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By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Natalia Montiel. Unfollow Follow Unblock. Other Affiliations:. We report the largest study on the prevalence and distribution of HCV genotypes in Spain , and we relate them with clinical, epidemiological and virological factors. Patients from 29 hospitals in 10 autonomous communities Parenteral transmission route was the most frequent Genotype distribution was: HCV subtype 1a and genotypes 3 and 4 were Publication Date: Publication Name: Journal of viral hepatitis.

Medical Microbiology , Viral hepatitis , and Clinical Sciences. Save to Library. The inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance to the principal antimicrobial drugs. There is no provision in the immediate future of marketing of new broad-spectrum antibiotics, There is no provision in the immediate future of marketing of new broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially with activity against Enterobacteriaceae, so programs should be implemented to optimize antimicrobial therapy.

We describe the results of a year of a counselling program in antibiotic treatment in a secondary Andalusian hospital. We describe interventions of a multidisciplinary non-compulsory counselling program of antimicrobial management on the Costa del Sol Hospital in Marbella. We evaluated the adequacy of empirical treatment, possibility of antibiotic de-escalation, duration and dose used. We analyzed the evolution of the sensitivity profile of the main microorganisms as well as a cost-effective analysis. The main actions were assessment of empirical therapy and deescalation in relation with the result of cultures.

The main drugs tested were imipenem, meropenem, cefepime, and linezolid. The sensitivity profile of imipenem and meropenem improved slightly over previous years. It was found a considerable savings in annual drug spending. The non-compulsory counselling programs are useful tools for optimization of antimicrobial therapy, can prevent an increase of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the cost of antibiotic treatment.

Improvement of critcal care management in a health care area by implementing point-of-care-testing in primary care more. Zeerleder, B. Zwart, W. Wuillemin, L.

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Aarden, A. Groeneveld, C. Caliez, A. Eerenberg, B. E Hack Inflammation? Claeys, S. Vinken, H. Spapen, K. Huyghens, F. Geishofer, W. Publication Name: Medicina. The main actions were assessment of empirical therapy and deescalation in relation wit To obtain the main responsible organisms, its sensitivity and resistances to antibiotics in tonsillitis. We have studied the post-surgical tonsils, carrying out a microbiologic study, its culture and sensitivity.

The most frequent Pincer is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals confidential information and opens a back door on the compromised device. Pirator is a Trojan horse on the Android platform that downloads files and steals potentially confidential information from the compromised device. Pjapps is a Trojan horse that has been embedded on third party applications and opens a back door on the compromised device. It retrieves commands from a remote command and control server.

Pletora is a is a Trojan horse for Android devices that may lock the compromised device. It then asks the user to pay in order to unlock the device. Poisoncake is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door on the compromised device. It may also download potentially malicious files and steal information. Positmob is a Trojan horse program for Android devices that sends SMS messages to premium rate phone numbers.

Premiumtext is a detection for Trojan horses on the Android platform that send SMS texts to premium-rate numbers. These Trojans will often be repackaged versions of genuine Android software packages, often distributed outside the Android Marketplace. Pris is a Trojan horse for Android devices that silently downloads a malicious application and attempts to open a back door on the compromised device.

Qdplugin is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door and steals information from the compromised device. Qicsomos is a Trojan horse for Android devices that sends SMS messages to a premium-rate phone number. Rabbhome is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device.

Repane is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information and sends SMS messages from the compromised device. Rootnik is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information and downloads additional apps. Rusms is a Trojan horse for Android devices that sends SMS messages and steals information from the compromised device. Samsapo is a worm for Android devices that spreads by sending SMS messages to all contacts stored on the compromised device.

It also opens a back door and downloads files. Sandorat is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door on the compromised device. It also steals information. Sberick is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device.

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Scartibro is a Trojan horse for Android devices that locks the compromised device and asks the user to pay in order to unlock it. Scipiex is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. B is a worm for Android devices that displays ads on the compromised device. It spreads through SMS messages. Simhosy is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Simplocker is a Trojan horse for Android devices that may encrypt files on the compromised device.

It then asks the user to pay in order to decrypt these files. B is a Trojan horse for Android devices that may encrypt files on the compromised device. Skullkey is a Trojan horse for Android devices that gives the attacker remote control of the compromised device to perform malicious activity. Smbcheck is a hacktool for Android devices that can trigger a Server Message Block version 2 SMBv2 vulnerability and may cause the target computer to crash.

Smsblocker is a generic detection for threats on Android devices that block the transmission of SMS messages. Smslink is a Trojan horse for Android devices that may send malicious SMS messages from the compromised device. It may also display advertisements. Smsstealer is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Smstibook is a Trojan horse that attempts to send premium-rate SMS messages to predetermined numbers.

Smszombie is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Sockrat is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door and steals information from the compromised device. Sofacy is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. B is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Spyagent is a spyware application for Android devices that logs certain information and sends SMS messages to a predetermined phone number. Spydafon is a Potentially Unwanted Application for Android devices that monitors the affected device.

