The first chapter presents a generic model of ontology develop-ment that is now state-of-the-art and found in many variations in textbookson the topic of ontology engineering.
In fact, it also introduces the differentaspects of ontology engineering found in the remainder of this part of theontology handbook. While the general methodological blueprint reflects concerns that onewould also find in a software engineering process, the next chapter focuseson an issue that becomes almost unavoidable for large, realistic ontologies. Itshows how to develop ontologies in a distributed setting where most expertscannot afford to assemble often if at all. The sound engineering of ontologies needs sophisticated tools. The follow-ing two chapters describe Formal Concept Analysis and OntoClean, tools thatboth aim at improving the inheritance relationships of specified concepts.
Thefirst does so by analysing the correlation between intensions and extensionsof concepts, while the second investigates how the variability of a concept isconstrained by the intended conceptualization. Beyond conceptual relationships, ontology engineers need to express spe-cific concerns: knowledge about knowledge, part-whole-relationships, etc. Thechapter on Ontology Design Patterns explains how the idea of software de-sign patterns can be adopted in ontologies to provide an understandable andexpressive model.
Such ontology design patterns may be filled by manual work, but the useof machine learning mechanisms as a tool for suggesting ontological constructsis an increasingly important means.
Handbook on Ontologies
When learning an ontology, the induction mechanisms need to distinguishbetween the possibly multiple names of a concept or relation and theconcept or relation itself. Thus, it constructs a lexicon. Investigating existinglexica, one finds that these actually contain many more specific hints usefulfor reuse during ontology construction.
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At the end of the ontology engineering process, the resulting ontologyneeds to be matched against the requirements. Such requirements may be taskor domain specific e.
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The whole process of ontology engineering may be supported by specifictools that allow the management of specification and design documents as wellas ontology-specific concerns such as traceability information, patterns, lexica,etc. Though the full support of all these aspects has not been realized by anyenvironment, the current state-of-the-art is elaborated on by Mizoguchi andKozaki.
The part on ontology engineering closes the ultimate issue of concern aboutontologies in any kind of application: ontologies are supposed to improve thetotal cost of operating a system by improving system aspects such as efficiencyor quality. However, with regard to the total cost of ownership, one also needsto consider the amount of time and money to be invested in the constructionand the maintenance of the ontology.
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Published on Dec View Download 2. Handbook on Architectures of Information Systems S. Ecker, E. Pesch, F. Schlottmann Eds. Seese, Ch. Weinhardt and G. Schmidt and J.
Weglarz Eds. Adelsberger, Kinshuk, J. Pawlowski and D. Sampson Eds. ABC Germany Prof. Steffen Staab Universittsstr.
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All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material inting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broad-age in data banks. Duplication of under the provisions of the German Copyrightst always be obtained The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. Major Changes with Respect to the 1st Edition Between the time we wrote the preface to the 1st edition of the ontology hand-book, 5 years ago, and today, a large amount of research work, developmentand use of ontologies have happened.
The first extends thescope of ontologies by providing a larger extent of scalability for dealing with VIII Preface ontologies. Overview of the 2nd Edition of the Handbook Ontology is still a rather overloaded term, which is used with several differ-ent meanings. Preface IX The formally well-versed reader may enjoy the formal accuracy of the def-inition of ontology at a level of precision that has been sorely lacking sofar.
Part I: Ontology Representation Languages The main body of the handbook starts with a part on current representationlanguages for ontologies in correlation with other aspects, such as data, theWeb and rules. Description Logics is a subset of first-orderpredicate logics and combines expressiveness with a well-understood logicalframework: U.
Sattler, F. Baader, and I. Horrocks: Description Logics The second chapter describes an approach to ontologies that is derivedfrom work in the area of logics-based databases. Angele, G. Lausen, and M.
Springer Series on Handbooks in Information Systems
Antoniou and F. While production rule-based systems have severe disadvantages withregard to manageability because of a lack of declarativeness, new develop-ments since the first edition of the handbook have shown how logical rules X Preface may be included into ontology languages such as description logics. Parsia and P. Hitzler: Ontologies and Rules This part of the book will be very helpful to the reader if he wants to un-derstand the representational underpinnings of ontologies.
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Rosemann, 2nd ed. Staab, R. Burstein, C. Seese, C. Weinhardt, F. Adelsberger, Kinshuk et al. Blazewicz, K. Ecker et al. Bernus, K. The notion of ontologies is crucial for the purpose of enabling knowledge sharing and reuse. The Handbook on Ontologie. Decision support systems have experienced a marked increase in attention and importance over the past 25 years.
The aim of this book is to survey the decision support system DSS field — covering both developed territory and emergent frontiers. As the most comprehensive reference work dealing with decision support systems DSS , this book is essential for the library of every DSS practitioner, researcher, and educator. Written by an international array of DSS luminaries, its more than At first, because both IT as well as finance, are some of the most prominent driving forces of our contemporary world.
Secondly, because both areas develop with a terrific speed ca. This book is the first volume of a running series under the title Inter- tional Handbooks on Information Systems. One objective is to give state of the art surveys o. They have their roots in distributed problem solving in Artificial Intelligence AI from where they emerged in the mid-eighties as a di.
As the most comprehensive reference work dealing with knowledge management KM , this work is essential for the library of every KM practitioner, researcher, and educator.