Jerry Brown won the Nevada caucus. Clinton swept nearly all of the Super Tuesday primaries on March 10 making him the solid front runner. Clinton won the Michigan and Illinois primaries. Tsongas dropped out after finishing 3rd in Michigan. Jerry Brown, however, began to pick up steam, aided by using a 1— number to receive funding from small donors.
Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut, Vermont and Alaska. As the race moved to the primaries in New York and Wisconsin , Brown had taken the lead in polls in both states. Then he made a serious gaffe by announcing to an audience of New York City's Jewish community that, if nominated, he would consider Reverend Jesse Jackson as a vice presidential candidate.
Clinton then proceeded to win a long streak of primaries leading up to Jerry Brown's home state of California. Clinton chose U. Choosing fellow Southerner Gore went against the popular strategy of balancing a Southern candidate with a Northern partner.
Gore did serve to balance the ticket in other ways, as he was perceived as strong on family values and environmental issues, while Clinton was not. The public's concern about the federal budget deficit and fears of professional politicians allowed the independent candidacy of billionaire Texan Ross Perot to explode on the scene in dramatic fashion—at one point Perot was leading the major party candidates in the polls.
His volunteers succeeded in collecting enough signatures to get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. He compounded this damage by eventually claiming, without evidence, that his withdrawal was due to Republican operatives attempting to disrupt his daughter's wedding. Nancy Lord was his running mate. Lenora Fulani , who was the presidential nominee of the New Alliance Party , received a second consecutive nomination from the Party in Unlike in , Fulani failed to gain ballot access in every state, deciding to concentrate some of that campaign funding towards exposure of her candidacy and the Party to the national public.
Fulani also sought the endorsement of the Peace and Freedom Party of California, but despite winning a majority in that party's primary, she would lose the nomination to Ronald Daniels , the former Director the National Rainbow Coalition. Rather than pursuing a ballot space of her own, Fulani would endorse Daniels's candidacy in California. Fulani and her running mate Maria Elizabeth Munoz received 73, votes 0. Scientist and Researcher John Hagelin from Iowa. The Natural Law Party had been founded in by Hagelin and 12 others who felt that governmental problems could be solved more effectively by following "Natural Laws.
During this and future campaigns, Hagelin favored abortion rights without public financing, campaign finance law reform, improved gun control, a flat tax, the eradication of PACs, a ban on soft money contributions, and school vouchers.
Conservative Political Activist Howard Phillips. The U. Taxpayers Party ran its first presidential ticket in , having only been formed the prior year. Initially Howard Phillips had hoped to successfully entice a prominent conservative politician, such as the former Senator Gordon J. Humphrey from New Hampshire, or even Patrick Buchanan who at the time had only been mulling over running against President Bush he would officially declare in December of ' No one, however, announced any intention to seek the Taxpayers Party nomination; Buchanan himself in the end endorsed President Bush at the Republican National Convention in Houston.
Phillips had been unofficially nominated earlier in the year so as to allow the Party to be able to seek ballot access properly. This was a temporary post that was made permanent in September, with Phillips and Albion Knight being named the official presidential ticket of the party.
U. S. Electoral College: Presidential Election Laws
Under the campaign slogan "God, Guns and Gritz" and publishing his political manifesto "The Bill of Gritz" playing on his last name rhyming with "rights" , he called for staunch opposition to what he called "global government" and "The New World Order", ending all foreign aid, abolishing federal income tax, and abolishing the Federal Reserve System. During the campaign, Gritz openly proclaimed the United States to be a "Christian Nation", stating that the country's legal statutes "should reflect unashamed acceptance of Almighty God and His Laws.
During his campaign, part of Gritz's standard stump speech was an idea to pay off the National debt by minting a coin at the Treasury and sending it to the Federal Reserve. This predates the Trillion dollar coin concept. During August , Gritz attracted national attention as mediator during the government standoff with Randy Weaver at Ruby Ridge , Idaho.
