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Oral healthcare professionals can have an enormous impact on the identification of patients suffering from domestic violence. Management of Implant complications in the esthetic zone is by far the most challenging tasks in implant dentistry. Current classification of biologic com-plications mainly focused on disease progression, extent or etiology. Management of dental pain is accomplished with the use of opioid and non-opioid analgesics. Since the treatment of such pain relies heavily on individual factors, it is essential for the dental professional to not only assess the efficacy of the prescribed analgesics but also monitor for their appropriate use.

Prosthetic space is the three-dimensional space within the oral cavity that includes space for the ideal prosthesis and its associated prosthetic components. Thomas Viola, RPh, C. P , Barbara J. Steinberg, DDS. This course is designed to familiarize the entire health care team with those medical conditions necessitating antibiotic therapy prior to dental treatment.

During this course we will explore the pathogenesis and risk factors of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. As well as look at the recommended management strategies based on the clinical stage at the time of presentation. This lecture will present a systemized approach to treatment planning and case presentation. This comprehensive approach covers the areas of esthetics, function and health. Using the techniques you learned in Session 3, your patient has said yes to dental implants. Now what? This session will explore the team approach to implant placement and restoration from a crown down philosophy.

Content will include background and update on oral health literacy and its potential impact on decreasing dental caries, especially among pregnant women and their children. Involving the entire dental team in the diagnosis and is critical to gaining patient case acceptance. Robert A. In the second session of the Straumann series, we will explore the concept of dental implants as a key treatment option. Implants are a viable treatment option today, and considered the standard of care in many states. Donald A. Curtis, DMD , Dr. Avinash S.

This seminar will discuss systematic reviews on the maintenance of tooth-borne and implant-borne restorations and clinical practice guidelines as the basis for effective maintenance programs. The peri-implant tissue in health and disease and its importance for lasting success in implant treatments. Periodontal disease is one of the most common inflammatory diseases worldwide. Early detection is key in identifying disease sooner than later as well as offering treatment options.

This course will feature the true interdisciplinary approach to tooth preservation. Most of the children and parents are virtuous and will give us plenty of reasons to enjoy what we do. Unfortunately, we all know that something is somehow wrong with these new generations.

A discussion of dental plaque and its etiologic effect on dental caries and periodontitis will initiate the Webinar, which will cover the following. The lecture will describe the characteristics and causes of dental fear and anxiety, as well as how to identify and manage patients with dental fear.

Early diagnosis of the two most common problems dental caries and erosion affecting children and adolescents is critically important to prevent or at least limit tooth surface loss. Are you ready to deliver care to a vast variety of patients? In the 21st century you have the potential to be treating 5 generations of patients in your practice! Ten thousand Americans turn 65 every day. With age comes increasing medical complexity that can affect your delivery of care. Dental caries is a dynamic dietomicrobial disease that involves multiple cycles of demineralization and remineralization before its consequences are expressed clinically.

This seminar discusses about how to manage the pediatric patient in regular general dental office. Especially focused on the patient that may not cooperate for dental treatment. Understanding the health benefits of proper occlusion and how orthodontic care plays a role is a message best delivered by both hygienist and doctor. A systematic and objective approach to accurate recognition, classification and recording of tooth shades in restorative and whitening procedures.

The cigarette has been identified as the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. Framing caries management in children as a public policy issue consistent with healthcare reform currently underway in the US. The desire of our patients who are missing a front tooth is to have a natural and esthetic result. The primary objective of pulp therapy is to maintain the integrity and health of the teeth and their supporting tissues. Women and men have different healthcare needs, and regarding oral healthcare, men and women often require different approaches to treatment.

This presentation will discuss basic nutrition recommendations that can be incorporated into daily practice. This course will address HPV associated head and neck cancers, their characteristics, known risk factors, theories regarding their etiology and roles oral health professionals can assume in their prevention, detection and referral. This course will discuss the latest materials used for direct restorations including resin composites and bonding agents.

For health care providers, clear health communication is about helping patients to understand and act on health care information so they can follow instructions with the goal of improving health outcomes. Management of periodontal disease is important for preservation of the dentition, and also plays a role in general health.

Participants will learn why social media is important for dental practices, how social media can help protect online reputation, which social media tools are most effective today and how other practices manage this type of marketing. Periodontal disease affects a large proportion of worldwide populations and is a principal cause of tooth loss. This program provides practical information on how to be a more effective communicator to facilitate behavioral change.

