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According to figures, There are more than 2, hospital beds, in all of the Hospitals of Morelia.

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Miguel Silva that has most of the departments such as surgery, emergency medicine, hematology, and more Three years after the foundation the surgery cathedra was created, like an expansion to the faculty of medicine. Like that, nowadays we have 5 thousand students, and more medic related careers like odontology, nursery… Our careers consists in 7 years, 5 years of study in the school, 1 year in rotation in the Hospital, and 1 year of service in a comunity.

Michoacan is a mix of inspiration and sensibility; of art, typic towns, culture and natural beautys. Known for it's vivid artistic and cultural expressions like the soul of Mexico. Thanks to the missionaries that were leaded by Don Vasco de Quiroga, in Michoacan, cultural rates erased, creating schools where the spanish and indians were educated.

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This city is a clear example of the renaissance ideas that influenced to planify the cities of New Spain. Morelia with it's constructive quality and plastic unity in every building and plaza have made it such an architectural merit, that in the UNESCO declared it Humanity's Cultural Patrimony. The name was change in june 3rd , after receiveing the notice of the execution of Don Melchor Ocampo, naming the theatre Ocampo Theatre. This building remains in the same state as early in the XIX century.

We take our incomings to different places in Morelia and we also take incomings to nearby places outside of Morelia, places that are very interesting touristic spots, which includes:. Ixtapa's Beaches [only july and august incomings]. The local transportation inside the city is by buses and combi, that have many routes all over the city and it has a very low price.

Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting.

However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task.

We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico : Morelia and Mexico City. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. In the case of the Mexico City 15', inhabitants for the. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan , Mexico.

We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan , Mexico , to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at sampling localities from May through July, in and Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak Subsidence and faulting have affected cities in central Mexico for decades. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure, housing and large buildings, and is an important factor to be consider when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies.

In Mexico , studies using InSAR and GPS based observations have shown that high subsidence areas are usually associated with the presence of thick lacustrine and fluvial deposits. In most cases the subsidence is closely associated with intense groundwater extraction that results in sediment consolidation. However, recent studies in the colonial city of Morelia in central Mexico show a different scenario, where groundwater extraction cannot solely explain the observed surface deformation. Our results indicate that a more complex interplay between sediment consolidation and tectonic forces is responsible for the subsidence and fault distribution within the city.

This situation has led to the recognition of 9 NE-SW trending faults that cover most of its urbanized area. However, lithological mapping and field reconnaissance clearly show basalts outcropping this area of high surface deformation. The subsurface characterization of the La Colina fault was carried out along 27 Ground Penetrating Radar GPR sections and 6 seismic tomography profiles. Assuming a constant, linear past behavior of the subsidence as observed by InSAR techniques, and based on the interpretation of the fault dislocation imaged by the shallow GPR and seismic tomography, it is suggested that the La Colina fault may have been active for the past years and clearly pre-dates the intense water well extraction from the past century.

These conditions. PubMed Central. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with Echeveria purhepecha and Echeveria patriotica, with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities. The conservation status of both species was re evaluated according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with Echeveria purhepecha and Echeveria patriotica , with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities.

Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development.

Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Subsidence has been a common occurrence in several cities in central Mexico for the past three decades. This process causes substantial damage to the urban infrastructure and housing in several cities and it is a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land-use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies. Since the early 's the city of Morelia in Central Mexico has experienced subsidence associated with groundwater extraction in excess of natural recharge from rainfall.

Previous works have focused on the detection and temporal evolution of the subsidence spatial distribution. The most recent InSAR analysis confirms the permanence of previously detected rapidly subsiding areas such as the Rio Grande Meander area and also defines 2 subsidence patches previously undetected in the newly developed suburban sectors west of Morelia at the Fraccionamiento Del Bosque along, south of Hwy. Because subsidence-induced, shallow faulting develops at high horizontal strain localization, newly developed a subsidence areas are particularly prone to faulting and fissuring.

