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Suitable supplies can be purchased from the Digilent website or through catalog vendors like DigiKey. Power supply voltages above 6VDC might cause permanent damage. The external battery pack must be limited to 5. In other cases the minimum voltage is 3. Voltage regulator circuits from Analog Devices create the required 3. The supply rails are daisy-chained to follow the Xilinx-recommended start-up sequence. Flicking the power switch SW4 will enable the 1. The 1. Each power supply uses a soft-start ramp of ms to limit in-rush current.

The programmable logic is also connected to the interconnect as a slave, and designs can implement multiple cores in the FPGA fabric that each also contain addressable control registers. Furthermore, cores implemented in the PL can trigger interrupts to the processors connections not shown in Fig. For a complete and thorough description, refer to the Zynq Technical Reference Manual, available at www. Unlike Xilinx FPGA devices, AP SoC devices such as the Zynq are designed around the processor, which acts as a master to the programmable logic fabric and all other on-chip peripherals in the processing system.

This process involves the processor loading and executing a Zynq Boot Image, which includes a First Stage Bootloader FSBL , a bitstream for configuring the programmable logic optional , and a user application. The boot process is broken into three stages:. If the BootROM is being executed due to a reset event, then the mode pins are not latched, and the previous state of the mode register is used. Finally, the user application is loaded into memory from the Zynq Boot Image, and execution is handed off to it.

The last stage is the execution of the user application that was loaded by the FSBL. For a more thorough explanation of the boot process, refer to Chapter 6 of the Zynq Technical Reference Manual. The boot mode is selected using the Mode jumper JP5 , which affects the state of the Zynq configuration pins after power-on. The following procedure will allow you to boot the Zynq from microSD:.

When placed in JTAG boot mode, the processor will wait until software is loaded by a host computer using the Xilinx tools. After software has been loaded, it is possible to either let the software begin executing, or step through it line by line using Xilinx SDK. It can be used to initialize the PS subsystem as well as configure the PL subsystem bitstream. The DDR3 uses 1. The two components are organized in a tree topology with a series termination scheme while keeping traces as short as possible and matched. A feature called DCI Digitally Controlled Impedance is used to match the drive strength and termination impedance of the PS pins to the trace impedance.

On the memory side, each chip calibrates its on-die termination and drive strength using a ohm resistor on the ZQ pin. Due to layout reasons, the two lower data byte groups DQ[], DQ[] were swapped. To the same effect, the data bits inside byte groups were swapped as well. These changes are transparent to the user. During the whole design process the Xilinx PCB guidelines were followed. The mid-point reference of 0.

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For proper operation it is essential that the PS memory controller is configured properly. Settings range from the actual memory flavor to the board trace delays. For your convenience the board definition file provided on our website will automatically configure the correct parameters. Training is done dynamically by the controller to account for board delays, process variations and thermal drift.

Optimum starting values for the training process are the board delays propagation delays for certain memory signals. Board delays are specified for each of the byte groups. These parameters are board-specific and were calculated from the PCB trace length reports. The board definition file takes care of mapping the correct MIO pins to the UART 1 controller and uses the following default protocol parameters: baud rate, 1 stop bit, no parity, 8-bit character length.

The pinout can be seen in Table 4. The SD slot is a powered from 3. The connection diagram can be seen on Figure 6.

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Mapping out the correct pins and configuring the interface is handled by the ZYBO board definition file. Both low speed and high speed cards are supported, the maximum clock frequency being 50 MHz. A Class 4 card or better is recommended. Refer to section 3. The ZYBO should never have a peripheral device and a host device connected to these two connectors at the same time. Only those experienced at soldering small components on PCBs should attempt this rework. Many USB peripheral devices will work just fine without loading C The connection diagram can be seen on Fig.

If there is an Ethernet-capable partner connected, the PHY automatically establishes a link with it, even with the Zynq not configured. Table 5 shows the default behavior. The Zynq incorporates two independent Gigabit Ethernet Controllers.

Since the MIO bank is powered from 1. With simple register read and write commands, status information can be read out or configuration changed. The Realtek PHY follows industry-standard register map for basic configuration. Xilinx PCB guidelines also require this delay to be added. The parasitic capacitance of the two loads is low enough to be driven from a single source. On an Ethernet network each node needs a unique MAC address.

On the other hand it features a read-only memory section that comes pre-programmed with a unique identifier. This unique identifier can be read and used as a MAC address, avoiding a possible address conflict on the network. On-board auxiliary buffers and electronic switches control the direction of signals that differ between Source and Sink.

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These signals are summarized Table 6. The CEC function is bi-directional by definition, so it is treated the same no matter what role the port takes. When operating as Sink, the DDC function is required to be implemented so that a connected Source can read out important characteristics of the device.