The presentation will guide the clinician on how to proceed when an oral mucosal lesion is found. This webinar will enable the practitioner to treat and manage the unique concerns that this patient population will present. Analytical methods of determining oxidative modification of DNA. If the desired measurement is chemical modification of bases or sugars, the best method is mass spectroscopic analysis. If this technique is not available, then high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC can be used, but with less capability of determining the specific modification. Antibody-based methods are only applicable for deoxyguanosine.

If the goal is to determine reactive oxygen species—induced fragmentation or base lesions that can disrupt transcription, quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR offers a reasonably simple and quantitative approach. Southern analysis can also provide quantitative information but requires the use of radioactivity. The comet assay can show fragmentation but is difficult to quantify. Hence, indirect methods that involve the measurement of stable end products or biomarkers of oxidative stress have been used to assess oxidative status in clinical and translational studies.

Although several circulating biomarkers are currently used to assess oxidative stress in humans, an ideal biomarker, as defined by Giustarini et al Table 3 , has not yet been identified. Therefore, in human studies, measurements of multiple independent indices of oxidative stress are recommended. Several such biomarkers are currently being measured, primarily in research laboratories, but are not yet routine assays in clinical laboratories because their diagnostic value remains uncertain.

Because of their relatively high stability, products of lipid peroxidation in blood and urine are frequently measured to assess oxidative stress in clinical and translational studies, including lipid hydroperoxides, MDA, F 2 -IsoPs, and HNE. Several clinical studies have used LOOH as an index of peroxidative injury of membrane lipids and oxidative stress. Changes in plasma levels of lipid peroxides have also been measured to document changes in oxidative stress after drug intervention.

MDA is a stable end product of lipid peroxidation and can be measured as an index of oxidative stress; however, few studies measure MDA directly but instead rely on measurement of TBARS in the plasma. It has been reported that plasma TBARS levels are increased in patients with coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, stroke, and aging.

For example, it has been reported that elevated plasma TBARS predict carotid atherosclerotic plaque progression over a 3-year period, as validated by carotid wall thickness measured with ultrasound. Increased circulating and urine levels of F 2 -IsoPs have been demonstrated in various cardiovascular diseases associated with vascular injury, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. As such, it was suggested that F 2 -IsoP might complement conventional risk factors in prediction of cardiovascular events. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that HNE might have a dual role as both a marker of systemic oxidative stress and a contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

A few studies in dialyzed patients demonstrated that the plasma levels of MDA and HNE correlate with severity of cardiovascular disease. Total antioxidant capacity TAC is a measure of the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids and does not take into account the enzymatic antioxidant systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The assay measures low-molecular-weight antioxidants, both water soluble and lipid soluble, and includes urate, bilirubin, vitamin C, thiols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and vitamin E. However, results from large randomized, controlled trials fail to support long-term use of single-antioxidant supplements for cardiovascular prevention because of their lack of benefit or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer.

Although the use of antioxidant supplements has been reported to have no benefit on cardiovascular events in several large randomized, controlled trials, cohort studies still support the protective effects of dietary antioxidants on preventing cardiovascular disease. In particular, antioxidant vitamins and polyphenols exhibit high antioxidant capacity in vitro and cardioprotective effects in vivo. Although TAC assays could shed light on dietary antioxidant effects in specific patient cohorts, there are technical concerns regarding specificity and sensitivity of these assays, and as such, TAC of foods or populations should not yet be used to make decisions affecting population health.

Biomarkers of impaired endothelial function reflect altered NO bioavailability, increased oxidative stress, coagulation, and endothelial inflammation. NO, produced by endothelial cells, is a major determinant of endothelium-dependent vasodilation and is an inhibitor of coagulation, inflammation, and oxidative stress , and consequently has been considered as an important marker reflecting endothelial status.

Because NO has a short half-life, plasma levels of oxidative degradation products of NO, including nitrite, nitrate, and nitrosothiols, have been used as surrogate indices of NO generation. The Griess assay, which is now available in commercial kits, can detect nitrite levels in clinical samples as low as 0. In addition to assessing levels of NO and its metabolites, measurement of asymmetric dimethylarginine, a potent endogenous inhibitor of NOS-derived NO production, can reflect NO bioavailability.