Shallow faulting increases groundwater vulnerability because it disrupts discharge hydraulic infrastructure and creates a direct path for transport of surface pollutants into the underlying aquifer. Other sectors in Morelia that have been experiencing subsidence for longer time have already developed well defined faults such as La Colina, Central Camionera, Torremolinos and La Paloma faults.

Local construction codes in the vicinity of these faults define a very narrow swath along which housing construction is not allowed. In order to better characterize these fault systems and provide better criteria for future municipal construction codes we have surveyed the La Colina and Torremolinos fault systems in the western sector of Morelia using seismic tomographic techniques. Our results indicate that La Colina Fault.

Altitudinal genetic variation among Pinus oocarpa populations in Michoacan , Mexico : implications for seed zoning, conservation, tree breeding and global warming. Pinus oocarpa has a large natural distribution in the sub-tropical forests of Mexico. Populations, however, are rapidly disappearing particularly in the Michoacan State as native forests are converted to avocado Persea sp.

We investigated the patterning of genetic variation among P. Strong ground motion from the michoacan , Mexico , earthquake. The network of strong motion accelerographs in Mexico includes instruments that were installed, under an international cooperative research program, in sites selected for the high potenial of a large earthquake. The 19 September earthquake magnitude 8. As a result, there is an excellent descripton of the ground motions that caused the disaster. Israde-Alcantar, I. A cm-long core spanning the last ca. Age control for the core is provided by four AMS dates on organic sediment.

The uppermost 30 cm of the core appears to be highly bioturbated according to Pb chronologies. Organic and inorganic carbon TOC. TIC , diatoms, iron and titanium concentrations were analyzed and used to infer variations in the hydrological cycle and climatic conditions. The lower part of the core ca. Coincident with this decline in percents CaCO3 there is a decline greater that two-fold sediment accumulation rates and an increase in percents TOC. These changes in precipitation are similar to those recorded in lake records from Guatemala and the marine record of the Cariaco Basin and can be explained by shifts in the mean latitude of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ.

The upper cm of the core was studied at 1 cm intervals for metals Al, Fe, Ti, Pb, etc. These metals show strong cycles throughout the studied interval which may reflect wet-dry cycles. A two fold. In Michoacan State, Mexico , the use of aquifer vulnerability assessment is been incorporated in the regional policies of aquifer protection. This place is a discharge area. An spectacular spring is feeding a stream.

The predominant rocks are volcanic. The research permitted the expansion of the protection area of Los Chorros del Varal: a surrounding area to avoid anthropogenic impacts. This NPA is the preferential recharge area of the regional aquifer. This aquifer is the main water supply source for more than , inhabitants.

A high to medium vulnerability was calculated. These vulnerable parts must be protected impeding risky projects such as dumps or industries producing wastewaters. Low values were obtained in clayey environments and also in volcanic rocks with scarce fracturing. We used a receiver function technique for imaging western Mexico , a unique area with several active seismic and volcanic zones like the triple junction of Rivera, Cocos and North American plates and the Colima volcano complex CVC , the most active in Mexico.

For imaging, we constructed several 2-D profiles of depth transformed RFs to delineate the seismic discontinuities of the region.

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Low seismic velocities associated with the Michoacan -Guanajuato and the Mascota-Ayutla-Tapalpa volcanic fields are also observed. Most impressive, a large and well delineated magma body km underneath CVC is recognized along a surely related depression of the moho discontinuity just above it. We bring more tools for a better understanding of the deep processes that ultimately control eruptive behavior in the region.

A geological evaluation of the landfill site is presented in this paper. The results indicate that the site lacks ideal impermeable subsurface strata. The subsurface strata consist of highly fractured basaltic lava flows east-west fault and fracture system trend and sand-size cineritic material with high permeability and porosity.

Geochemical analysis of groundwater from Morelia 's municipal aquifer shows a high concentration of heavy metals Cd, Pb, As exceeding the Mexican environmental regulations, along with the presence of some organic pollutants phenols. Analyses of samples of the landfill's permanent leachate ponds show very high concentrations of the same contaminants. Samples were taken from the leachate pond and from nearby water-wells during the rainy season summer and the dry season spring , , and Some metal contaminants could be leaching directly from the landfill.

