At the time Jesus Christ was born, the Roman-appointed ruler of Judea was the Jewish king Herod the Great, who, threatened by reports of the birth of the Messiah, ordered the slaying of the children of Bethlehem age two and under see Matthew — Beginning in A. They were first called praefectus and then procurators from the time of Emperor Claudius A.
Pontius Pilate was appointed governor in A. During the Hasmonean era, the legitimacy of the office was increasingly challenged. Under the Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV, the office was sold to the highest bidders, and Herod the Great relegated the office to a marginal role. But with the coming of the Roman governors, the high priest was given greater power so that the office could become a pro-Roman aristocracy.
Introduction to the New Testament
Annas was high priest from A. Annas was so powerful that several of his sons went on to become high priests. The Roman period is generally regarded as ending in A. The events of the intertestamental period help us understand the great desire many Jews felt for the coming of the promised Messiah. After centuries of conquest and humiliation, many felt desperately that only the Messiah could rid them of foreign oppressors and reclaim their national dignity. A basic understanding of the following terms will be helpful as you study the New Testament:.
The term Messiah came to indicate a specific king of Israel of the lineage of David who would one day come to save his people. The Greek equivalent of Messiah is Christos, from which comes the title Christ. At the time of the New Testament, the people were expecting the coming of the Messiah. The area north of Jerusalem, bordering on the north and west of the Sea of Galilee. Jesus was raised in the small Galilean village of Nazareth and spent the majority of His mortal ministry teaching in Galilean towns and villages such as Capernaum, Cana, Bethsaida, Nain, and others.
The area west of the Dead Sea and surrounding Jerusalem. The Savior was not as readily accepted here as in Galilee, particularly by the Jewish leaders, who were the chief priests, scribes, and elders. The area west of the Jordan River and between Judea and Galilee. The Samaritans were descendants of Israelites and foreigners who intermarried and inhabited the land following the Assyrian conquest in the eighth century B.
The animosity between Samaritans and Jews dated back to at least the Persian period. Jews traveling between Judea and Galilee often traveled a longer route near the Jordan River in order to avoid passing through Samaria. Pharisees sought strict observance of the law of Moses and Jewish rituals. They upheld the authority of oral tradition as being of equal value to written scripture.
In general, the Pharisees were a major source of opposition to Jesus Christ. An elite group composed of aristocratic high priestly families who had gained prominence during the Hasmonean period. Though relatively few in number, they held considerable power, especially over the administration of the temple in Jerusalem. They opposed Jesus Christ for His cleansing of the temple, which they regarded as an affront to their authority. They rejected traditions and beliefs not found in the written law of Moses, putting them at odds with the Pharisees and many other Jews. In particular, they rejected belief in angels, immortality, judgment, and resurrection.
These beliefs were the cause of much of the animosity they had toward the Savior. This Jewish council regulated the internal affairs of the Jewish nation. Though Rome retained political power, the Sanhedrin was allowed jurisdiction over the religious laws of Judea as long as it was able to keep the Jews under control. Educated men who made their livelihood as record keepers and as copyists of the scriptures. They supplied scriptures to the growing number of synagogues and also became interpreters and teachers of the law of Moses. Synagogues were Jewish congregations, or the actual buildings where Jews assembled for prayer and worship on Sabbaths, festivals, and other holy days.
The institution of the synagogue became pronounced during the Babylonian exile and the intertestamental period as Jews sought ways to worship the Lord while separated from His temple. Remains of several synagogues dating to New Testament times have been discovered. Jesus and His Apostles taught in such synagogues. Rather than revealing a day-to-day story of the life of Jesus Christ, the Gospels emphasize His atoning mission, as told in the context of His mortal life and ministry.
A Unique Role
John stated that the authors were selective in what they recorded see John Matthew —23 ; —17 ; —9 ; Mark ; ; —31 ; ; —62 ; , Luke —4, 35 ; —11 ; —8, 25—32, 44— John —4, 14 ; —39 ; , 58 ; —37 ; — The first two rows on the overview chart show that Matthew, Mark, and Luke share much of the same content. Even so, each is unique and has much detail that is not shared by the others. The earliest surviving New Testament text dated to the first half of the second century A.
The earliest full manuscripts of individual New Testament books date to around A. After apostolic authority was taken from the earth through the deaths of the Apostles, which resulted in the loss of priesthood keys, the Apostasy accelerated, and diverse and competing groups of Christians claimed scriptural support for their beliefs. As debates over the authenticity and value of various texts intensified, Christians felt a need to gather together an accepted collection of authentic Christian writings. It was generally understood that some writings were authentic and others were questionable, with some being of greater value than others.