Spymple is a spyware application for Android devices that allows the device it is installed on to be monitored. Spyoo is a spyware program for Android devices that records and sends certain information to a remote location. Spytekcell is a spyware program for Android devices that monitors and sends certain information to a remote location. Spytrack is a spyware program for Android devices that periodically sends certain information to a remote location.

Spywaller is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Stealthgenie is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Steek is a potentially unwanted application that is placed on a download website for Android applications and disguised as popular applications. Stels is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door and steals information from the compromised device. Stiniter is a Trojan horse for Android devices that sends SMS messages to a premium-rate phone number. Sumzand is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information and sends it to a remote location.

Sysecsms is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Tapsnake is a Trojan horse for Android phones that is embedded into a game. Tascudap is a Trojan horse for Android devices that uses the compromised device in denial of service attacks. Teelog is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door and steals information from the compromised device. Temai is a Trojan horse for Android applications that opens a back door and downloads malicious files onto the compromised device.

Uapush is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. It may also display advertisements and send SMS messages from the compromised device. It may then open a back door on the compromised device. Uracto is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals personal information and sends spam SMS messages to contacts found on the compromised device. Uranico is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Usbcleaver is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device.

Uten is a Trojan horse for Android devices that may send, block, and delete SMS messages on a compromised device. It may also download and install additional applications and attempt to gain root privileges. Uupay is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. It may also download additional malware. Uxipp is a Trojan horse that attempts to send premium-rate SMS messages to predetermined numbers.

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Vdloader is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door on the compromised device and steals confidential information. Virusshield is a Trojan horse for Android devices that claims to scan apps and protect personal information, but has no real functionality. Windseeker is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. Yatoot is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device. ZertSecurity is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information and sends it to a remote attacker. Zeusmitmo is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a back door and steals information from the compromised device.

The SLocker family is one of the oldest mobile lock screen and file-encrypting ransomware and used to impersonate law enforcement agencies to convince victims to pay their ransom. Discovered by Kaspersky Labs, researchers say Loapi appears to have evolved from Podec, a malware strain spotted in Podec which used a very powerful legitimate system to protect itself against analysis and detection. After we removed the protection, we saw a small SMS Trojan with most of its malicious payload still in development. Before long, though, we intercepted a fully-fledged version of Trojan-SMS.

Podec in early The updated version proved to be remarkable: it can send messages to premium-rate numbers employing tools that bypass the Advice of Charge system which notifies users about the price of a service and requires authorization before making the payment. This is the first time Kaspersky Lab has encountered this kind of capability in any Android-Trojan. Chamois is one of the largest PHA families in Android to date and is distributed through multiple channels.

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While much of the backdoor version of this family was cleaned up in , a new variant emerged in Chamois apps, which in many cases come preloaded with the system image, try to trick users into clicking ads by displaying deceptive graphics to commit WAP or SMS fraud. The files are then decrypted and loaded via class reflection to read and send phone call logs and other data to remote locations. In some cases, BreadSMS apps also implement subscription-based SMS fraud and silently enroll users in services provided by their mobile carriers. These apps are linked to a group of command-and-control servers whose IP addresses change frequently and that are used to provide the apps with premium SMS numbers and message text.

JamSkunk is a toll-fraud PHA family composed of apps that subscribe users to services without their consent. This type of PHA monetizes their abuse via WAP billing, a payment method that works through mobile data connections and allows users to easily sign up and pay for new services using their existing account i. Once authentication is bypassed, JamSkunk apps enroll the device in services that the user may not notice until they receive and read their next bill.

Expensive Wall is a family of SMS-fraud apps that affected a large number of devices in Expensive Wall apps use code obfuscation to slow down analysis and evade detection, and rely on the JS2Java bridge to allow JavaScript code loaded inside a Webview to call Java methods the way Java apps directly do. Upon launch, Expensive Wall apps connect to command-and-control servers to fetch a domain name. This domain is then contacted via a Webview instance that loads a webpage and executes JavaScript code that calls Java methods to compose and send premium SMS messages or click ads without users' knowledge.

BambaPurple is a two-stage toll-fraud PHA family that tries to trick users into installing it by disguising itself as a popular app. In a second stage, BambaPurple installs a backdoor app that requests device admin privileges and drops a. This executable checks to make sure it is not being debugged, downloads even more apps without user consent, and displays ads. System apps can be disabled by the user, but cannot be easily uninstalled. KoreFrog apps operate as daemons running in the background that try to impersonate Google and other system apps by using misleading names and icons to avoid detection.

These apps use baseencoded URL strings to avoid detection of the command-and-control servers they rely on to download APK files. With these tokens, Gaiaphish apps are able to generate spam and automatically post content for instance, fake app ratings and comments on Google Play app pages. RedDrop can perform a vast array of malicious actions, including recording nearby audio and uploading the data to cloud-storage accounts on Dropbox and Google Drive. HenBox apps masquerade as others such as VPN apps, and Android system apps; some apps carry legitimate versions of other apps which they drop and install as a decoy technique.

While some of legitimate apps HenBox uses as decoys can be found on Google Play, HenBox apps themselves are found only on third-party non-Google Play app stores. HenBox has ties to infrastructure used in targeted attacks, with a focus on politics in South East Asia. These attackers have used additional malware families in previous activity dating to at least that include PlugX, Zupdax, , and Poison Ivy.

