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The term applies to a water monster both marine and river , as well as a land monster. Many scholars believe Scripture writers used tanniyn to describe images of dinosaurs in the Bible. Besides giant reptiles, the Bible also includes several references to a monstrous and mighty beast, specifically called Behemoth in the book of Job :. Behold, his strength in his loins, and his power in the muscles of his belly.

He makes his tail stiff like a cedar; the sinews of his thighs are knit together. His bones are tubes of bronze, his limbs like bars of iron. For the mountains yield food for him where all the wild beasts play. Under the lotus plants he lies, in the shelter of the reeds and in the marsh. For his shade the lotus trees cover him; the willows of the brook surround him. Behold, if the river is turbulent he is not frightened; he is confident though Jordan rushes against his mouth.

Can one take him by his eyes, or pierce his nose with a snare? Likewise, a great mythological sea dragon, the ancient Leviathan, appears various times in Scripture and in other ancient literature:. In that day the LORD with his hard and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea. Job —34 describes the twisting, serpent-like Leviathan in terms of a fierce, fire breathing dragon:.

All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you. Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth. Some suppose these creatures may have been among the pterosaurs , or flying reptiles. So far no young earther has given an argument against geological time which has any validity. Click here to read an alternative viewpoint. Enjoyed that? Be the first to discover the best of Premier Christianity magazine in your inbox every Friday afternoon. Premier holds names and addresses on computer for the purpose of keeping supporters up to date with their ministry and other issues of Christian concern.

Sam Hailes reports on the latest furore over the Hillsong worship It's claimed people who identify as creationists are more likely At least six people have been shot dead at a church in northern What began as a single Sydney congregation is now a global church Geologist and priest Michael Roberts is convinced the earth is The international director of Creation Research John Mackay, Tania Harris has learnt to have her own God conversations rather Better known for gangsta rap lyrics about drugs and sex, Snoop Does the age of the earth — or its shape — matter to a Christian?

About this blog. Opinions on the latest trends, topics, news and culture from a Christian perspective. Weekly Newsletter. Blog Archive. You may also like Creationists more likely to believe in conspiracy theories. More World. Six killed in Burkina Faso church attack. How Hillsong conquered the world and changed the way we worship. Get this month's issue free Click here to request this month's issue, free of charge.

Ice layering is a phenomenon that is almost universally observed in ice sheets and glaciers where the average temperature does not rise above freezing. Annual differences in temperature and irradiation cause ice to form differently from year to year, and this generates alternating layers of light and dark ice, much like tree rings. This method is considered a relatively accurate way to measure the age of an ice sheet, as only one layer will form per year.

While there have been a few cases where several layers have formed per year, these incidents do not challenge the ability of ice layering to provide a minimum age, as these false layers can be discerned from the real thing upon close inspection. Currently, the greatest number of layers found in a single ice sheet is over ,, which clearly contradicts the idea of an Earth less than 10, years old.

Even if one were to assume an absurdly high average of ten layers per year, the age demonstrated by this method would still be far greater than that suggested by young Earth creationists. Rock varnish is a coating that forms on exposed surface rocks in arid environments. The varnish is formed as airborne dust accumulates on rock surfaces.

The formation of permafrost frozen ground is a slow process. Because earth is a good insulator and permafrost forms downward from the surface, it would have taken much more than the few thousand years allotted by creation theory to produce some of the deepest permafrost. In the Prudhoe Bay oil fields of Alaska , the permafrost which extends over meters into the ground is believed to have taken over , years to reach present depth. Weathering rinds are layers of weathered material that develop on glacial rocks. The weathering is caused by the oxidation of magnesium and iron rich minerals, and the thickness of this layer correlates with the age of a sample.

Certain weathering rinds on basalt and andesite rocks in the eastern United States are believed to have taken over , years to form. This does not mean that there was only one man alive at that time, but that a single man's Y-chromosomal DNA has out-competed the other strains and is now — not taking into account smaller and less drastic mutations — the only one left.

Because the only factor affecting the makeup of the DNA on the chromosome is mutation , measuring mutation rates and extrapolating them backwards can tell you when this man lived. The most recent calculations put this common ancestor as having lived ,, years ago. There is a female equivalent to Y-chromosomal Adam : Mitochondrial Eve.