The Rio Grande de Morelia -Lago de Cuitzeo basin in west central Mexico has experienced major increases in water pollution from a rapidly growing human population. The authors examined changes in the long-term distribution of fishes in relation to water quality and quantity in order to assess the condition and health of aquatic ecosystems in the basin.

Two of these were endemics, Chirostoma charari and C. The greatest declines occurred in Lago de Cuitzeo proper and in the lower portion of the Rio Grande de Morelia watershed. Species losses from the lake were attributable to drying and hypereutrophication of the lake because of substantial reductions in the amount and quality of tributary inputs, whereas losses from the Rio Grande de Morelia watershed were the result of pollution from agricultural, municipal, and industrial sources, especially in the region around the city of Morelia.

Three localities in the upper portion of the Rio Grande de Morelia watershed--Cointzio reservoir, La Mintzita spring, and Insurgente Morelos stream--contained most of the remaining fish species diversity in the basin and deserve additional protection. Fish faunal changes indicated major declines in the health of aquatic ecosystems in the Morelia -Cuitzeo basin. The Morelia -Acambay Fault System. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary Martinez and Nieto, This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults.

It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan -Guanajuato volcanic field MGVF and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort.

In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of in Patzcuaro, Acambay in , in Maravatio and in Morelia , among others. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be. The 27 May catastrophic flow failure of gold tailings at Tlalpujahua, Michoacan , Mexico. Macias, J. On 27 May , after one week of sustained heavy rainfall, a voluminous flood caused the death of at least people and the destruction of the historic El Carmen church and several neighborhoods in the mining region of Tlalpujahua, Michoacan , central Mexico.

This destructive flood was triggered by the breaching of the impoundment of the Los Cedros tailings and the sudden release of circa 16 Mt of water-saturated waste materials. The muddy silty flood, moving at estimated speeds of m s-1, was channelized along the Dos Estrellas and Tlalpujahua drainages and devastated everything along its flow path.

After advancing 2. Revision of eyewitness accounts and newspaper articles, together with analysis of archived photographic materials, indicated that the flood consisted of three muddy pulses. Stratigraphic relations and granulometric data for selected proximal and distal samples show that the flood behaved as a hyperconcentrated flow along most of its trajectory.

A total volume of the Lamas flood deposit was estimated as 1. The physically based bidimensional 2-D hydraulic model FLO-2D was implemented to reproduce the breached flow 0. Even though premonitory signs of possible impoundment failure were reported days before the flood, and people living downstream were alerted, authorities ordered no evacuations or other mitigative actions.

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The catastrophic flood at Tlalpujahua provides a well-documented, though tragic, example of impoundment breaching of a tailings dam caused by the combined effects of intense rainfall, dam weakness, and inadequate. A crack-like rupture model for the 19 September Michoacan , Mexico , earthquake. Evidence supporting a smooth crack-like rupture process of the Michoacan earthquake of is obtained from a major earthquake for the first time.

Digital strong motion data from three stations Caleta de Campos, La Villita, and La Union , recording near-field radiation from the fault, show unusually simple ramped displacements and permanent offsets previously only seen in theoretical models. The recording of low frequency 0 to 1 Hz near-field waves together with the apparently smooth rupture favors a crack-like model to a step or Haskell-type dislocation model under the constraint of the slip distribution obtained by previous studies.

A crack-like rupture, characterized by an approximated dynamic slip function and systematic decrease in slip duration away from the point of rupture nucleation, produces the best fit to the simple ramped displacements observed. Spatially varying rupture duration controls several important aspects of the synthetic seismograms, including the variation in displacement rise times between components of motion observed at Caleta de Campos.

Ground motion observed at Caleta de Campos can be explained remarkably well with a smoothly propagating crack model. However, data from La Villita and La Union suggest a more complex rupture process than the simple crack-like model for the south-eastern portion of the fault. Seroconversion to bovine viral diarrhoea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in dairy herds of Michoacan , Mexico.