Furthermore, the malicious apps register their intent to process certain events broadcast on compromised devices in order to execute malicious code. This is common practice for many Android apps, however, HenBox sets itself up to trigger based on alerts from Xiaomi smart-home IoT devices, and once activated, proceeds in stealing information from a myriad of sources, including many mainstream chat, communication and social media apps.

The stolen information includes personal and device information. Cybercriminals are currently developing a new strain of malware targeting Android devices which blends the features of a banking trojan, keylogger, and mobile ransomware. At the beginning of October , we discovered new Android spyware with several features previously unseen in the wild. In the course of further research, we found a number of related samples that point to a long-term development process. We believe the initial versions of this malware were created at least three years ago — at the end of We observed many web landing pages that mimic the sites of mobile operators and which are used to spread the Android implants.

These domains have been registered by the attackers since According to our telemetry, that was the year the distribution campaign was at its most active. The activities continue: the most recently observed domain was registered on October 31, Based on our KSN statistics, there are several infected individuals, exclusively in Italy. Moreover, as we dived deeper into the investigation, we discovered several spyware tools for Windows that form an implant for exfiltrating sensitive data on a targeted machine.

The version we found was built at the beginning of , and at the moment we are not sure whether this implant has been used in the wild. We named the malware Skygofree, because we found the word in one of the domains. A new family of spyware for Android grabbed the attention of security researchers through its unusual set of features and their original implementation. Tagged BusyGasper by security experts at Kaspersky, the malware stands out through its ability to monitor the various sensors present on the targeted phone.

Based on the motion detection logs, it can recognize the opportune time for running and stopping its activity. Bitdefender says Triout samples they discovered were masquerading in a clone of a legitimate application, but they were unable to discover where this malicious app was being distributed from. The obvious guess would be via third-party Android app stores, or app-sharing forums, popular in some areas of the globe. This newly observed variant has taken mobile threats to the next level incorporating: Remote access Trojan functions, SMS interception, UI User Interface Overlay with masqueraded pages etc.

Phishing is never targeted to a specific individual or organisation. Phishing tries to create a sense of urgency or curiosity in order to capture the victim. Spear phishing is the use of targeted emails to gain the trust of the target with the goal of committing fraud.

Upon obtaining the data, the criminal proceeds to encode the same information into a new card and use it in combination with the PIN to perform illicit cash withdrawals. Due to their low profile, shimmers can be fit inside ATM card readers and are therefore more difficult to detect. Cross-platform malware written in Golang, compatible with Linux and Windows.

Although there are some minor differences, both variants have the same functionality. The PE variant of the infection, in addition, executes PowerShell scripts. Net version was also observed in the wild. The rosenbridge backdoor is a small, non-x86 core embedded alongside the main x86 core in the CPU. It is enabled by a model-specific-register control bit, and then toggled with a launch-instruction. The embedded core is then fed commands, wrapped in a specially formatted x86 instruction.

The core executes these commands which we call the 'deeply embedded instruction set' , bypassing all memory protections and privilege checks. While the backdoor should require kernel level access to activate, it has been observed to be enabled by default on some systems, allowing any unprivileged code to modify the kernel. The other ServHelper variant does not include the tunneling and hijacking capabilities and functions only as a downloader for the FlawedGrace RAT.

The Rising Sun backdoor uses the RC4 cipher to encrypt its configuration data and communications. As with most backdoors, on initial infection, Rising Sun will send data regarding the infected system to a command and control C2 site. That information captures computer and user name, IP address, operating system version and network adapter information. Rising Sun contains 14 functions including executing commands, obtaining information on disk drives and running processes, terminating processes, obtaining file creation and last access times, reading and writing files, deleting files, altering file attributes, clearing the memory of processes and connecting to a specified IP address.

A new backdoor was observed using the Github Gist service and the Slack messaging system as communication channels with its masters, as well as targeting a very specific type of victim using a watering hole attack. Zeus is a trojan horse that is primarily delivered via drive-by-downloads, malvertising, exploit kits and malspam campaigns.

It uses man-in-the-browser keystroke logging and form grabbing to steal information from victims. Source was leaked in Delivered primarily by exploit kits as well as malspam campaigns utilizing macro based Microsoft Office documents as attachments.


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Banking trojan delivered primarily via email typically malspam and exploit kits. Gozi 1. Banking trojan based on Gozi source. Dreambot is a variant of Gozi ISFB that is spread via numerous exploit kits as well as through malspam email attachments and links. Zloader is a loader that loads different payloads, one of which is a Zeus module. Delivered via exploit kits and malspam emails.

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Sphinx is a modular banking trojan that is a commercial offering sold to cybercriminals via underground fraudster boards. Chthonic according to Kaspersky is an evolution of Zeus VM. Trickbot is a bot that is delivered via exploit kits and malspam campaigns. The bot is capable of downloading modules, including a banker module. Trickbot also shares roots with the Dyre banking trojan.