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Considering the important role of ROS and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, there is an increasing need to accurately measure oxidative status in the clinical setting, as well as in translational studies. Current approaches rely on the measurement of circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress Figure 7. However, there are limitations to using such an approach, because 1 circulating levels of ROS biomarkers reflect generalized oxidative status without any information about the tissue or enzymatic source from which the ROS are generated; 2 biomarkers are indirect indices of ROS; and 3 current methodologies lack sensitivity and specificity.

Development of new analytical methodologies should focus on direct measurement of free radicals, using assays that are user-friendly, practical, and of clinical utility. Because the ideal biomarker of oxidative stress has not yet been identified, it is prudent to measure multiple independent biomarkers when evaluating ROS status in humans. Approaches to assess redox status in clinical and translational studies. Schematic showing simplified practical approaches to measuring oxidative status in circulating cells, blood, urine, and cerebral spinal fluid CSF.

These approaches are used primarily in clinical and translational research and are not used as routine assays in clinical laboratories. Decision tree for measuring oxidant status in clinical tissue. Clinical samples blood, tissue, urine can be assayed for pro-oxidant and antioxidant biomarkers with a variety of bioassays. For measuring pro-oxidants, levels of lipid peroxidation or DNA damage can be measured in biological fluids.

ORAC indicates oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Failure to detect changes in oxidative stress after antioxidant supplementation could have several possible causes: 1 Antioxidant pharmacokinetics did not allow sufficient accumulation of antioxidant in the target tissue. It is conceivable that the use of antioxidants targeted to compartments where ROS are generated, such as the mitochondria, might be more effective. However, these molecules have both physiological and pathological roles, and precise measurements are not only desirable but also imperative for consistency across studies.

The principles and analyses in this statement provide a basis for deciding which assays to use in specific experimental conditions, as well as recommendations for common use in various settings. As general guidance, we recommend that any method or assay used for measuring ROS or RNS should be specific, sensitive, and reproducible. Given the highly reactive nature of these species, care should be taken to ensure the stability of the sample during isolation, preparation, storage, and analysis, which is particularly challenging when measuring oxidative modifications that can be influenced by exposure to ambient oxygen.

In addition, we recommend that investigators choose an array of assays that directly and specifically measure the ROS of interest, as well as its particular endpoints, rather than relying on global measures of oxidative stress Figure 9. We also suggest that the values of antioxidants such as glutathione or products of oxidation such as lipid peroxidation products should be reported in absolute rather than relative values.

Values of these metabolites expressed in molar concentrations are particularly useful for intertissue comparisons and for comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. The authors thank Sofia Tsiropoulou for her help with the section on protein oxidation. This table represents the relationships of writing group members that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure Questionnaire, which all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit.

This table represents the relationships of reviewers that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure Questionnaire, which all reviewers are required to complete and submit. The American Heart Association makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel.

Specifically, all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit a Disclosure Questionnaire showing all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest. To purchase additional reprints, call or e-mail moc. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Circ Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug Kathy K. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Circ Res. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are biological molecules that play important roles in cardiovascular physiology and contribute to disease initiation, progression, and severity.

Keywords: AHA Scientific Statements, free radicals, oxidants, peroxides, reactive nitrogen species, reactive oxygen species. Objectives The purpose of this scientific statement is to review current methods for measuring ROS, RNS, and their secondary products; to discuss the strengths and limitations of specific methodological approaches; and to provide guidelines, through expert opinion, for reliable and reproducible techniques for quantifying these species and for elucidating their role in redox-dependent signaling and cell injury. Background Chemically reactive molecules containing ROS or RNS are generated endogenously in most cells during the course of normal metabolism, during disease development, and in response to tissue injury.

Open in a separate window. Measurement of Superoxide, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Redox Status Introduction Many methods have been devised to measure oxygen free radicals and their derived oxidants with various levels of sensitivity and accuracy. Fluorescence Analysis of Hydrocyans Hydrocyanines or deuterocyanines are reduced dyes capable of detecting 1 or more types of ROS. Figure 1. Amplex Red In the presence of H 2 O 2 , Amplex Red is oxidized efficiently by horseradish peroxidase to a fluorescent product, resorufin, which can be measured using a fluorescent plate reader.

