and spill, leak, and disposal procedures. The MSDS information included with products purchased for computer repairs or maintenance can be relevant to computer technicians. OSHA also requires that employees be informed about the materials that they are working with and be provided with material safety information.

    Note The MSDS is valuable in determining how to dispose of potentially hazardous materials in the safest manner. Always check local regulations concerning acceptable disposal methods before disposing of any electronic equipment. Equipment Disposal 2. Make sure to follow regulations that govern how to dispose of specific items. Organizations that violate these regulations can be fined or face expensive legal battles. Batteries Batteries often contain rare earth metals that can be harmful to the environment. Batteries from portable computer systems can contain lead, cadmium, lithium, alkaline manganese, and mercury.

    These metals do not decay and remain in the environment for many years. Mercury is commonly used in the manufacturing of batteries and is extremely toxic and harmful to humans. Recycling batteries should be a standard practice for a technician. All batteries, including lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lead-acid, are subject to disposal procedures that comply with local environmental regulations. Monitors Monitors contain glass, metal, plastics, lead, barium, and rare earth metals.

    According to the U. Monitors must be disposed of in compliance with environmental regulations.

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    Handle CRT monitors with care. Extremely high voltage can be stored in CRT monitors, even after being disconnected from a power source. Toner Kits, Cartridges, and Developers Used printer toner kits and printer cartridges must be disposed of properly or recycled. Some toner cartridge suppliers and manufacturers take empty cartridges for refilling.

    Some companies specialize in refilling empty cartridges. Kits to refill inkjet printer cartridges are available but are not recommended because the ink might leak into the printer, causing irreparable damage. Using refilled inkjet cartridges might also void the inkjet printer warranty. Chemical Solvents and Aerosol Cans Contact the local sanitation company to learn how and where to dispose of the chemicals and solvents used to clean computers. Never dump chemicals or solvents down a sink or dispose of them in a drain that connects to public sewers.

    The cans or bottles that contain solvents and other cleaning supplies must be handled carefully. Make sure that they are identified and treated as special hazardous waste. For example, some aerosol cans explode when exposed to heat if the contents are not completely used.

    Proper Use of Tools 2. This section describes and covers the proper use of a variety of hardware, software, and organizational tools specific to working with computers and peripherals. Hardware Tools 2. Make sure that you are familiar with the correct use of each tool and that the correct tool is used for the current task. Skilled use of tools and software makes the job less difficult and ensures that tasks are performed properly and safely. A toolkit should contain all the tools necessary to complete hardware repairs. As you gain experience, you learn which tools to have available for different types of jobs.

    ESD Tools 2. The antistatic wrist strap protects computer equipment when grounded to a computer chassis. The antistatic mat protects computer equipment by preventing static electricity from accumulating on the hardware or on the technician. Hand Tools 2. They are available individually or as part of a computer repair toolkit. Toolkits range widely in size, quality, and price. Some common hand tools and their uses are Q Flat-head screwdriver: Used to tighten or loosen slotted screws.

    Q Phillips-head screwdriver: Used to tighten or loosen cross-headed screws. Q Torx screwdriver: Used to tighten or loosen screws that have a star-like depression on the top, a feature that is mainly found on laptops. Q Hex driver: Used to tighten or loosen nuts in the same way that a screwdriver tightens or loosens screws sometimes called a nut driver. Q Needle-nose pliers: Used to hold small parts.

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    Q Wire cutters: Used to strip and cut wires. Q Tweezers: Used to manipulate small parts. Q Part retriever: Used to retrieve parts from locations that are too small for your hand to fit. Q Flashlight: Used to light up areas that you cannot see well. Q Wire stripper: A wire stripper is used to remove the insulation from wire so that it can be twisted to other wires or crimped to connectors to make a cable.

    Q Crimper: Used to attach connectors to wires. Q Punch-down tool: Used to terminate wire into termination blocks. Some cable connectors must be connected to cables using a punch down tool. Cleaning Tools 2. Using the appropriate cleaning tools helps ensure that computer components are not damaged during cleaning.

    Cleaning tools include the following: Q Soft cloth: Used to clean different computer components without scratching or leaving debris Q Compressed air: Used to blow away dust and debris from different computer parts without touching the components Q Cable ties: Used to bundle cables neatly inside and outside of a computer Q Parts organizer: Used to hold screws, jumpers, fasteners, and other small parts and prevents them from getting mixed together.

    Diagnostic Tools 2. Diagnostic tools include the following: Q A digital multimeter, as shown in Figure , is a device that can take many types of measurements. It tests the integrity of circuits and the quality of elec- tricity in computer components. Q A loopback adapter, also called a loopback plug, tests the basic functionality of computer ports. The adapter is specific to the port that you want to test. Q The toner probe, as shown in Figure , is a two-part tool. The toner part is connected to a cable at one end using specific adapters, such as an RJ, coaxi- al, or metal clips.

    The toner generates a tone that travels the length of the cable. The probe part traces the cable. When the probe is in near proximity to the cable to which the toner is attached, the tone can be heard through a speaker in the probe. Although an external hard drive enclosure is not a diagnostic tool, it is often used when diagnosing and repairing computers. The customer hard drive is placed into the external enclosure for inspection, diagnosis, and repair using a known-working computer.

    Backups can also be recorded to a drive in an external enclosure to prevent data corruption during a computer repair. Many of these tools are free and several come with the Windows operating system. Disk Management Tools 2. A technician must be able to use a range of software tools to diagnose problems, maintain hardware, and protect the data stored on a computer. You must be able to identify which software to use in different situations. Disk management tools help detect and correct disk errors, prepare a disk for data storage, and remove unwanted files.

    It has been replaced with the Disk Management tool. Q Disk Management Tool: Initializes disks, creates partitions, and formats partitions. Q Format: Prepares a hard drive to store information. These tools might also check the disk surface for physical errors. Q Defrag: Optimizes space on a hard drive to allow faster access to programs and data. Q Disk Cleanup: Clears space on a hard drive by searching for files that can be safely deleted. Ask your instructor for access to Packet Tracer.

    Cisco Networking Academy. The features of the Companion Guide are designed to help you study and succeed in this course: n Chapter objectives —Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter. Advanced Networks Chapter 16 Advanced Security. Answers to Check Your Understanding. The Academy provides online courses, interactive tools, and lab activities to prepare individuals for information technology and networking careers in virtually every industry.