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Likewise, in Source mode DDC can be used to find out the capabilities of the connected display. HDMI specifications only require terminations on the Sink side, but optional Source-side terminations reduce reflections, resulting in improved signal quality. Implementations on FPGA are required to use certain built-in primitives to properly synthesize the correct clock frequency, serialize the transmission, and keep a lock on the signal.

Check for upcoming reference projects on our website or consult relevant specifications and Xilinx documentation. The ladder works in conjunction with the ohm termination resistance of the VGA display to create 32 and 64 analog signal levels red, blue, and green VGA signals. This circuit, shown in Fig. A video controller circuit must be created in programmable logic to drive the sync and color signals with the correct timing in order to produce a working display system. The following VGA system timing information is provided as an example of how a VGA monitor might be driven in by mode.

CRT-based VGA displays use amplitude-modulated moving electron beams or cathode rays to display information on a phosphor-coated screen. LCD displays use an array of switches that can impose a voltage across a small amount of liquid crystal, thereby changing light permittivity through the crystal on a pixel-by-pixel basis.

Color CRT displays use three electron beams one for red, one for blue, and one for green to energize the phosphor that coats the inner side of the display end of a cathode ray tube see Fig. These particle rays are initially accelerated towards the grid, but they soon fall under the influence of the much larger electrostatic force that results from the entire phosphor-coated display surface of the CRT being charged to 20kV or more. The rays are focused to a fine beam as they pass through the center of the grids, and then they accelerate to impact on the phosphor-coated display surface.

The phosphor surface glows brightly at the impact point, and it continues to glow for several hundred microseconds after the beam is removed. The larger the current fed into the cathode, the brighter the phosphor will glow. Between the grid and the display surface, the beam passes through the neck of the CRT where two coils of wire produce orthogonal electromagnetic fields.

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Because cathode rays are composed of charged particles electrons , they can be deflected by these magnetic fields. As the cathode ray moves over the surface of the display, the current sent to the electron guns can be increased or decreased to change the brightness of the display at the cathode ray impact point. The size of the beams, the frequency at which the beam can be traced across the display, and the frequency at which the electron beam can be modulated determine the display resolution.

Modern VGA displays can accommodate different resolutions, and a VGA controller circuit dictates the resolution by producing timing signals to control the raster patterns. The controller must produce synchronizing pulses at 3. Typical displays use from to rows and from to columns. The overall size of a display and the number of rows and columns determines the size of each pixel. Video data typically comes from a video refresh memory; with one or more bytes assigned to each pixel location the ZYBO uses 16 bits per pixel.

The controller must index into video memory as the beams move across the display, and retrieve and apply video data to the display at precisely the time the electron beam is moving across a given pixel. A VGA controller circuit must generate the HS and VS timings signals and coordinate the delivery of video data based on the pixel clock. The pixel clock defines the time available to display one pixel of information.

Board Overview

Timings for sync pulse width and front and back porch intervals porch intervals are the pre- and post-sync pulse times during which information cannot be displayed are based on observations taken from actual VGA displays. Figure Signal timings for a pixel by row display using a 25MHz pixel clock and 60Hz vertical refresh. A VGA controller circuit, such as the one diagramed in Fig.

You can use this counter to locate any pixel location on a given row. Likewise, the output of a vertical-sync counter that increments with each HS pulse can be used to generate VS signal timings, and you can use this counter to locate any given row. These two continually running counters can be used to form an address into video RAM. No time relationship between the onset of the HS pulse and the onset of the VS pulse is specified, so you can arrange the counters to easily form video RAM addresses, or to minimize decoding logic for sync pulse generation.

The PS has a dedicated PLL capable of generating up to four reference clocks, each with settable frequencies, that can be used to clock custom logic implemented in the PL. The external reference clock allows the PL to be used completely independently of the PS, which can be useful for simple applications that do not require the processor. Figure 13 outlines the clocking scheme used on the ZYBO.

Statistics Dictionary

Note that the reference clock output from the Ethernet PHY is used as the MHz reference clock to the PL, in order to cut the cost of including a dedicated oscillator for this purpose. The pushbuttons and slide switches are connected to the Zynq via series resistors to prevent damage from inadvertent short circuits a short circuit could occur if a pin assigned to a pushbutton or slide switch was inadvertently defined as an output. Here's an illustration:. The lowercase c command is exactly the same, except all three points use relative values.

The S or s command is buddies with the C commands in that it only requires two points because it assumes that the first bezier point is a reflection of the last bezier point from the last S or C command. Bezier Point Final Point. The Q command is one of the easier ones as it only requires two points. The bezier point it wants is a "Quadratic" curve control point.

It's as if both the starting and ending point share a single point for where their control handle end. We might as well cover T at the same time. It's buddies with Q just like S is with C. When T comes after a Q, the control point is assumed to be a reflection of the previous one, so you only need to provide the final point. Final Point. The A command is probably the most complicated.