The longitudinal study included 62 herds and ran from December to November Animals were tested monthly for 12 months, for the presence of antibodies. The relatively high incidence of seroconversion for BVDV suggests that a successful control programme should be oriented towards the identification and elimination of the PI animals and towards avoiding the introduction of PI cattle to the farm. The scenario of IBRV is favourable to implement a programme directed to reduce the number of new seropositive herds. Biogeochemical characterization of the Cointzio reservoir Morelia , Mexico and identification of a watershed-dependent cycling of nutrients.

The mean population density is 65 inh. Soils are mostly volcanic and recent deforestations have led to important processes of erosion especially during the wet season from June to October. Oyarvide, Cesar Morales. Precursory earthquakes of the eruption of Paricutin volcano, Michoacan , Mexico. Paricutin volcano is a monogenetic volcano whose birth and growth were observed by modern volcanological techniques. At the time of its birth in , the seismic activity in central Mexico was mainly recorded by the Wiechert seismographs at the Tacubaya seismic station in Mexico City about km east of the volcano area.

In this paper we aim to find any characteristics of precursory earthquakes of the monogenetic eruption. Though there are limits in the available information, such as imprecise location of hypocenters and lack of earthquake data with magnitudes under 3. The available data show that the first precursory earthquake occurred on January 7, , with a magnitude of 4.

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Subsequently, 21 earthquakes ranging from 3. The S - P durations of the precursory earthquakes do not show any systematic changes within the observational errors. The hypocenters were rather shallow and did not migrate. The precursory earthquakes had a characteristic tectonic signature, which was retained through the whole period of activity.

However, the spectra of the P-waves of the Paricutin earthquakes show minor differences from those of tectonic earthquakes. This fact helped in the identification of Paricutin earthquakes. Except for the first shock, the maximum earthquake magnitudes show an increasing tendency with time towards the outbreak. Considering that statistically there is a threshold of cumulative seismic energy release 10 ergs by precursory earthquakes in polygenetic volcanoes erupting after long quiescence, the above cumulative energy is exceptionally large.

This suggests that a monogenetic volcano may need much more energy to clear the way of magma passage to the earth surface than a polygenetic one. The magma ascent before the outbreak of Paricutin volcano is interpretable by a model. Contamination in marine turtle Dermochelys coriaca egg shells of Playon de Mexiquillo, Michoacan , Mexico. Concern for the decreasing population sizes of marine turtles around the world is growing. Potential contamination within habitats of marine turtles, and human activities, such as poaching, modification of nesting sites, and capture of adult turtles, may be responsible for their decreasing populations.

Little is known about the baseline levels and physiological effects of environmental contaminants on marine turtle populations. Responding to this concern, the Mexican government has designated areas along the Mexican coastline to preserve marine turtle nesting habitats. Samples of seawater, sand, and marine turtle egg Dermochelys Coriaca shells were collected monthly from October, March, Contaminants investigated were oil and grease, and metals cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel, and lead.

Seawater samples were collected where the turtles lay eggs in the preservation area and sand samples were taken from the area surrounding the eggs. Ramirez Guzman, L. We present the analysis of simulations at low frequency Mexico , by using a 3D crustal velocity model and an idealized geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico. Mexico 's destructive earthquake history bolsters the need for a better understanding regarding the seismic hazard and risk of the region. Thus, estimates on the effects of similar or larger magnitude earthquakes on today's population and infrastructure are important.

Moreover, Singh and Mortera suggest that earthquakes of magnitude 8. In order to improve previous estimations of the ground motion e. Furumura and Singh, and lay the groundwork for a numerical simulation of a hypothetical Guerrero Gap scenario, we recast the Michoacan earthquake. We used the inversion by Mendoza and Hartzell and a 3D velocity model built on the basis of recent investigations in the area, which include a velocity structure of the Valley of Mexico constrained by geotechnical and reflection experiments, and noise tomography, receiver functions, and gravity-based regional models.