Mitochondrial Probes MitoB [3-hydroxybenzyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide accumulates in the mitochondria by virtue of a triphenylphosphonium cation component. Recommendations for Measurement of H 2 O 2 Figure 1 provides decision support for choosing a method to measure H 2 O 2. Measurement of Redox Status Redox status refers to the tendency or ability of the tissue or cell to accept more oxidized or donate more reduced electrons. EPR Redoximetry With Spin Probe Hydroxylamines and Nitroxides In oxidized conditions such as those in the postischemic myocardium, cyclic hydroxylamines can serve as a redox substrate to determine the redox activity of tissue specimens using EPR.

RoGFP Another fluorescence-based method to measure redox status involves the use of reduction-oxidation sensitive green fluorescent protein RoGFP probes. Measurement of RNS Introduction The short half-life of NO in biological systems presents unique challenges for its detection and quantification. Detection of NO Detection of NO in biological systems is complicated because of its short half-life, contaminants in laboratory reagents, and the multiple reactions that it undergoes, leading to a variety of end products.

Colorimetric Griess Reaction and Related Methods In the Griess reaction, nitrite-containing media is first treated with sulfanilamide in acidic media to form a transient dia-zonium salt, which then reacts with a coupling reagent, N- naphthyl-ethylenediamine, to form a stable azocompound. Chemiluminescence Ozone-based chemiluminescence provides sensitive NO detection.

Electrochemical Approaches NO can be detected with microelectrodes, most often coated to be selectively permeable to NO and to eliminate other oxidizable substances. Figure 2. Oxidative Modification of Proteins Introduction Amino acid residues of proteins can act as electron donors, leading to covalent modifications of the amino acid chain.

Common Protein Oxidative Modifications in Cardiovascular Cells Proteins are highly sensitive to posttranslational oxidative modifications, which can be reversible by biological antioxidant systems or irreversible. Figure 3. Figure 4. Approaches for Detection of Oxidative Modifications Protein oxidation can be assessed in cultured cells, circulating cells, and tissue by direct and indirect approaches.

Reversible Oxidation: Measurement of Cys Thiol Oxidation Most approaches used to monitor reversible oxidative modifications of Cys thiols rely generally on the efficient trapping of the native redox state of the thiol proteome. Measurement of Methionine Oxidation Methionine oxidation is a promising marker of oxidative stress. Measurement of Sulfenylation Sulfenylation is typically measured with a specific alkylating agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione dimedone. Modification of Proteins by NO Nitrosothiols are important mediators of NO signaling pathways and are likely formed by multiple mechanisms, including nitrosation by N 2 O 3 , radical recombination of thiyl radicals with NO, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions.

Measurement of Protein-Derived Radicals Immuno-spin trapping with anti-DMPO antibodies is a useful approach for detecting protein-derived radical intermediates both in vitro and in vivo. Tyrosine or Tryptophan Modifications Tyrosine and tryptophan nitration are common posttranslational modifications that affect protein structure and function. Recommendations for Measurement Considering the importance of oxidative stress and redox signaling in cardiovascular pathophysiology, unraveling exactly how protein function is changed by oxidation is critical to elucidate molecular mechanisms of disease.

Measurement of Lipid Peroxidation Introduction Because of their highly reactive state, ROS are unable to diffuse away from their site of formation, which often leads to only site-specific alterations. Common Lipid Oxidative Modifications Oxidation of lipids peroxidation when biological material is involved is a complex process, with several free radicals, metastable intermediates, and end products.

Unsaturated Aldehydes Aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy- trans nonenal HNE , malondialdehyde MDA , isoprostanes, and acrolein are major end products of lipid peroxidation. Oxidized Phospholipids In addition to free aldehydes, peroxidation of phospholipids generates carbonyls that remain esterified to the phospholipid backbone.


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Isoprostanes Nonenzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid generates prostaglandin-like compounds that have been measured as reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress in general and lipid peroxidation in particular. Recommendations for Measurement In the design of experiments, the choice of the lipid peroxidation product to be measured will depend on the overall objective of the study Figure 5 ; however, in general, measurement of lipid peroxidation products can provide a useful and informative index of oxidative stress.

Figure 5. Comet Assay The comet assay is a simple method based on gel electrophoresis that enables measurement of DNA strand breaks in cells. Immunoassays The use of antibodies that recognize 8-oxoguanine is another useful technique for analyzing oxidatively modified guanine. Recommendations for Measurement A variety of techniques can be used to assess oxidative DNA base damage, but the choice of the method depends on the nature of the research question Figure 6.

