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Stieg Larsson. Narrated by: Jordi Brau. Narrated by: Mariluz Parras. Narrated by: Artur Mas. Narrated by: Liz Flores. Narrated by: Diego Angel Peralta. Narrated by: Oscar Lopez Avila. Narrated by: Chloe Malaise. Narrated by: Jorge Ramos. Narrated by: Daniel Vargas. Three are Spanish Sapphic stanzas, all corresponding to Latin Sapphics. Of the other translations from Horace, one uses another form of the cuarteto-lira , one, the hendecasyllabic quatrain; one, a five-verse estancia ; two, silvas ; and one , blank hendecasyllables with a rhymed couplet at the end.
There is of course no rhyme in the originals; of the translations, five are unrhymed, five have the muted acoustic effect of assonance, and six have consonant rhyme.
The only translation from Horace for which we have more than one version a and uses consonant rhyme in its first version but eventually eliminates it. Of the thirteen translated Besos de Amor , the originals of which employ a variety of verse forms, twelve are heptasyllabic romancillos and the thirteenth employs the cuarteto-lira.
In terms of length, the three versions of Horace in Sapphic stanzas exactly match the originals. This closeness is remarkable because of the difference in the syntax and morphology of the two languages, which will normally require in a Spanish text more words than in its Latin original. At this point the translation is three syllables, about a quarter of the total, ahead of the original; to check this growth, the translator must take every opportunity to compress in the future. It is, however, a draft; the finished product might have been further condensed.
The effort to compress can be seen in the version of Horace's II, x 6 , the ode that our poet translated for his oposiciones. The final version, hewing more closely to the original, manages in two lines:. The Latin epigraph to the Besos de Amor , three verses of an average of fourteen syllables, is translated by a stanza of three heptasyllables and five hendecasyllables, an unusual expansion of the original achieved largely by the introduction of adjectives: e.
Visor de obras.
The thirteen translated Besos are, however, even more economical than the Horatian translations, and two of them are actually shorter than their originals. The original's pedestrian concluding explicitness:. Ode XII, built on the conceit of a struggle between the speaker's eyes and his lips to satisfy the lips by kissing the beloved is to deprive the eyes of the pleasure of seeing her , offers another example of condensation: the concluding six verses of the Latin,.
The unnecessary reference to Jupiter has disappeared; and instead of insinuating a decision, as does the original, the Spanish poem retains the piquant struggle to the end. A feature of the originals that our poet takes care to preserve is the Latin tendency toward enjambment. Longam at the emphatic final position has been rendered by a largas that to its position adds the emphasis of enjambment. The shift to a more rapid rhythm in the last three verses echoes their content.
Though hyperbaton is more problematical in Spanish than in Latin, this feature of the Horatian text is also reflected in the translations. This effort is particularly noticeable in the translation of the Aeneid. On occasion other poetic devices can substitute for lost alliteration, as with. Another problem for the translator is the choice among possible renderings.
In practice, the most obvious cognate may sometimes not be the best choice. Polt , The Neolatin poems harmonize with the Salamancan poets' predilection for the soft and the tender more than does Horace. The Spanish males Its 69 verses 32 heptasyllables and 37 hendecasyllables translate the poetic prose of Exodus 15, from the Vulgate. The correspondence between the two texts is quite close.
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Ingressus est enim Pharao cum curribus et equitibus eius in mare; et reduxit super eos Dominos aquas maris; filii autem Israel ambulaverunt per siccum in medio eius. The slow movement of sosegadamente , with its repetitious vowel sounds and nasals, underlines the contrast between the destruction of the Egyptians and the divinely protected tranquility of the Israelites.
Rinaldo Froldi has pointed out that for the eighteenth century translation is one form of that imitation of Ancient and Renaissance models thought important for the development of the artist Not, I think, to make these poets known toa wider public, as might be the case today; a likely reader had probably already studied them in the original. To translate these poets is to imitate them, that is, to compete with them with their own weapons and on their own ground; and this competition was the more challenging precisely because the model of the imitation was apparent to the potential reader and perhaps present in his memory.
The translation is thus both a learning experience in which the translator tries to achieve what a recognized master has achieved, and an affirmation of artistic pride. In a recent article, Howard T. It is tempting to think of the close study that translation of Horace would entail as a contributing factor in this evolution, but unfortunately the only one of those translations that we can at present date is the one from Biblia sacra iuxta Vulgatam clementinam.
Alberto Colunga and LorenzoTurrado. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, Cueto, Leopoldo Augusto de, ed. BAE 61, 63, Madrid: Rivadeneyra,