Dyre is a banking trojan distributed via exploit kits and malspam emails primarily. It has a modular architectur and utilizes man-in-the-browser functionality. Tinba is a very small banking trojan that hooks into browsers and steals login data and sniffs on network traffic. Tinba is primarily delivered via exploit kits, malvertising and malspam email campaigns. Geodo is a banking trojan delivered primarily through malspam emails. It is capable of sniffing network activity to steal information by hooking certain network API calls.

Originally not a banking trojan in , Ramnit became a banking trojan after the Zeus source code leak. It is capable of perforrming Man-in-the-Browser attacks. Distributed primarily via exploit kits. Qakbot is a banking trojan that leverages webinjects to steal banking information from victims.

It also utilizes DGA for command and control. It is primarily delivered via exploit kits. Corebot is a modular trojan that leverages a banking module that can perform browser hooking, form grabbing, MitM, webinjection to steal financial information from victims. Distributed primarily via malspam emails and exploit kits. It uses geolocation based targeting.

It also leverages fake root certificate and changes the DNS server for domain name resolution in order to display fake banking websites to victims. It is spread primarily through malspam emails. ReactorBot is sometimes mistakenly tagged as Rovnix. ReactorBot is a full fledged modular bot that includes a banking module that has roots with the Carberp banking trojan. Distributed primarily via malspam emails. Zeus Gameover captures banking credentials from infected computers, then use those credentials to initiate or re-direct wire transfers to accounts overseas that are controlled by the criminals.

GameOver has a decentralized, peer-to-peer command and control infrastructure rather than centralized points of origin. SpyEye is a similar to the Zeus botnet banking trojan. It utilizes a web control panel for C2 and can perform form grabbing, autofill credit card modules, ftp grabber, pop3 grabber and HTTP basic access authorization grabber.

It also contained a Kill Zeus feature which would remove any Zeus infections if SpyEye was on the system. Distributed primarily via exploit kits and malspam emails. Atmos is derived from the Citadel banking trojan. Delivered primarily via exploit kits and malspam emails. Ice IX is a bot created using the source code of ZeuS 2. No major improvements compared to ZeuS 2. Zeus in the mobile. Banking trojan developed for mobile devices such as Windows Mobile, Blackberry and Android.

According to X-Force research, the new banking Trojan emerged in the wild in September , when its first test campaigns were launched. Our researchers noted that IcedID has a modular malicious code with modern banking Trojan capabilities comparable to malware such as the Zeus Trojan. At this time, the malware targets banks, payment card providers, mobile services providers, payroll, webmail and e-commerce sites in the U. Two major banks in the U. GratefulPOS has the following functions 1. Access arbitrary processes on the target POS system 2.

Scrape track 1 and 2 payment card data from the process es 3. Exfiltrate the payment card data via lengthy encoded and obfuscated DNS queries to a hardcoded domain registered and controlled by the perpetrators, similar to that described by Paul Rascagneres in his analysis of FrameworkPOS in [iii], and more recently by Luis Mendieta of Anomoli in analysis of a precursor to this sample.

Services like Netflix use content delivery networks CDNs to maximize bandwidth usage as it gives users greater speed when viewing the content, as the server is close to them and is part of the Netflix CDN. This results in faster loading times for series and movies, wherever you are in the world. But, apparently, the CDNs are starting to become a new way of spreading malware. The miner itself, known as Smominru aka Ismo has been well-documented, so we will not discuss its post-infection behavior.

Based on the hash power associated with the Monero payment address for this operation, it appeared that this botnet was likely twice the size of Adylkuzz. It consists of a downloader component that downloads an encrypted file containing the main DLL. The banker is distributed through malicious email spam campaigns. Instead of using complex process injection methods to monitor browsing activity, the malware hooks key Windows message loop events in order to inspect values of the window objects for banking activity.

The payload is delivered as a modified version of a legitimate application that is partially overwritten by the malicious payload. Observed code similarities with other well-known bankers such as Ramnit, Vawtrak and TrickBot. Kronos was a type of banking malware first reported in As of September , a renew version was reconnecting with infected bots and sending them a brand new configuration file against U. Similar to Zeus it was focused on stealing banking login credentials from browser sessions. A newly discovered banking Trojan departs from the regular tactics observed by malware researchers by choosing visible installation and by adding social engineering components.

CamuBot appeared last month in Brazil targeting companies and organizations from the public sector. The victim is the one installing the malware, at the instructions of a human operator that pretends to be a bank employee. Bagle also known as Beagle was a mass-mailing computer worm affecting Microsoft Windows. The first strain, Bagle. A, did not propagate widely. A second variant, Bagle. B, was considerably more virulent. Around the same time Bagle was sending spam messages all over the world, the Marina Botnet quickly made a name for itself. At its peak, Marina Botnet delivered 92 billion spam emails per day.

Torpig, also known as Anserin or Sinowal is a type of botnet spread through systems compromised by the Mebroot rootkit by a variety of trojan horses for the purpose of collecting sensitive personal and corporate data such as bank account and credit card information. It targets computers that use Microsoft Windows, recruiting a network of zombies for the botnet. Torpig circumvents antivirus software through the use of rootkit technology and scans the infected system for credentials, accounts and passwords as well as potentially allowing attackers full access to the computer.