Our synthetic seismograms were computed using the octree-based finite element tool-chain Hercules Tu et al. We evaluated the model's ability to reproduce the available records using the goodness-of-fit analysis proposed by Mayhew and Olsen Once the reliablilty of the model was established, we estimated the effects of a large magnitude earthquake in Central Mexico.

We built a. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry. Penide, J. Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry the most used building stone in Morelia are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser.

We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti. In order to determine the effects of selective logging on pine-oak forest? We did not find evidences to argue for effects of logging on bird communities; the study plots Background Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas.

Our inventory included one new record of species for the region Lestrimelitta chamelensis Ayala, The taxa identified are all used by local people. Scaptotrigona hellwegeri Friese, ; Melipona fasciata Latreille, ; Frieseomelitta nigra Cresson, and Geotrigona acapulconis Strand, are particularly valued as food honey , medicinal honey and pollen , and material for handcrafts wax. All species recorded are wild and their products are obtained through gathering. Conclusions Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area.

Information about this group of bees is progressively scarcer in Mexico and significant effort should be done from ethnobiological and ecological perspectives in order to complement the national inventory of bee resources and traditional knowledge and management of them.

Life in Mexico/Volume 2/Letter the Forty-ninth

Stingless bees were significant resources managed by Mesoamerican peoples during pre-Columbian times and remain important in particular areas. We then conducted semi-structured interviews to local experts in order to document their knowledge and management techniques of stingless bees' species. We identified a total of eight stingless bees' species in the study area as well as three additional unidentified taxa recognized by people through the local names.

On average, local experts were able to collect 4 nests of stingless bees per year obtaining on average 6 L of honey and 4 Kg of wax but some came to collect up hives per year 18 L of honey and 24 Kg of wax. Local knowledge about use, management and ecological issues on stingless bees is persistent and deep in the study area. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan , Mexico. New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths ??

The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico.

The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos.

More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of. To explore the information and counseling needs of a group of Mexican women during use of the HPV test. In , 24 semistructured interviews were done with women upon receiving HPV test results in two municipalities in the state of Michoacan.

Qualitative analysis of the interviews was done using constant comparison techniques. During their use of screening services women received limited counseling; they felt anguish and confusion. Women were interested in receiving information and advice on HPV and cervical cancer, the meaning of test result, next steps to be taken in their healthcare use as well as information and emotional support related to the sexual transmission of HPV.

The design and implementation of policies are needed which instigate health education and counseling in conjunction with HPV testing. On the nature of regional seismic phases-III. The influence of crustal heterogeneity on the wavefield for subduction earthquakes: the Michoacan and Copala, Guerrero, Mexico earthquakes.

The most prominent feature of the regional seismic wavefield from about to over km is usually the Lg phase. This arrival represents trapped S-wave propagation within the crust as a superposition of multiple reflections, and its amplitude is quite sensitive to the lateral variation in the crust along a propagation path. In an environment where the events occur in a subduction zone, such as the western coast of Mexico , quite complex influences on the character of the regional wavefield arise from the presence of the subduction zone. Considerable effort has been expended to explain the origin of the unusual observed waves that caused the severe damage in the capital city during the destructive earthquake.

Numerical modelling of both P and S seismic waves in 2-D and 3-D heterogeneous crustal models for western Mexico using the pseudospectral method provides direct insight into the nature of the propagation processes through the use of sequences of snapshots of the wavefield and synthetic seismograms at the surface. A comparison of different models allows the influences of different aspects of the structure to be isolated.

These S. La influencia de "los de abajo" en tres procesos de cambio linguistico en el espanol de Morelia , Michoacan The Influence of "the Underclass" on Three Processes of Linguistic Change in the Spanish of Morelia , Michoacan. Examines the role of the educational and socioeconomic levels of the speakers in advancing linguistic change. The study reviews three grammatical phenomena found at distinct stages of change.

Individuals at the lower socioeconomic and educational strata of society embrace innovations in language more readily than their affluent and educated…. Coseismic slip of two large Mexican earthquakes from teleseismic body waveforms - Implications for asperity interaction in the Michoacan plate boundary segment. The distributions and depths of coseismic slip are derived for the October 25, Playa Azul and September 21, Zihuatanejo earthquakes in western Mexico by inverting the recorded teleseismic body waves.