Figure 6. Chemically stable molecule 2. Unsusceptible to artificial generation or loss during storage or processing 3. Directly implicated in the onset or progression of disease 4. Detectable in the target tissue 6. Present in sufficient and quantifiable concentrations 7. Low intravariability and intervariability in humans 8. Determined by an assay that is accurate, precise, specific, sensitive, robust, and interference-free 9. Measurable within a detection range of a reliable and robust analytical method Free of confounding from dietary input or environmental factors Consensus and establishment of reference values and intervals Consensus and establishment of animal models.

Lipid Peroxidation Because of their relatively high stability, products of lipid peroxidation in blood and urine are frequently measured to assess oxidative stress in clinical and translational studies, including lipid hydroperoxides, MDA, F 2 -IsoPs, and HNE. Lipid Hydroperoxides Several clinical studies have used LOOH as an index of peroxidative injury of membrane lipids and oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde MDA is a stable end product of lipid peroxidation and can be measured as an index of oxidative stress; however, few studies measure MDA directly but instead rely on measurement of TBARS in the plasma.

Isoprostanes Increased circulating and urine levels of F 2 -IsoPs have been demonstrated in various cardiovascular diseases associated with vascular injury, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Nonenzymatic Total Antioxidant Capacity Total antioxidant capacity TAC is a measure of the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids and does not take into account the enzymatic antioxidant systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase.

NO and Peroxynitrite as Biomarkers of Endothelial Dysfunction Biomarkers of impaired endothelial function reflect altered NO bioavailability, increased oxidative stress, coagulation, and endothelial inflammation. Recommendations for Measurement Considering the important role of ROS and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, there is an increasing need to accurately measure oxidative status in the clinical setting, as well as in translational studies.

Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Acknowledgments The authors thank Sofia Tsiropoulou for her help with the section on protein oxidation. Disclosures Writing Group Disclosures. Reviewer Disclosures. Footnotes The American Heart Association makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel.

References 1. Toxic DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide through the Fenton reaction in vivo and in vitro. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem. Ferritins: a family of molecules for iron storage, antioxidation and more. Biochim Biophys Acta. Mitochondrial aconitase is a source of hydroxyl radical: an electron spin resonance investigation.

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Abbreviations and acronyms

Role of reactive oxygen species in the antibacterial mechanism of silver nanoparticles on Escherichia coli OH7. A Fenton reaction at the endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the redox control of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Hughes MN. Chemistry of nitric oxide and related species. Methods Enzymol. Detection of superoxide generated by endothelial cells.

Measurement of endothelial cell free radical generation: evidence for a central mechanism of free radical injury in postischemic tissues. Overexpression of human copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase SOD1 prevents postischemic injury. Reactive oxygen species ROS -induced ROS release: a new phenomenon accompanying induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiac myocytes. J Exp Med. Protein thiyl radical mediates S-glutathionylation of complex I.

Zweier JL. Measurement of superoxide-derived free radicals in the reperfused heart: evidence for a free radical mechanism of reperfusion injury. Biochem Pharmacol.

Qualification of MA Gillman to write this book

PEG-SOD and myocardial protection: studies in the blood- and crystalloid-perfused rabbit and rat hearts. Direct evidence for in vivo hydroxyl-radical generation in experimental iron overload: an ESR spin-trapping investigation. J Med Chem. Iron supplementation generates hydroxyl radical in vivo: an ESR spin-trapping investigation.

J Clin Invest. Direct measurement of free radical generation following reperfusion of ischemic myocardium.

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Measurement and characterization of postischemic free radical generation in the isolated perfused heart. Regulation of xanthine oxidase by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Excess NO predisposes mitochondrial succinate-cytochrome c reductase to produce hydroxyl radical. Peptide-based antibodies against glutathione-binding domains suppress superoxide production mediated by mitochondrial complex I. Direct and indirect roles of cytochrome b in the mediation of superoxide generation and NO catabolism by mitochondrial succinate-cytochrome c reductase. Superoxide generation from mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase induces self-inactivation with specific protein radical formation.

Measurement of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular studies. Lipophilic beta-cyclodextrin cyclic-nitrone conjugate: synthesis and spin trapping studies. J Org Chem. Fast reactivity of a cyclic nitrone-calix[4]pyrrole conjugate with superoxide radical anion: theoretical and experimental studies. J Am Chem Soc. Identifying the site of spin trapping in proteins by a combination of liquid chromatography, ELISA, and off-line tandem mass spectrometry.