It is also purportedly capable of modifying data hajimeon the computer, and can perform man-in-the-browser attacks. The Storm botnet or Storm worm botnet also known as Dorf botnet and Ecard malware is a remotely controlled network of "zombie" computers or "botnet" that have been linked by the Storm Worm, a Trojan horse spread through e-mail spam.

It was first identified around January , having been distributed by email with subjects such as " dead as storm batters Europe," giving it its well-known name. The botnet began to decline in late , and by mid, had been reduced to infecting about 85, computers, far less than it had infected a year earlier. The Cutwail botnet, founded around , is a botnet mostly involved in sending spam e-mails. The bot is typically installed on infected machines by a Trojan component called Pushdo.

Akbot was a computer virus that infected an estimated 1. The botnets consist of computers infected by the Srizbi trojan, which sent spam on command. The Lethic Botnet initially discovered around is a botnet consisting of an estimated - individual machines which are mainly involved in pharmaceutical and replica spam.

Sality is the classification for a family of malicious software malware , which infects files on Microsoft Windows systems. Sality was first discovered in and has advanced over the years to become a dynamic, enduring and full-featured form of malicious code. Since , certain variants of Sality have also incorporated the use of rootkit functions as part of an ongoing evolution of the malware family. Because of its continued development and capabilities, Sality is considered to be one of the most complex and formidable forms of malware to date.

The Mariposa botnet, discovered December , is a botnet mainly involved in cyberscamming and denial-of-service attacks. Before the botnet itself was dismantled on 23 December , it consisted of up to 12 million unique IP addresses or up to 1 million individual zombie computers infected with the "Butterfly mariposa in Spanish Bot", making it one of the largest known botnets. Conficker, also known as Downup, Downadup and Kido, is a computer worm targeting the Microsoft Windows operating system that was first detected in November It uses flaws in Windows OS software and dictionary attacks on administrator passwords to propagate while forming a botnet, and has been unusually difficult to counter because of its combined use of many advanced malware techniques.

The Conficker worm infected millions of computers including government, business and home computers in over countries, making it the largest known computer worm infection since the Welchia. Waledac, also known by its aliases Waled and Waledpak, was a botnet mostly involved in e-mail spam and malware. In March the botnet was taken down by Microsoft. A new botnet, dubbed Maazben, has also been observed and is also growing rapidly. MessageLabs Intelligence has been tracking the growth of Maazben since its infancy in late May and early June.

Its dominance in terms of the proportion of spam has been accelerating in the last 30 days from just over 0. Currently spam from Maazben accounts for approximately 1. Its main job is to send spam, but it is able to do other tasks as well. It is possible thanks to the modular design of this malware — it consists of the main binary the one user downloads and infects with , which later downloads several additional modules from the C2 server — they modify code by overwriting some of the called functions with their own. An example of some actions these modules perform is spreading by posting click-bait messages on Facebook and VKontakte Russian social network.

The Asprox botnet discovered around , also known by its aliases Badsrc and Aseljo, is a botnet mostly involved in phishing scams and performing SQL injections into websites in order to spread malware. Spam Thru represented an expontential jump in the level of sophistication and complexity of these botnets, harnessing a 70, strong peer to peer botnet seeded with the Spam Thru Trojan.

Spam Thru is also known by the Aliases Backdoor. It also had the potential to be 10 times more productive than most other botnets while evading detection because of in-built defences. The Bredolab botnet, also known by its alias Oficla, was a Russian botnet mostly involved in viral e-mail spam. Before the botnet was eventually dismantled in November through the seizure of its command and control servers, it was estimated to consist of millions of zombie computers. The Grum botnet, also known by its alias Tedroo and Reddyb, was a botnet mostly involved in sending pharmaceutical spam e-mails.

Researchers say that Kraken infected machines in at least 50 of the Fortune companies and grew to over , bots. It was estimated to send 9 billion spam messages per day. Kraken botnet malware may have been designed to evade anti-virus software, and employed techniques to stymie conventional anti-virus software. The Festi botnet, also known by its alias of Spamnost, is a botnet mostly involved in email spam and denial of service attacks. Vulcanbot is the name of a botnet predominantly spread in Vietnam, apparently with political motives.

It is thought to have begun in late Following a series of customer complaints, Microsoft determined that Alureon caused a wave of BSoDs on some bit Microsoft Windows systems. The update, MS,triggered these crashes by breaking assumptions made by the malware author s. While it can be used to carry out many malicious and criminal tasks, it is often used to steal banking information by man-in-the-browser keystroke logging and form grabbing. It is also used to install the CryptoLocker ransomware. Zeus is spread mainly through drive-by downloads and phishing schemes.

First identified in July when it was used to steal information from the United States Department of Transportation, it became more widespread in March Similarly to Koobface, Zeus has also been used to trick victims of tech support scams into giving the scam artists money through pop-up messages that claim the user has a virus, when in reality they might have no viruses at all. The scammers may use programs such as Command prompt or Event viewer to make the user believe that their computer is infected. The Kelihos botnet, also known as Hlux, is a botnet mainly involved in spamming and the theft of bitcoins.