Fission track dating is a radiometric dating technique that can be used to determine the age of crystalline materials that contain uranium. As uranium decays, it sends out atomic fragments, which leave scars or "fission tracks" in crystalline structures. Because decaying uranium emits fragments at a constant rate, the number of fission tracks correlates to the age of the object.

Yet it would also yield an age of about , years for certain tektites. A relativistic jet is a jet of plasma that is ejected from some quasars and galaxy centers that have powerful magnetic fields. It is conjectured that the jets are driven by the twisting of magnetic fields in an accretion disk the plate-like cloud of matter found encircling many celestial objects. In super-massive bodies, immensely strong magnetic fields force plasma from the accretion disk into a jet that shoots away perpendicular to the face of the disk.

In some cases, these columns of plasma have been found to extend far enough to refute the idea of a young universe. For example, the quasar PKS has a relativistic jet exceeding one million light years in length. Moreover, these jets are generally billions of light years from Earth, meaning they were at least a million years old several billion years ago, again due to the distant starlight problem.

Space weathering is an effect that is observed on most asteroids. Extraterrestrial objects tend to develop a red tint as they age due to the effects of cosmic radiation and micrometeor impacts on their surfaces. Because this process proceeds at a constant rate, observing the color of an object can provide the basis for a generally reliable estimate. The ages provided by this dating technique exceed millions of years.

The process in which wood is preserved by permineralization, commonly known as petrification, takes extensive amounts of time. Gerald E. Teachout from the South Dakota Department of Game has written that "the mineral replacement process is very slow, probably taking millions of years ". It is true that in the laboratory petrification can be achieved in a matter of months, but petrification is far slower in natural conditions. The Naica Mine of Chihuahua, Mexico is the home of some of the largest gypsum crystals on earth. Specimens in the area have been found to exceed 11 meters in length and 1 meter in width.

Based on classical crystal growth theory, these crystals are older than one million years. The influx of cosmic rays onto the earth continually produces a stream of cosmogenic nuclides in the atmosphere that will fall to the ground.

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By measuring the build-up of these nuclides on terrestrial surfaces, the length of time for which the surface has been exposed can be inferred. This technique can be used to date objects over millions of years old.

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Beryllium 10 Be produced by cosmic rays shows that iron-manganese nodule growth is one of the slowest geological phenomena. It takes several million years to form one centimeter and some are the size of potatoes. It then reaches the Earth via snow or rain. Since it is reactive, it gets absorbed by detritus material, within a timespan of about years — very short compared to its half-life.

Thusly, 10 Be is excellent for use in dating marine sediment.

Young Earth creationism

Amino acid racemization dating is a technique that is used to date fossilized objects up to several million years in age. The naturally occurring amino acid molecules usually possess a carbon center with four different groups joining it: a hydrogen atom , the amino group, the acid group hence the name of the class of molecule and a side chain, which is what distinguishes amino acids. In three-dimensional space, such a molecular topology can occupy one of two configurations.

Convention labels these as D or L, which are referred to as stereoisomers and are essentially mirror images of each other.

The ratio of these two isomers is initially unequal. With only one exception, naturally occurring amino acids used in polypeptide synthesis are in the L form. Over time this will decay to a more balanced state in a process called racemization , where the ratio between L and D stereoisomers will be equal a racemic mixture. Measuring the degree of racemization and other known quantities can show an estimated age of the sample. This is measured fairly unambiguously by the fact that different stereoisomers rotate plane polarised light in opposite directions it is this interaction that determines the D and L labels and so a ratio can be determined by contrasting an unknown sample with a pure D or L sample and a racemic mixture.

By measuring the racemization of the amino acid isoleucine, for example, objects can be dated up to several million years old. While it is true that there can be great variability in the rate at which amino acids undergo racemization, the changes in humidity, temperature, and acidity required to make the oldest known samples conform to a young earth under 6, years view are completely unreasonable.

Such conditions would destroy all traces of the amino acids rather than just leave a racemic mixture of the molecules behind. A stalactite is a mineral deposit that is usually — though not exclusively — found in limestone caves. They are formed on the ceilings of caverns by the slow deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals as they drip, in solution, over the stalactite. These formations take extremely lengthy periods to form; the average growth rate is not much more than 0. With such a slow rate of formation, if the earth were less than ten thousand years old we would expect to see the largest stalactites being not much longer than one metre.

It is true that cases of accelerated growth have been observed in some stalactites, but rapid growths are only temporary, as the rapidly growing stalactites quickly deplete the surrounding limestone. A geomagnetic reversal is a change in the polarity of the Earth's magnetic field. The frequency at which these reversals occur varies greatly, but they usually happen once every 50, to , years, and generally take thousands of years.

