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Her tales harked back to more traditional fairy tales. She often included a small kingdom, with a prince or princess who saves his or her kingdom and regains the throne or saves Oz from invasion. Thompson even respelled Baum's respelling " Nome " as the more traditional " Gnome ". Illustrator John R. Neill's vision of Oz is more manic than Thompson or Baum's. Houses often get up and do battle, and everything can be alive. Jack Snow was a Baum scholar, and even offered to take over the series at age twelve when Baum died. Snow's books lack any characters created by Thompson or Neill, although he did create his own.

The Expeditioneers, as they call themselves, learn the meanings of these fortunes as they progress through an Art Colony, a Game Preserve, and a long and complex subterranean journey. Jack Snow wrote Who's Who in Oz, a guide to characters from the first 39 Oz books, as well as a short story titled "A Murder in Oz," in which Tip takes his life back from Ozma, and both are ultimately restored as twin siblings. Below are some books which deal with alternate versions of Oz, that do not adhere to the original and official canon by L.

Frank Baum. The novel presents events, characters and situations from Baum's books and the film in new ways, with several differences between the L. Frank Baum series and the Wicked Cycle. These differences arise from the original Oz functioning as a mirror-image of Kansas in a cultural and economic framework: Oz was wealthy, prosperous and had excellent agricultural yields while Kansas was characterized by economic hardship, environmental difficulties and poor harvests. The social strife described in the Wicked Cycle indicates that the two series are set in similar and internally consistent but distinctly separate visions of Oz.

Unlike the popular movie and Baum's writings, this novel is not directed at children, and contains adult language and content. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Wikimedia list article. Oz portal. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 3, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. John R. Adaptations and other derivative works. Category Portal. Outline Category Portal. Categories : Book series introduced in Oz franchise books Lists of fantasy books Lists of American books. Hidden categories: Articles with short description. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. George M. Hill Company. A little farm girl named Dorothy and her pet dog, Toto , get swept away into the Land of Oz by a Kansas cyclone.

Upon her arrival, she is hailed as a sorceress, liberates a living Scarecrow , meets a man made entirely of tin , and a Cowardly Lion. But all Dorothy really wants to know is how does she get home again. The ruler of Oz, the great Wizard , who resides in an Emerald City , may be the only one powerful enough to help her. Also reprinted by various publishers under the names The New Wizard of Oz and The Wizard of Oz with occasional minor changes in the text. It was originally written as a one-shot book. The Marvelous Land of Oz.

A little boy, Tip , escapes from his evil guardian, the witch Mombi , with the help of a walking wooden figure with a jack-o'-lantern head named Jack Pumpkinhead brought to life with the magic Powder of Life Tip stole from Mombi , as well as a living Sawhorse created from the same powder. Tip ends up on an adventure with the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman to help Scarecrow to recapture his throne from General Jinjur 's army of girls. While traveling to Australia with her Uncle Henry , Dorothy is swept overboard with a hen named Billina. They land in Ev , a country across the desert from Oz, and, together with new-found mechanical friend Tik-Tok , they must save Ev 's royal family from the evil Nome King.

With Princess Ozma 's help, they finally return to Oz. Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. On her way back from Australia , Dorothy visits her cousin, Zeb , in California. They are soon swallowed up by an earthquake, along with Zeb's horse Jim and Dorothy's cat Eureka. The group soon meets up with the Wizard and all travel underground back to Oz. Dorothy meets the Shaggy Man , and while trying to find the road to Butterfield, they get lost on an enchanted road. As they travel they meet the rainbow's daughter, Polychrome , and a little boy, Button-Bright. They have all sorts of strange adventures on the way to Oz.

The Emerald City of Oz. While they tour through the Quadling Country , the Nome King is tunneling beneath the desert to invade Oz. This was originally intended to be the last book in the series. The Patchwork Girl of Oz. A Munchkin boy named Ojo must find a cure to free his Uncle Nunkie from a magical spell that has turned him into a statue. With the help of Scraps, an anthropomorphic patchwork doll, Ojo journeys through Oz to save his uncle.

Based in part upon the silent film, His Majesty, the Scarecrow of Oz. This was allegedly L. Frank Baum 's personal favourite Oz book. Young Prince Inga of Pingaree , aided by King Rinkitink , three powerful magical pearls, and a goat, attempts to rescue Inga's parents and their subjects from marauding warriors who have laid waste to Pingaree and enslaved its people. Baum originally wrote this book as a non-Oz book entitled King Rinkitink. The Lost Princess of Oz.