He received , votes nationwide 0. In two states he had a respectable showing for a minor third party candidate: Utah, where he received 3. Political Activist Lyndon LaRouche. While officially running for the Democratic Presidential nomination, Lyndon LaRouche also decided to run as an Independent in the general election, standing as the National Economic Recovery candidate.
LaRouche was in jail at the time, having been convicted of conspiracy to commit mail fraud in December ; it was only the second time in history that the presidency was sought from a prison cell after Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs , while imprisoned for his opposition to U. His running-mate was James Bevel , a civil rights activist who had represented the LaRouche movement in its pursuit of the Franklin child prostitution ring allegations.
In addition to the displayed states, LaRouche had nearly made the ballot in the states of New York and Mississippi.
In the case of New York, while his petition was valid and had enough signatures, none of his electors filed declarations of candidacy; in the cases of Mississippi a sore-loser law was in place, and because he ran in that state's Democratic presidential primary he was ineligible to run as an Independent in the general.
Ohio also had a sore-loser law, but it was ruled in Brown vs. Taft that it did not apply to presidential candidates. LaRouche and Beval drew 22, votes. James Warren , who was the presidential nominee of the Socialist Workers Party , received a second consecutive nomination from the Party on the first of November Warren had two running mates that varied from state to state; Estelle DeBates and Willie Mae Reid , the latter also a resident of Illinois.
Trump’s victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones
Ronald Daniels was the former executive director for the Center for Constitutional Rights , the former director of the National Rainbow Coalition , and the worked on both of Jesse Jackson 's campaigns for the Democratic presidential nomination. Though running an Independent campaign under the label "Campaign for a Better Tomorrow" , Daniels was endorsed by a number of third parties across the states, most notably the Peace and Freedom Party of California; though he had lost that party's presidential primary to Lenora Fulani , the nominee of the New Alliance Party , the delegates at its convention voted in favor of his candidacy —91, the only time it has ever nominated someone other than the winner of the primary.
The campaign also marked the entry of Ralph Nader into presidential politics as a candidate. Despite the advice of several liberal and environmental groups, Nader did not formally run. Rather, he tried to make an impact in the New Hampshire primaries , urging members of both parties to write-in his name. Despite supporting mostly liberal legislation during his career as a consumer advocate , Nader received more votes from Republicans than Democrats.
Fred Mazelis was nominated for Vice President. Halyard and Mazelis drew 3, votes. John Yiamouyiannis , a major opponent of water fluoridation , ran as an Independent under the label "Take Back America". Allen C.
McCone was his running-mate. Yiamouyiannis and McCone drew 2, votes. The Socialist Party nominated J. Brisben and Garson drew 2, votes. Herer and Grimmer drew 3, votes. Dodge and Ormsby drew votes. Drew Bradford was an Independent candidate for the Presidency; he did not have a running-mate.
Bradford drew 4, votes. Eugene R. His running-mate was Joanne Roland. Hem and Roland drew votes. Delbert Ehlers was an Independent candidate for the Presidency. His running-mate was Rick Wendt. Ehlers and Wendt drew 1, votes. James Boren was an Independent candidate for the Presidency, running under the label "Apathy".
His running-mate was Bill Weidman. Boren and Weidman drew votes. Her running-mate was her son, Walter Ray Masters. Masters drew votes. The American Party nominated Robert J. However, for a time neither the Utah or South Carolina state parties would endorse the ticket. Smith and Feimer drew votes. Initially the party had voted not to field a presidential candidate in , but it was later found that the party would need to get at least half a percent of the vote in New Mexico in order to maintain its ballot access in that state.
La Riva and Holmes drew votes. After Bill Clinton secured the Democratic Party's nomination in the spring of , polls showed Ross Perot leading the race, followed by President Bush and Clinton in third place after a grueling nomination process. Two-way trial heats between Bush and Clinton in early showed Bush in the lead, however. On July 9, , Clinton chose Tennessee senator and former presidential candidate Al Gore to be his running mate.