Rupture during the Playa Azul earthquake appears to have occurred in two separate zones both updip and downdip of the point of initial nucleation, with most of the slip concentrated in a circular region of km radius downdip from the hypocenter. Coseismic slip occurred entirely within the area of reduced slip between the two primary shallow sources of the Michoacan earthquake that occurred on September 19, , almost 4 years later. The slip of the Zihuatanejo earthquake was concentrated in an area adjacent to one of the main sources of the Michoacan earthquake and appears to be the southeastern continuation of rupture along the Cocos-North America plate boundary.

The zones of maximum slip for the Playa Azul, Zihuatanejo, and Michoacan earthquakes may be considered asperity regions that control the occurrence of large earthquakes along the Michoacan segment of the plate boundary. Seismic and Tectonic Regionalization of the State of Michoacan. With relatively moderate seismicity.

With relatively low seismicity. Multiple papillomas in a diamond python, Morelia spilota spilota. A 4-yr-old male diamond python Morelia spilota spilota was evaluated for multiple black papillated exophytic skin proliferations and signs of pneumonia. The histopathologic structure of the skin biopsy specimens led to the diagnosis of a benign papilloma-like neoplasia. In this case, papillomavirus DNA could be amplified from a biopsy sample with a broad range polymerase chain reaction.

Nested pan-herpes polymerase chain reaction was negative, and herpesvirus inclusion bodies were not found. Because of the histologically benign nature of the papilloma, the skin proliferations were left untreated. Ten mo after the first presentation, the skin lesions had regressed almost completely; 34 mo later, only scars from the biopsies were left.

June seismic swarm and dike injection event beneath the Michoacan -Guanajuato volcanic field. A seismic swarm of approximately events, magnitude 2. Over a two-week period in June , relocated hypocenters clearly show a shallowing trend with time, indicative of a possible dike injection event. Following the injection, there is a period of earthquakes, which all occurred at approximately 5 km in depth, but which migrated southwards. The waveforms of all of these events show similarities within three major groupings: from May 28 to June 1, June 2 to June 9 which marks the end of the ascent , and from June 9 to July 2.

Gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python Morelia spilota spilota. A 5-year-old captive male diamond python Morelia spilota spilota was presented with a 1-month history of regurgitation and anorexia and discrete coelomic distention. Physical examination revealed a firm, immobile mass at approximately two-thirds of the snout-vent length from the front of the head. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate biopsy of the mass in the region of the stomach showed necrosis with bacterial infiltration and possibly neoplastic changes.

A gastroscopy was conducted, but showed grossly normal gastric mucosa, confirmed by biopsy. On exploratory coeliotomy, it was confirmed the mass involved most of the stomach wall and occluded the gastric lumen. The mass was completely excised and based on histopathology, a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was made. Most cases of adenocarcinoma in snakes go undiagnosed. This case report illustrates that the architecture of gastric masses may lead to false-negative gastric biopsy results in snakes with neoplasia.

We have inverted the teleseismic P waveforms recorded by stations of the Global Digital Seismograph Network for the 8 July North Palm Springs, California, the 28 October Borah Peak, Idaho, and the 19 September Michoacan , Mexico , earthquakes to recover the distribution of slip on each of the faults using a point-by-point inversion method with smoothing and positivity constraints.

Results of the inversion indicate that the Global digital Seismograph Network data are useful for deriving fault dislocation models for moderate to large events. However, a wide range of frequencies is necessary to infer the distribution of slip on the earthquake fault. Although the long-period waveforms define the size dimensions and seismic moment of the earthquake, data at shorter period provide additional constraints on the variation of slip on the fault. Dislocation models obtained for all three earthquakes are consistent with a heterogeneous rupture process where failure is controlled largely by the size and location of high-strength asperity regions.