When Princess Ozma mysteriously disappears, four search parties are sent out, one for each of Oz's four countries. Most of the book covers Dorothy and the Wizard's efforts to find her. Meanwhile, Cayke the Cookie Chef discovers that her magic dishpan on which she bakes her famous cookies has been stolen. Along with the Frogman , they leave their mountain in Winkie Country to find the pan.

The Tin Woodman of Oz. The Tin Woodman , whose real name is Nick Chopper, sets out to find the Munchkin Girl he had courted before he became a tin man. He and his party the Scarecrow and a new character called Woot the Wanderer have numerous adventures on this quest. They are transformed into animals by a hostile giantess, and they meet another live tin man, Captain Fyter , as well as a Frankenstein monster-like creature, Chopfyt, made from their combined fleshly parts by the tinsmith , Ku-Klip.

Meanwhile, it is also Ozma's birthday, and all of Oz's citizens are searching for the most unusual present for the little princess. This was published a month after Baum 's death. Dorothy, Ozma and Glinda try to stop a war in the Gillikin Country. This was Baum 's last Oz book , and was published posthumously.

This book contains a dark scene in the house of Red Reera , most likely due to Baum's failing health. There have been many other Oz books released since, although not written by Baum. A stage play closely based on the novel, featuring songs with music by Paul Tietjens. The Wizard of Oz. A stage extravaganza loosely based on the novel, with jokes written by Glen MacDonough , featuring songs by Baum and Paul Tietjens and many other interpolated as the show progressed.

It opened in Chicago in , starring the comedy team of David Montgomery and Fred Stone as the Tin Woodman who was also known in the show as Niccolo Chopper and the Scarecrow , respectively. The production moved to Broadway in , and continued on tour or in New York until Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz.

Originally used to promote The Marvelous Land of Oz. Hungry Tiger Press corrected the censoring from the Buckethead edition but used The Visitors from Oz as the title like the Kellogg adaptation. Complete series can be read online. The book can be read online. The Woggle-Bug. Reviews praised only Chapin and the show never opened on Broadway. Never produced. A play by Baum. The connection to Oz is reported as minimal. Held in the L. Little Wizard Stories of Oz. Six short stories about the Oz characters, originally written to help re-launch the Oz series in Full text can be found online.

The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. Baum's wife frequently visited her niece, Dorothy Louise Gage.

  • L. Frank Baum - Author.
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The infant became gravely sick and died on November 11, , from "congestion of the brain" at exactly five months. When the baby, whom Maud adored as the daughter she never had, died, she was devastated and needed to consume medicine. Bossed around by his wife Matilda , Henry rarely dissented with her. He flourished in business, though, and his neighbors looked up to him. Likewise, Uncle Henry was a "passive but hard-working man" who "looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke". The stories of barbarous acts against accused witches scared Baum. Two key events in the novel involve wicked witches who both meet their death through metaphorical means.

Baum held different jobs, moved a lot, and was exposed to many people, so the inspiration for the story could have been taken from many different aspects of his life. Baum, a former salesman of china, wrote in chapter 20 about china that had sprung to life.

The Wizard of Oz

The original illustrator of the novel, W. Denslow, could also have influenced the story and the way it has been interpreted. Baum and Denslow had a close working relationship and worked together to create the presentation of the story through the images and the text. Color is an important element of the story and is present throughout the images, with each chapter having a different color representation.

Denslow also added characteristics to his drawings that Baum never described. For example, Denslow drew a house and the gates of the Emerald City with faces on them. In the later Oz books, John R. Neill , who illustrated all of the sequels, continued to include these faces on gates. Baum did not offer any conclusive proof that he intended his novel to be a political allegory. Historian Ranjit S. Dighe wrote that for 60 years after the book's publication, "virtually nobody" had such an interpretation until Henry Littlefield , a high-school teacher.

Littlefield's thesis achieved some support, but has been strenuously attacked by others. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz has become an established part of multiple cultures, spreading from its early young American readership to becoming known throughout the world. It has been translated or adapted into well over fifty languages, at times being modified in local variations. For instance, in some abridged Indian editions, the Tin Woodman was replaced with a horse.

The film adaptation has become a classic of popular culture, shown annually on American television from to and then several times a year every year beginning in The New York Times , September 8, [44]. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz received positive critical reviews upon release. In a September review, The New York Times praised the novel, writing that it would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet.

The review also praised the illustrations for being a pleasant complement to the text. During the first 50 years after The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ' s publication in , it received little critical analysis from scholars of children's literature. According to Ruth Berman of Science Fiction Studies , the lists of suggested reading published for juvenile readers never contained Baum's work. The lack of interest stemmed from the scholars' misgivings about fantasy, as well as to their belief that lengthy series had little literary merit. It has frequently come under fire over the years.