Using these criteria, in A.
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This collection was confirmed by the third council of Carthage in A. This may have been a factor in the development of the collection of books now known as the Bible. The earliest complete text of the New Testament is the Codex Sinaiticus, written in the fourth century A. Following is an overview of a few of the major translations of the Bible throughout history. However, because these translations were not closely controlled, church leaders soon became concerned about the many corruptions and variances in the separate texts.
To address this problem, Pope Damasus in A. If, on the other hand, we are to glean the truth from a comparison of many, why not go back to the original Greek and correct the mistakes introduced by inaccurate translators, and the blundering alterations of confident but ignorant critics, and, further, all that has been inserted or changed by copyists more asleep than awake?
The Vulgate was given official sanction at the Council of Trent — To escape religious persecution by a Gothic chief, a Catholic priest named Wulfila sometimes known as Ulfilas fled with his followers from Germany to what is now northern Bulgaria. There, Wulfila translated the Bible from Greek into the Gothic dialect. This version established much of the Germanic Christian vocabulary that is still in use today.
In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, a number of German translations of the Bible were produced, but the German translation that had the greatest influence was the one produced by Martin Luther. Luther was a German priest and theologian, whose break from the Catholic church helped to fuel the Protestant Reformation. He disagreed with many church practices that he felt did not accord with the teachings of scripture, and he came to regard the Bible rather than the church as the reliable source of authority for Christians. After publicly announcing his disagreements with the church in , Martin Luther began to work on translating the Bible into German.
This is believed to be a more accurate historical depiction of the Pharisees, who made debate one of the tenets of their system of belief. The teachings of Jesus found in the synoptic gospels are very different from those recorded in John, and since the 19th century scholars have almost unanimously accepted that these Johannine discourses are less likely than the synoptic parables to be historical, and were likely written for theological purposes.
The gospel has been depicted in live narrations and dramatized in productions, skits , plays , and Passion Plays , as well as in film. Parts of the gospel have been set to music. One such setting is Steve Warner 's power anthem "Come and See", written for the 20th anniversary of the Alliance for Catholic Education and including lyrical fragments taken from the Book of Signs. Additionally, some composers have made settings of the Passion as portrayed in the gospel, most notably the one composed by Johann Sebastian Bach , although some verses are borrowed from Matthew.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The fourth of the canonical gospels. This article is about the book in the New Testament. Not to be confused with First Epistle of John. Matthew Mark Luke John. Apostle Beloved disciple Evangelist Patmos Presbyter. Apocryphon Acts Signs Gospel. Further information: Authorship of the Johannine works.
Further information: Christology.
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- Il piacere (I Grandi Classici della Letteratura Italiana Vol. 2) (Italian Edition).
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Main article: Logos Christianity. Further information: Sacrament. Further information: John the Baptist. Further information: Christian Gnosticism. Further information: Historicity of the Bible. He also notes that the sole exception occurs in the prologue, serving a narrative purpose, whereas the later aphorisms serve a "paraenetic function". Dodd — It holds that the eschatological passages in the New Testament do not refer to future events, but instead to the ministry of Jesus and his lasting legacy.
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Blomberg, Craig The Historical Reliability of John's Gospel.
Books of The Bible: Complete List With Authors
InterVarsity Press. Bourgel, Jonathan Journal of Theological Studies. Brown, Raymond E. The Gospel According to John, Volume 1. Anchor Bible series. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible. Burge, Gary M. In Evans, Craig A. The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Historical Jesus. Burkett, Delbert An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. Carson, D. HarperCollins Christian Publishing. Chilton, Bruce; Neusner, Jacob Judaism in the New Testament: Practices and Beliefs. Combs, William W. Grace Theological Journal.
Culpepper, R. Alan The Gospel and Letters of John. Abingdon Press.
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Edwards, Ruth B. Discovering John: Content, Interpretation, Reception. Discovering Biblical Texts. Ehrman, Bart D. The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture. Oxford University Press. Jesus, Interrupted. Fredriksen, Paula Yale University Press. Harris, Stephen L. Understanding the Bible 7th ed. Hendricks, Obrey M. In Coogan, Michael D. The New Oxford Annotated Bible 3rd ed. Peabody, Massachusetts : Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. Hurtado, Larry W. Kostenberger, Andreas J. Kovacs, Judith L. Journal of Biblical Literature. Kysar, Robert Voyages with John: Charting the Fourth Gospel.
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