First report of leaf rust of blueberry caused by Thekopsora minima in Mexico. Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. As the area under blueberry cultivation increases, new diseases causing severe losses are appearing. Leaf rust is one of the most destructive diseases of blueberry in Mexico. Sori on t The text explores Mexico 's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy.

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The text focuses on Mexico 's economy and reasons for its current situation. Echocardiography is an established and noninvasive diagnostic tool used in herpetologic cardiology. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles with the exception of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In this case report, restrictive cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure associated with left atrial and sinus venosus dilation were diagnosed in a 2-yr-old captive lethargic McDowell's carpet python Morelia spilota mcdowelli , based on echocardiographic, Doppler, and histopathologic examinations.

This cardiomyopathy was also associated with thrombosis within the sinus venosus. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota. Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota were examined using computed tomography CT to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue.

Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. A median attenuation of Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Pathological examination revealed the accumulation of mucoid material within the airways and lungs in association with enlargement of the entire lung.

We performed a full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterize the pathogenesis of this mucinous pneumonia. By histology we could show a marked hyperplasia of the airway epithelium and of faveolar type II pneumocytes. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung tissue samples from a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing NGS. From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome whose sequence was Morelia viridis liver and brain cells, which we inoculated with homogenates of lung tissue from infected individuals.

Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus Morelia viridis nidovirus MVNV. This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium, which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover.

Herein we report on the. In we observed a noticeable increase in sudden deaths of green tree pythons Morelia viridis. Pathological examination revealed accumulation of mucoid material within airways and lung, associated with enlargement of the entire lung. We performed full necropsy and histological examination on 12 affected green tree pythons from 7 different breeders to characterise the pathogenesis of this "mucinous" pneumonia. Since routine microbiological tests failed to identify a causative agent, we studied lung samples of a few diseased snakes by next-generation sequencing NGS.

From the NGS data we could assemble a piece of RNA genome Morelia viridis liver and brain, which we inoculated with lung homogenates of infected individuals. Ultrastructural examination of concentrated cell culture supernatants showed the presence of nidovirus particles, and subsequent NGS analysis yielded the full genome of the novel virus, Morelia viridis nidovirus MVNV.

This suggests that in natural infection MVNV damages the respiratory tract epithelium which then results in epithelial hyperplasia, most likely as an exaggerated regenerative attempt in association with increased epithelial turnover. Importance Fairly recently novel nidoviruses associated with severe respiratory disease were identified in ball pythons and Indian pythons.

Herein we report isolation and identification of a further nidovirus from green tree pythons Morelia viridis with fatal pneumonia. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark , comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers , square miles of land.

Home to roughly million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3, kilometers 1, miles east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico partially obscured by clouds in this image and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico.

Toward the upper left northwest corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains brownish pixels running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About km miles east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City.

Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico 's Yucatan Peninsula.

Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July , the population of Mexico numbered Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico 's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost years.

Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, ; the republic was established on December 6, Mexico 's constitution of provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in , have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In , estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.

Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. Other problems include. Specific variations of air temperature and relative humidity around the time of Michoacan earthquake M8. The recent development of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere LAI coupling model and experimental data of remote sensing satellites on thermal anomalies before major strong earthquakes have demonstrated that radon emanations in the area of earthquake preparation can produce variations of the air temperature and relative humidity.

Specific repeating pattern of humidity and air temperature variations was revealed as a result of analysis of the meteorological data for several tens of strong earthquakes all over the world. The high effectiveness of this process was proved by the laboratory and field experiments; hence the specific variations of air humidity and temperature can be used as indicator of radon variations before earthquakes.

We analyzed the historical meteorological data all over the Mexico around the time of one of the most destructive earthquakes Michoacan earthquake M8. Several distinct zones of specific variations of the air temperature and relative humidity were revealed that may indicate the different character of radon variations in different parts of Mexico before the Michoacan earthquake. The most interesting result on the specific variations of atmosphere parameters was obtained at Baja California region close to the border of Cocos and Rivera tectonic plates. This result demonstrates the possibility of the increased radon variations not only in the vicinity of the earthquake source but also at the border of interacting tectonic plates.