In , the director of Detroit's libraries banned The Wonderful Wizard of Oz for having "no value" for children of his day, for supporting "negativism", and for bringing children's minds to a "cowardly level". Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University countered that "if the message of the Oz books—love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place—seems of no value today", then maybe the time is ripe for "reassess[ing] a good many other things besides the Detroit library's approved list of children's books".

In , seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel's inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit. The judge ruled that when the novel was being discussed in class, the parents were allowed to have their children leave the classroom. Leonard Everett Fisher of The Horn Book Magazine wrote in that Oz has "a timeless message from a less complex era, and it continues to resonate".

The challenge of valuing oneself during impending adversity has not, Fisher noted, lessened during the prior years. In a review, Bill Delaney of Salem Press praised Baum for giving children the opportunity to discover magic in the mundane things in their everyday lives. He further commended Baum for teaching "millions of children to love reading during their crucial formative years".

The Library of Congress has declared The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to be "America's greatest and best-loved homegrown fairytale", also naming it the first American fantasy for children and one of the most-read children's books. After George M. Hill's bankruptcy in , copyright in the book passed to the Bobbs-Merrill Company. The editions they published lacked most of the in-text color and color plates of the original. It was not until the book entered the public domain in that new editions, either with the original color plates, or new illustrations, proliferated. Notable among them are the Pennyroyal edition illustrated by Barry Moser , which was reprinted by the University of California Press , and the Annotated Wizard of Oz edited by Michael Patrick Hearn , which was published by W.

Norton and included all the original color illustrations, as well as supplemental artwork by Denslow. Baum wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz without any thought of a sequel. After reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him, requesting that he craft another story about Oz. In , he wrote and published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz , explaining that he grudgingly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand. In his The Emerald City of Oz , he wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.

The children refused to accept this story, so Baum, in and every year thereafter until his death in May , wrote an Oz book, ultimately writing 13 sequels. He wrote, "To please a child is a sweet and a lovely thing that warms one's heart and brings its own reward. Until this version, the book had inspired a number of now less well known stage and screen adaptations, including a profitable Broadway musical and three silent films.


The film was considered innovative because of its songs, special effects , and revolutionary use of the new Technicolor. The story has been translated into other languages at least once without permission and adapted into comics several times. Following the lapse of the original copyright, the characters have been adapted and reused in spin-offs, unofficial sequels, and reinterpretations, some of which have been controversial in their treatment of Baum's characters.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Frank Baum. For other uses, see The Wonderful Wizard of Oz disambiguation. This last story of The Wizard is ingeniously woven out of commonplace material.

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It is, of course, an extravaganza, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to child readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children. There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story.

See also: List of Oz books. Main article: Adaptations of The Wizard of Oz. Oz portal Novels portal. Frank Baum With Pictures by W. Chicago: Geo. Hill Co. Retrieved February 6, — via Internet Archive. Rogers, L. Frank Baum, pp. The New York Times. October 27, Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved December 3, Chicago Tribune.

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  4. Archived from the original PDF on November 28, Retrieved November 28, Salem Press. Grand Rapids Herald. September 16, Archived from the original PDF on February 3, Retrieved February 2, Google Books. Frank ; Hearn, Michael Patrick The Annotated Wizard of Oz. New York: C. The Spokesman-Review.

    Retrieved February 13, Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved November 25, Frank Baum". Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, , p. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Harpers Collins, , p. Archived from the original on April 16, Retrieved October 29, Follow the yellow brick road to Archived from the original on June 10, Library of Congress , December 20, Archived from the original on January 25, The sun and wind had changed her, too. They had taken the sparkle from her eyes and left them a sober gray; they had taken the red from her cheeks and lips, and they were gray also.

    She was thin and gaunt, and never smiled, now. When Dorothy, who was an orphan, first came to her, Aunt Em had been so startled by the child's laughter that she would scream and press her hand upon her heart whenever Dorothy's merry voice reached her ears; and she still looked at the little girl with wonder that she could find anything to laugh at. Uncle Henry never laughed.


    He worked hard from morning till night and did not know what joy was. He was gray also, from his long beard to his rough boots, and he looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke. It was Toto that made Dorothy laugh, and saved her from growing as gray as her other surroundings.

    The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

    Toto was not gray; he was a little black dog, with long, silky hair and small black eyes that twinkled merrily on either side of his funny, wee nose. Toto played all day long, and Dorothy played with him, and loved him dearly. To-day, however, they were not playing. Uncle Henry sat upon the door-step and looked anxiously at the sky, which was even grayer than usual.

    Dorothy stood in the door with Toto in her arms, and looked at the sky too. Aunt Em was washing the dishes.