Ramnit is a Computer worm affecting Windows users. The Ramnit botnet was dismantled by Europol and Symantec securities in In , this infection was estimated at 3 PCs. The Chameleon botnet is a botnet that was discovered on February 28, by the security research firm, spider. It involved the infection of more than , computers and generated, on average, 6 million US dollars per month from advertising traffic.

This traffic was generated on infected systems and looked to advertising parties as regular end users which browsed the Web, because of which it was seen as legitimate web traffic. It primarily targets online consumer devices such as IP cameras and home routers. According to a report Li shared with Bleeping Computer today, the Mirai Satori variant is quite different from all previous pure Mirai variants. Previous Mirai versions infected IoT devices and then downloaded a Telnet scanner component that attempted to find other victims and infect them with the Mirai bot.

The Satori variant does not use a scanner but uses two embedded exploits that will try to connect to remote devices on ports and Effectively, this makes Satori an IoT worm, being able to spread by itself without the need for separate components. One month later we saw the first samples being uploaded from Spain to VT. This worm builds a huge P2P botnet almost , devices at the time of publishing this blogpost , but its real purpose remains unknown. It is worth mentioning that in the past, the Hajime IoT botnet was never used for massive DDoS attacks, and its existance was a mystery for many researchers, as the botnet only gathered infected devices but almost never did anything with them except scan for other vulnerable devices.

At the technical level, Netlab says Muhstik is built on top of Tsunami, a very old strain of malware that has been used for years to create botnets by infecting Linux servers and smart devices running Linux-based firmware. Crooks have used Tsunami initially for DDoS attacks, but its feature-set has greatly expanded after its source code leaked online. Muhstik operators are using these three payloads to make money via the infected hosts. Security researchers have discovered the first IoT botnet malware strain that can survive device reboots and remain on infected devices after the initial compromise.

This is a major game-changing moment in the realm of IoT and router malware. Until today, equipment owners could always remove IoT malware from their smart devices, modems, and routers by resetting the device. Command-and-control panel and the scanner of this botnet is hosted on a server residing in Vietnam. Attackers have been utilizing an open-sourced Mettle attack module to implant malware on vulnerable routers. IoT botnet, Mirai variant that has added three exploits to its arsenal. After a successful exploit, this bot downloads its payload, Owari bot - another Mirai variant - or Omni bot.

Brain Food is usually the second step in a chain of redirections, its PHP code is polymorphic and obfuscated with multiple layers of base64 encoding. Backdoor functionalities are also embedded in the code allowing remote execution of shell code on web servers which are configured to allow the PHP 'system' command. The bot gathers information from the infected system through WMI queries SerialNumber, SystemDrive, operating system, processor architecture , which it then sends back to a remote attacker.

Gafgyt is a Trojan horse that opens a back door on the compromised computer and steals information.

Yanet Olivares, IBCLC

Big changes on the IoT malware scene. Security researchers have spotted a version of the Mirai IoT malware that can run on a vast range of architectures, and even on Android devices. This Mirai malware strain is called Sora, a strain that was first spotted at the start of the year. The attackers encrypt both the main bot component and its corresponding Lua script using the ChaCha stream cipher. This adoption of anti-analysis techniques demonstrates an evolution in Linux malware, as the authors have adopted principles more common to Windows malware in an effort to thwart detection.

Like some of its predecessors, Chalubo incorporates code from the Xor. DDoS and Mirai malware families. J exploiting a server-side template injection vulnerability CVE in the Widget Connector macro in Atlassian Confluence Server, a collaboration software program used by DevOps professionals. Meltdown exploits the out-of-order execution feature of modern processors, allowing user-level programs to access kernel memory using processor caches as covert side channels.

This is specific to the way out-of-order execution is implemented in the processors. This vulnerability has been assigned CVE Spectre exploits the speculative execution feature that is present in almost all processors in existence today. Two variants of Spectre are known and seem to depend on what is used to influence erroneous speculative execution. The first variant triggers speculative execution by performing a bounds check bypass and has been assigned CVE The second variant uses branch target injection for the same effect and has been assigned CVE It was introduced into the software in and publicly disclosed in April The vulnerability is classified as a buffer over-read,[5] a situation where more data can be read than should be allowed.

Shellshock, also known as Bashdoor, is a family of security bugs in the widely used Unix Bash shell, the first of which was disclosed on 24 September Many Internet-facing services, such as some web server deployments, use Bash to process certain requests, allowing an attacker to cause vulnerable versions of Bash to execute arbitrary commands. This can allow an attacker to gain unauthorized access to a computer system. It allows attackers to remotely take complete control of the victim system without having any prior knowledge of system credentials.

CVE has been assigned to this issue. These functions convert a hostname into an IP address. Stagefright is the name given to a group of software bugs that affect versions 2. The name is taken from the affected library, which among other things, is used to unpack MMS messages. The phone number is the only target information. Dirty COW Dirty copy-on-write is a computer security vulnerability for the Linux kernel that affects all Linux-based operating systems including Android.