The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females.

There are 31 states and a federal district. Military expenditures were. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3. Dependence on oil exports has decreased.

There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly.

Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. NPPO in the monitoring and supervision of those activities. The personnel conducting the trapping and The avocados may be imported only if the Mexican avocado industry association A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification. The effects of the Michoacan earthquake 19th September, , Mw 8. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered.

One of these efforts had began on with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification , based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley. These changes are due i large part to the institutionalization of a population policy enacted in that has continued to receive strong support from the government.

The TFR declined from 6. Contraceptive prevalence rates mirror changes in desired family sizes; women between now desire 2. This difference is related to differences in the ages of the 2 groups; as education has spread, women without any schooling tend to be older and have higher parity; and in spite of wanting to stop childbearing, they are 10 times less likely to use contraception than their more educated counterparts. Factors affecting hematology and plasma biochemistry in the southwest carpet python Morelia spilota imbricata. Despite increased worldwide popularity of keeping reptiles as pets, we know little about hematologic and biochemical parameters of most reptile species, or how these measures may be influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Blood samples from 43 wild-caught pythons Morelia spilota imbricata were collected at various stages of a 3-yr ecological study in Western Australia. Reference intervals are reported for 35 individuals sampled at the commencement of the study. As pythons were radiotracked for varying lengths of time radiotransmitters were surgically implanted , repeated sampling was undertaken from some individuals. However, because of our ad hoc sampling design we cannot be definitive about temporal factors that were most important or that exclusively influenced blood parameters.

There was no significant effect of sex or the presence of a hemogregarine parasite on blood parameters. Erythrocyte measures were highest for pythons captured in the jarrah forest and at the stage of radiotransmitter implantation, which was also linked with shorter time in captivity.

Basophil count, the only leukocyte influenced by the factors tested, was highest when the python was anesthetized, as was globulin concentration. Albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were more concentrated in summer as was phosphorous and at the initial stage of radiotransmitter placement as was calcium. No intrinsic or extrinsic factors influenced creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, or total protein. This study demonstrates that factors including season, location, surgical radiotransmitter placement, and anesthetic state can influence blood parameters of M.

For accurate diagnosis, veterinarians should be aware that the current reference intervals used to identify the health status of individuals for this species are outdated and the interpretation and an understanding of the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors are limited.

One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste USW. SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight W which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment.

Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations , and which is intended to regulate and give advice about the design of wells, their depth and optimum slot interval, their appropriate location and caudal, in those cases in which well-drilling is permitted.

This approach is intended to influence the scientific handling of the hydro resource, promoting sustainable politics and rules of operation. The September 19, Michoacan Earthquake: Aftershock acceleration data recorded by a temporary installation of strong motion instruments. We describe acceleration signals recorded for nine aftershocks of the September 19, Michoacan earthquake. Peak horizontal accelerations of 0.

It was observed that the peak accelerations recorded at a site on the embankment of the dam near the crest are approximately three times those recorded on the abutment bedrock portion of the dam. Although these sites were spatially separated by no more than m, differences among their records are also significant. Waveforms recorded at the embankment site look more complex than those from the abutment site.

This fact, as well as the higher peak accelerations on the embankment, provides evidence of a strong influence of the structure of the dam on the ground motion at the embankment site. The commissioning instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias: made in Mexico. In this paper we made a general description of the CI and we relate how this instrument, build under international standards, was entirely made in Mexico. Low cost MEMS accelerometers are becoming increasingly higher resolution making them useful in strong motion studies. Here we present a building response analysis in the lakebed zone of the Valley of Mexico.

The Valley of Mexico represents one of the highest seismic risk locations in the world and incorporates Mexico City and part of Mexico State. More than 20 million people live there and it is the political and economic center of Mexico. In addition the valley has very high site effects with amplifications - times that of sites outside of the basin Singh et al.

The building known as the Centro Cultural de Tlateloco is located in an important historical and political area as well as a zone with some of the highest amplifications in the Valley of Mexico that had some of the worst destruction after the M8.