Or the require the most data, at least. You give it information defining an oval's width, height, and how that oval is rotated, along with the end point. Then a bit more information about which path along that oval you expect the path to take. From MDN :. The first argument is the large-arc-flag. It simply determines if the arc should be greater than or less than degrees; in the end, this flag determines which direction the arc will travel around a given circle.

The second argument is the sweep-flag. It determines if the arc should begin moving at negative angles or positive ones, which essentially picks which of the two circles you will travel around. If you're looking in a recently-released Blink-based browser and you have a mouse, you'll see some hover animations! Turns out you can set path data right in CSS now. For example Wanna know more about SVG? It's seriously cool I promise. I wrote a whole book on it. It's called Practical SVG and it's not very expensive.

Having the browser animating the d property is crazy! But this also leaves a lot of open spaces for vendor specific implementations. For now I can see that Blink is able to animate a path only if the number of vertexes matches, and if the segments are generated with the same commands or their other-case counterparts e. I wrote a similar path function for canvas which shrinks the rather verbose path syntax down to something far more manageable:. Is that a typo? Not sure where you got this information, but there is a relative arc command with lowercase a.

The final point of the arc is relative to the previous end-point. Finally, note that the syntax for the d CSS property that is currently implemented in Chrome is not the final version in the specification. When the feature is stable in all browsers, it should only require a string, not a path function notation. If you want to play with it right away, maybe add both versions. The syntax stuff is verrrrrry interesting. Motion-path which is going to be renamed offset-path already uses path , like this:. It makes more sense to skip the path thing when looking at properties that clearly already take a specific syntax:.

The final spec is to have the property directly match the attribute, except that the value would be a quoted string:. If you want to play around with the current Chrome implementation, try something like this ideally, using a preprocessor mixin to keep yourself organized :. In these cases, the function describes a complete shape, and any shape can be used: circle, ellipse, polygon. The path string syntax will still be used there, and should be available in all these properties. The path function just defines a new shape-function. If in future some spec defines an octagon shape function, it would also be available in all properties that take shapes.

But d is being treated similarly to the individual properties for the other SVG shapes x , y , cx , cy , r , etc. The complete shape whether you get a circle, ellipse, rectangle, or path is still determined by the SVG element type. Another incomplete item.

There are a couple other cool path feature coming in SVG 2, although none of the browsers have implementations of them yet. A relative h command means move forward backward if negative along the current bearing angle, while a relative v command means move perpendicular to that angle. Uppercase B sets the bearing to an exact angle, lowercase b adjusts the angle relative to the tangent angle of the previous path segment.

Amazing resource… Thanks! I can use it on any device at any size!

The SVG `path` Syntax: An Illustrated Guide | CSS-Tricks

I made this CodePen of random SVG paths being generated and morphed into one another just to see what that would look like:. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Ship custom analytics today with Keen. M is just one of many path commands. There are 18 of them by my count. Let's keep using M as an example: M , means "Pick up the pen and move it to the exact coordinates ," m , means "Move the Pen down and right from wherever you currently are. M x,y Move to the absolute coordinates x,y m x,y Move to the right x and down y or left and up if negative values L x,y Draw a straight line to the absolute coordinates x,y l x,y Draw a straight line to a point that is relatively right x and down y or left and up if negative values H x Draw a line horizontally to the exact coordinate x h x Draw a line horizontally relatively to the right x or to the left if a negative value V y Draw a line vertically to the exact coordinate y v y Draw a line vertically relatively down y or up if a negative value Z or z Draw a straight line back to the start of the path So far we've looked at only straight lines.

The superpower of path is curves! There are quite a few different types. Perhaps that concept is familiar from a tool like the Pen tool in Adobe Illustrator: The last of the three points is the end of the curve. Final Point The A command is probably the most complicated. From MDN : there are two possible ellipses for the path to travel around and two different possible paths on both ellipses, giving four possible paths. Joni Trythall's graphic explaining A from her article on SVG paths is pretty clear: Here's written explanations of those curve commands.

C cX1,cY1 cX2,cY2 eX,eY Draw a bezier curve based on two bezier control points and end at specified coordinates c Same with all relative values S cX2,cY2 eX,eY Basically a C command that assumes the first bezier control point is a reflection of the last bezier point used in the previous S or C command s Same with all relative values Q cX,cY eX,eY Draw a bezier curve based a single bezier control point and end at specified coordinates q Same with all relative values T eX,eY Basically a Q command that assumes the first bezier control point is a reflection of the last bezier point used in the previous Q or T command t Same with all relative values A rX,rY rotation, arc, sweep, eX,eY Draw an arc that is based on the curve an oval makes.