The Bush campaign emphasized its foreign policy successes such as Desert Storm, and the end of the Cold War. Bush also contrasted his military service to Clinton's lack thereof, and criticized Clinton's lack of foreign policy expertise. However, as the economy was the main issue, Bush's campaign floundered across the nation, even in strongly Republican areas,  and Clinton maintained leads with over 50 percent of the vote nationwide consistently, while Bush typically saw numbers in the upper 30s.
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At the Convention, Bush's primary campaign opponent Pat Buchanan gave his famous "culture war" speech, criticizing Clinton's and Gore's social progressiveness, and voicing skepticism on his "New Democrat" brand. After President Bush accepted his renomination, his campaign saw a small bounce in the polls, but this was short lived, as Clinton maintained his lead.
The race narrowed, as Perot's numbers significantly improved as Clinton's numbers declined, while Bush's numbers remained more or less the same from earlier in the race  as Perot and Bush began to hammer at Clinton on character issues once again. The Commission on Presidential Debates organized four presidential debates .
Many character issues were raised during the campaign, including allegations that Clinton had dodged the draft during the Vietnam War , and had used marijuana , which Clinton claimed he had pretended to smoke, but "didn't inhale. Clinton was often accused of being a philanderer by political opponents. Allegations were also made that Bill Clinton had engaged in a long-term extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Only Washington, D.
Even though Clinton roughly received 3. President Bush's It was also the lowest percentage for a major-party candidate since Alf Landon received The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President to the United States. Section 3. No person shall be But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
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The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.
Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.
But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.
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The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.
There upon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. The electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed, in each State, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in every fourth year succeeding every election of a President and Vice President. Whenever any State has held an election for the purpose of choosing electors, and has failed to make a choice on the day prescribed by law, the electors may be appointed on a subsequent day in such a manner as the legislature of such State may direct.
The number of electors shall be equal to the number of Senators and Representatives to which the several States are by law entitled at the time when the President and Vice President to be chosen come into office; except, that where no apportionment of Representatives has been made after any enumeration, at the time of choosing electors, the number of electors shall be according to the then existing apportionment of Senators and Representatives. Each State may, by law, provide for the filling of any vacancies which may occur in its college of electors when such college meets to give its electoral vote.
If any State shall have provided, by laws enacted prior to the day fixed for the appointment of the electors, for its final determination of any controversy or contest concerning the appointment of all or any of the electors of such State, by judicial or other methods or procedures, and such determination shall have been made at least six days before the time fixed for the meeting of the electors, such determination made pursuant to such law so existing on said day, and made at least six days prior to said time of meeting of the electors, shall be conclusive, and shall govern in the counting of the electoral votes as provided in the Constitution, and as hereinafter regulated, so far as the ascertainment of the electors appointed by such State is concerned.
James A. Garfield, who had eloquently campaigned for Sherman. Despite his own reluctance to become a candidate, Garfield won the nomination. Chester A. Tilden , who some thought deserved a chance to avenge his controversial loss of four years earlier. Despite challenges from an impressive slate of contenders , Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, a Union commander during the Civil War and the respected military governor of Louisiana and Texas during Reconstruction , captured the nomination on the second ballot.
Several issues emerged as key concerns during the campaign. While the Republicans stressed the need for strong tariff protection in an effort to curb foreign competition in the economic marketplace, the Democratic platform called for a more-relaxed tariff policy. Both parties favoured civil service reform, although the Democrats pressed the issue more vehemently, accusing both Garfield and Arthur of political corruption. The popular vote totals were much closer, though, with Garfield edging Hancock by fewer than 10, votes.
10 Facts About President Washington's Election
Additionally, 3 percent of voters cast ballots for the Greenback Party , which advocated an expanded currency along with government regulation of labour and industry. For the results of the previous election, see United States presidential election of For the results of the subsequent election, see United States presidential election of The results of the U.
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Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Written By: John M. See Article History. The candidates Because Pres. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica. American presidential election, presidential candidate political party electoral votes popular votes Sources: Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the United States Office of the Federal Register and Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.
Elections, 4th ed.