The vulnerability was discovered by Phil Oester. Because of the race condition, with the right timing, a local attacker can exploit the copy-on-write mechanism to turn a read-only mapping of a file into a writable mapping. Although it is a local privilege escalation, remote attackers can use it in conjunction with other exploits that allow remote execution of non-privileged code to achieve remote root access on a computer.

The attack itself does not leave traces in the system log. If attackers successfully exploit this vulnerability, on average, they only need to make SSL 3. This is achieved by reverse-engineering the device and reprogramming it.


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The earliest samples we have seen supporting this DDoS method are from September SPOILER is a security vulnerability on modern computer central processing units that uses speculative execution to improve the efficiency of Rowhammer and other related memory and cache attacks. According to reports, all modern Intel CPUs are vulnerable to the attack.

AMD has stated that its processors are not vulnerable. Exploit-Kit is an enumeration of some exploitation kits used by adversaries. The list includes document, browser and router exploit kits. Astrum Exploit Kit is a private Exploit Kit used in massive scale malvertising campaigns. Underminer EK is an exploit kit that seems to be used privately against users in Asia. Functionalities: browser profiling and filtering, preventing of client revisits, URL randomization, and asymmetric encryption of payloads.

Fallout Exploit Kit appeared at the end of August as an updated Nuclear Pack featuring current exploits seen in competiting Exploit Kit. DealersChoice is a platform that generates malicious documents containing embedded Adobe Flash files. This new component appeared in and is still in use. Disdain EK has been introduced on underground forum on The panel is stolen from Sundown, the pattern are Terror alike and the obfuscation reminds Nebula. Microsoft Word Intruder is an exploit kit focused on Word and embedded flash exploits. ThreadKit is the name given to a widely used Microsoft Office document exploit builder kit that appeared in June VenomKit is the name given to a kit sold since april as "Word 1day exploit builder" by user badbullzvenom.

Author allows only use in targeted campaign. Is used for instance by the "Cobalt Gang". Taurus Builder is a tool used to generate malicious MS Word documents that contain macros. The kit is advertised on forums by the user "badbullzvenom". It became dominant after the fall of Angler, Nuclear Pack and the end of public access to Neutrino. The Angler Exploit Kit has been the most popular and evolved exploit kit from to middle of There was several variation. The historical "indexm" variant was used to spread Lurk. A vip version used notabily to spread Poweliks, the "standard" commercial version, and a declinaison tied to load selling mostly bankers that can be associated to EmpirePPC.

The BlackHole Exploit Kit has been the most popular exploit kit from to Glazunov is an exploit kit mainly seen behind compromised website in and Glazunov compromission is likely the ancestor activity of what became EITest in July Sibhost and Flimkit later shown similarities with this Exploit Kit. Disappeared between march and September It has been using a 0day CVE from beginning of December till beginning of February Neutrino Exploit Kit has been one of the major exploit kit from its launch in till september when it become private defense name for this variation is Neutrino-v.

This EK vanished from march till november The Nuclear Pack appeared in and has been one of the longer living one. Spartan EK was a landing less variation of Nuclear Pack. Redkit has been a major exploit kit in Unknown Exploit Kit. This is a place holder for any undocumented Exploit Kit. If you use this tag, we will be more than happy to give the associated EK a deep look. It has been developed in a team of 4 for a university project. The goal of the application is to give the control of the android system remotely and retrieve informations from it.

Once the malicious app is installed, attackers use social engineering tricks and window overlays to get credit card details from the victim. The distribution vector seems to be fake apps from third-party app stores not Google Play or via malvertisement. After installation and activation, the app creates fake Gmail, Google Play and Chrome icons. Furthermore, the malware sends a fake system notification, telling the victim that they need to re-authenticate with Google Services and ask for their credit card details to be entered.

Currently the malware has overlays for over 2, apps of banks and financial institutions. Cisco Talos identifies GPlayed as a malware written in. NET using the Xamarin environment for mobile applications. It is considered powerful because of its capability to adapt after its deployment. In order to achieve this adaptability, the operator has the capability to remotely load plugins, inject scripts and even compile new. NET code that can be executed. Group-IB describes Gustuff as a mobile Android Trojan, which includes potential targets of customers in leading international banks, users of cryptocurrency services, popular ecommerce websites and marketplaces.

Gustuff has previously never been reported. Gustuff is a new generation of malware complete with fully automated features designed to steal both fiat and crypto currency from user accounts en masse. The Trojan uses the Accessibility Service, intended to assist people with disabilities. The analysis of Gustuff sample revealed that the Trojan is equipped with web fakes designed to potentially target users of Android apps of top international banks including Bank of America, Bank of Scotland, J. Group-IB specialists discovered that Gustuff could potentially target users of more than banking apps, including 27 in the US, 16 in Poland, 10 in Australia, 9 in Germany, and 8 in India and users of 32 cryptocurrency apps.

Android banker Trojan with the standard banking capabilities such as overlays, SMS stealing. It also features ransomware functionality. Note, the network traffic is obfuscated the same way as in Android Bankbot. RedAlert 2 is an new Android malware used by an attacker to gain access to login credentials of various e-banking apps.