Michail K, Siraki AG. Anal Chem. NMR spin trapping: detection of free radical reactions using a phosphorus-containing nitrone spin trap. Magn Reson Med. Immuno-spin trapping of DNA radicals. Nat Methods. Nox1 overexpression potentiates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy in transgenic mice.

Atrial fibrillation increases production of superoxide by the left atrium and left atrial appendage: role of the NADPH and xanthine oxidases. Application of a trityl-based radical probe for measuring superoxide. Tetrathiatriarylmethyl radical with a single aromatic hydrogen as a highly sensitive and specific superoxide probe. Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin leads to uncoupling of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in hypertension. Mechanisms of increased vascular superoxide production in human diabetes mellitus: role of NAD P H oxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

The use of acetylated ferricytochrome c for the detection of superoxide radicals produced in biological membranes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Protein oxidation of cytochrome C by reactive halogen species enhances its peroxidase activity. A quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium assay for determining intracellular superoxide anion production in phagocytic cells.

J Immunoassay Immunochem. Superoxide produced by activated neutrophils efficiently reduces the tetrazolium salt, WST-1 to produce a soluble formazan: a simple colorimetric assay for measuring respiratory burst activation and for screening anti-inflammatory agents. J Immunol Methods. Zielonka J, Kalyanaraman B. Hydroethidine- and MitoSOX-derived red fluorescence is not a reliable indicator of intracellular superoxide formation: another inconvenient truth.

Rapid and specific measurements of superoxide using fluorescence spectroscopy. J Biomol Screen. Characterization of in vivo tissue redox status, oxygenation, and formation of reactive oxygen species in postischemic myocardium. Antioxid Redox Signal. The radical trap 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide exerts dose-dependent protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through preservation of mitochondrial electron transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Oxidant stress from nitric oxide synthase-3 uncoupling stimulates cardiac pathologic remodeling from chronic pressure load.

Redox Biol.

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Nox2-induced production of mitochondrial superoxide in angiotensin II-mediated endothelial oxidative stress and hypertension. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy alters intracellular targeting of phosphodiesterase type 5 from nitric oxide synthase-3 to natriuretic peptide signaling.

Measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with fluorescent probes: challenges and limitations. Reduced dye probes for the detection of radical oxygen species.

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US patent US8. Hydrocyanines: a class of fluorescent sensors that can image reactive oxygen species in cell culture, tissue, and in vivo. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. Mitochondrial ROS production under cellular stress: comparison of different detection methods. Anal Bioanal Chem. Simple quantitative detection of mitochondrial superoxide production in live cells.

Lucigenin and coelenterazine as superoxide probes in mitochondrial and bacterial membranes. Anal Biochem. DC isoketal-modified proteins activate T cells and promote hypertension. Detection and differentiation between peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides using mitochondria-targeted arylboronic acid. Methods Mol Biol. Redox properties of iron-dithiocarbamates and their nitrosyl derivatives: implications for their use as traps of nitric oxide in biological systems.

On the use of L, a luminol-based chemiluminescent probe, for detecting superoxide and identifying inhibitors of NADPH oxidase: a reevaluation. Superoxide anion formation from lucigenin: an electron spin resonance spin-trapping study. FEBS Lett. Validation of lucigenin as a chemiluminescent probe to monitor vascular superoxide as well as basal vascular nitric oxide production. Chemiluminescent detection of oxidants in vascular tissue: lucigenin but not coelenterazine enhances superoxide formation. Measurement of vascular reactive oxygen species production by chemiluminescence.

Methods Mol Med. Liu X, Zweier JL. A real-time electrochemical technique for measurement of cellular hydrogen peroxide generation and consumption: evaluation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Tetrahydrobiopterin enhances hydrogen peroxide production by nitric oxide synthase while suppressing superoxide generation: implications for cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy is potentiated in mice overexpressing p22phox in vascular smooth muscle.

Ischemic defects in the electron transport chain increase the production of reactive oxygen species from isolated rat heart mitochondria. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Mitochondrial sources of H 2 O 2 generation play a key role in flow-mediated dilation in human coronary resistance arteries. Vascular oxidant stress enhances progression and angiogenesis of experimental atheroma. Oxidative stress-induced iron signaling is responsible for peroxide-dependent oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein in endothelial cells: role of transferrin receptor-dependent iron uptake in apoptosis. Oxidant-induced iron signaling in doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis.

Hydrogen peroxide differentially modulates cardiac myocyte nitric oxide synthesis. In vivo imaging of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in cardiac myocytes. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments. PLoS One. Response properties of the genetically encoded optical H 2 O 2 sensor HyPer. HyPer a genetically encoded H 2 O 2 probe with improved performance for ratiometric and fluorescence lifetime imaging. ACS Chem Biol. Targeting mitochondria with small molecules: the preparation of MitoB and MitoP as exomarkers of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide.

Using the mitochondria-targeted ratiometric mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure H 2 O 2 in living Drosophila. Nat Protoc. A targetable fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen peroxide in the mitochondria of living cells [published correction appears in J Am Chem Soc. In vivo proton electron double resonance imaging of mice with fast spin echo pulse sequence.

J Magn Reson Imaging. Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for intracellular NADH detection. Cell Metab. Ischemic preconditioning prevents in vivo hyperoxygenation in postischemic myocardium with preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry and redoximetry. In vivo proton electron double resonance imaging of the distribution and clearance of nitroxide radicals in mice. Trityl-nitroxide biradicals as unique molecular probes for the simultaneous measurement of redox status and oxygenation.

Chem Commun Camb ; 46 — Three-dimensional spectral-spatial EPR imaging of free radicals in the heart: a technique for imaging tissue metabolism and oxygenation. Mapping ischemic risk region and necrosis in the isolated heart using EPR imaging. J Magn Reson. Jones DP, Liang Y. The relationship between plasma levels of oxidized and reduced thiols and early atherosclerosis in healthy adults.

J Am Coll Cardiol. Fluorescent protein-based redox probes. Imaging dynamic redox changes in mammalian cells with green fluorescent protein indicators. Real-time monitoring of redox changes in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. Hypoxia triggers subcellular compartmental redox signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. Development of a family of redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein indicators for use in relatively oxidizing subcellular environments. Glutathione-dependent reductive stress triggers mitochondrial oxidation and cytotoxicity.

Methods to detect nitric oxide and its metabolites in biological samples. Kalyanaraman B. Teaching the basics of redox biology to medical and graduate students: oxidants, antioxidants and disease mechanisms. Radi R. Peroxynitrite, a stealthy biological oxidant. Redox signaling in inflammation: interactions of endogenous electrophiles and mitochondria in cardiovascular disease. Adverse medication effects on oral hard and soft tissues will be reviewed.

Detailed descriptions of drug classes associated with each effect will be provided. Management strategies for improving oral health in medicated patients will be discussed. Eating disorders have become a problem that is epidemic on our college campuses with possible life threatening implications. This presentation will address the psychological, medical and dental issues associated with these disorders. Dental management considerations of the eating disordered patient will also be discussed.

Saliva is critical for maintenance of good oral health. Key actions of saliva include: buffering to prevent an acidic oral environment which predisposes to dental demineralization and supply of calcium and phosphate, key substrates for dental remineralization, and protein secretion that enhances the local defenses against infection. Dry mouth can develop due to salivary gland hypofunction or due to pathological dysfunction of the glands. Colgate-Palmolive Company.

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Provider ID Remember Me Forgot your password? Register for free. Xerostomia Affects All Age Groups! Review the proper of nitrous oxide-oxygen minimal sedation to manage patient anxiety. This course is an overview of innovative processes in implant dentistry. Charles Blair,. Melissa Ing, D. Paula Moynihan,. Shu Jung Tracy Lung,.

Oral disease is a health issue experienced by children and adults living in the United States. Daniel G. Pompa, D. On Demand dental Webinar Maximizing success in clinical dental implant practice Dr. The purpose of this program is to understand the utility of risk assessment in dental practice. Paul Feuerstein, DMD. Marco Mazevet,. Or are we being sold a pile of gadgetry? Can you still practice with paper charts, film xrays and a sharp explorer? On Demand dental Webinar Caries management and the older adult Dr. Mark S. Tanya Gibson, DDS.

Lee Brady, DMD. Now What? This symposium will present the data collected from roundtable discussions throughout the US. Are you and your practice health literate? Michael Goldberg, MSc. On Demand dental Webinar Soft tissue is still the issue! Peri —implant tissues in health and disease!

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