The malware works by overlaying a login screen with a fake display that sends the credentials to a C2 server. The malware also has the ability to block incoming calls from banks, to prevent the victim of being notified. As a distribution vector RedAlert 2 uses third-party app stores and imitates real Android apps like Viber, Whatsapp or fake Adobe Flash Player updates.

Further is a bank logo added to the specific Android app to trick users into thinking this is a legitimate app. Bitdefender described Triout as a Android spyware, which appears to act as a framework for building extensive surveillance capabilities into seemingly benign applications. This payload has been used to compromise kernel. It is a credential stealing payload which steals SSH keys, passwords, and potentially other credentials. This family is part of a wider range of tools which are described in detail in the operation windigo whitepaper by ESET. Pupy is an open-source, cross-platform RAT and post-exploitation framework mainly written in python.

They bootstrap a python runtime environment mostly in-memory for the later stages of pupy to run in. Pupy can communicate using various transports, migrate into processes, load remote python code, python packages and python C-extensions from memory. Satori is a variation of elf. It uses exploit to exhibit worm-like behaviour to spread over ports and CVE Part of Malware-as-service platform Used as a generic name for Java-based RAT Functionality - collect general system and user information - terminate process -log keystroke -take screenshot and access webcam - steal cache password from local or web forms - download and execute Malware - modify registry - download components - Denial of Service attacks - Acquire VPN certificates.

It also has functionality to participate in DDoS-attacks as well as to perform click fraud. Note that the Adwind family often is mistakenly labeled as jRAT, because of of a red hering reference to jrat. QRat, also known as Quaverse RAT, was introduced in May as undetectable because of multiple layers of obfuscation.

For additional historical context, please see jar. After performing some basic host information gathering, the BELLHOP dropper downloads a baseencoded blob of JavaScript to disk and sets up persistence in three ways:. It will spawn a 32 bit version of the binary specified and inject shellcode into it. NanHaiShu has been used to target government and private-sector organizations that have relations to the South China Sea dispute.

Once a user has double-clicked the embedded image, the form executes a VB setup script. The scripts are responsible for deobfuscating and executing the main JavaScript file mspromo. The file uses a character insertion obfuscation technique, making it appear to contain Chinese characters. After deobfuscating the file, the main JavaScript is easily recognizable.

It contains a number of functions designed to drop files and execute scripts on a host system.


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The SQLRat script is designed to make a direct SQL connection to a Microsoft database controlled by the attackers and execute the contents of various tables. Cryptocurrency miner that was distributed masquerading as a Counter-Strike: Global Offensive hack. Dok a. Retefe is the macOS version of the banking trojan Retefe. It consists of a codesigned Mach-O dropper usually malspammed in an app bundle within a DMG disk image, posing as a document.

The primary purpose of the dropper is to install a Tor client as well as a malicious CA certificate and proxy pac URL, in order to redirect traffic to targeted sites through their Tor node, effectively carrying out a MITM attack against selected web traffic. It also installs a custom hosts file to prevent access to Apple and VirusTotal. If you are interested to co-fund projects around MISP, feel free to get in touch with us.

Android Android malware galaxy based on multiple open sources.. CopyCat CopyCat is a fully developed malware with vast capabilities, including rooting devices, establishing persistency, and injecting code into Zygote — a daemon responsible for launching apps in the Android operating system — that allows the malware to control any activity on the device. Judy The malware, dubbed Judy, is an auto-clicking adware which was found on 41 apps developed by a Korean company. RedAlert2 The trojan waits in hiding until the user opens a banking or social media app.

Tizi Tizi is a fully featured backdoor that installs spyware to steal sensitive data from popular social media applications. Svpeng Svpeng is a Banking trojan which acts as a keylogger. LokiBot LokiBot is a banking trojan for Android 4. Viking Horde In rooted devices, Viking Horde installs software and executes code remotely to get access to the mobile data. HummingBad A Chinese advertising company has developed this malware. Ackposts Ackposts is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals the Contacts information from the compromised device and sends it to a predetermined location.

Wirex Wirex is a Trojan horse for Android devices that opens a backdoor on the compromised device which then joins a botnet for conducting click fraud. ExpensiveWall ExpensiveWall is Android malware that sends fraudulent premium SMS messages and charges users accounts for fake services without their knowledge. Cepsohord Cepsohord is a Trojan horse for Android devices that uses compromised devices to commit click fraud, modify DNS settings, randomly delete essential files, and download additional malware such as ransomware.

GM Bot GM Bot — also known as Acecard, SlemBunk, or Bankosy — scams people into giving up their banking log-in credentials and other personal data by displaying overlays that look nearly identical to banking apps log-in pages. Acecard SlemBunk Bankosy. Adwind Adwind is a backdoor written purely in Java that targets system supporting the Java runtime environment.

Airpush Airpush is a very aggresive Ad - Network. Kemoge Kemoge is adware that disguises itself as popular apps via repackaging, then allows for a complete takeover of the users Android device. Ghost Push Ghost Push is a family of malware that infects the Android OS by automatically gaining root access, downloading malicious software, masquerading as a system app, and then losing root access, which then makes it virtually impossible to remove the infection even by factory reset unless the firmware is reflashed.

Accstealer Accstealer is a Trojan horse for Android devices that steals information from the compromised device.