This fact is obviously inconsistent with the notion of a young Earth. Moreover, the age of a reversal can be estimated by extrapolation along the sea-floor magnetic strips, assuming constant spreading rates, once a chronology of strips is constructed; such as has been done for a segment 5 million years old. And, beyond that, around reversals are geologically documented, which assuming a low 50, years per reversal would make the Earth at least 8.

Many places on Earth show evidence of erosion taking place over very long time periods. The Grand Canyon , for instance, would have taken millions of years to form using the normal rate of erosion seen in water general scientific consensus had been 6 million years , but new research reported 17 million years as the time it took to form. Milankovitch cycles are cycles of variation of the influx of sunlight, cycles caused by orbit and spin precession effects.

Not only does the Earth's spin precess, but also the Earth's orbit. Its perihelion precesses forward and its orbit pole precesses backward, but in complicated quasi-periodic Spirograph patterns that also involve its orbit eccentricity varying. Combined with its spin precession, we have three main kinds of effects:. These variations affect climate by making high-latitude summers sometimes hot, making them melt glaciers fast, and sometimes mild, making them melt glaciers slowly, letting them accumulate over the years.


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This explains the successful correlation between Milankovitch cycles and continental glaciers' comings and goings during the Pleistocene, the last 2. This work has been extended much further back in time. At first, one might ask if it is possible to do so. But from some calculations, the Earth's spin precession rate has been declining as its rotation rate has declined, but its orbit-precession rates have remained unchanged over at least million years.

In fact, astronomical cycles have been used to improve the timescale from the Oligocene-Miocene boundary to the present. That boundary is now dated at It has been more difficult to do that for the earlier Cenozoic , the Mesozoic, and especially the Paleozoic , since good cyclic sedimentary deposits have been more patchy. Varves are laminated layers of sedimentary rock that are most commonly laid down in glacial lakes.

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In the summer, light colored coarse sediment is laid down, while in the winter, as the water freezes and calms, fine dark silt is laid down. This cycle produces alternating bands of dark and light which are clearly discernible and represent, as a pair, one full year. As is consistent with the old earth view, many millions of varves have been found in some places.

The Green River formation in eastern Utah is home to an estimated twenty million years worth of sedimentary layers. The creationist response is that, instead of once per year, these varves formed many hundreds of times per year.


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There is, however, much evidence against accelerated formation of varves. Corals are marine organisms that slowly deposit and grow upon the residues of their calcareous remains. These corals and residues gradually become structures known as coral reefs. This process of growth and deposition is extremely slow, and some of the larger reefs have been "growing" for hundreds of thousands of years.

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority estimates that corals have been growing on the Great Barrier Reef for 25 million years , and that coral reef structures have existed on the Great Barrier Reef for at least , years. Fossils of dead plankton that layer on the ocean floor are used to gauge temperatures from the past, based on the chemical changes of Crenarchaeota, a primitive phylum of microbe. Much like ice layering and dendrochronology , researchers drill through the ocean floor to extract samples which indicate annual temperature fluctuations in the plankton fossils, or "chemical rings" as it were.

A pioneering expedition to the Arctic Ocean near the North Pole collected samples dating back to over 56 million years of temperature dating. The Baptistina asteroid family is a cluster of asteroids with similar orbits. This group was produced by a collision of an asteroid 60 kilometers in diameter with an asteroid kilometers in diameter. Based on the continuity of fossil deposits and other geological formations between the South American and African tectonic plates, there is much evidence that at some point in history the two continents were part of the same landmass.

Because tectonic drift is an incredibly slow process, the separation of the two landmasses would have taken millions of years. With modern technology, this can be accurately quantified. Recently formed diamonds, however, have very little nitrogen content. A major way synthetic diamonds are distinguished from natural ones is on the basis of nitrogen permeation. It takes long periods and high pressures for the nitrogen atoms to be squeezed into the diamond lattice. Research on the kinetics of the nitrogen aggregation at the University of Reading have suggested that a certain type of diamond, I a diamonds, spend million years in the upper mantle.

The number of impact craters can provide a probable lower limit on the age of the Earth. Asteroid strikes that can produce craters on the order of kilometers across are extremely infrequent occurrences; the chance of an asteroid with an Earth-crossing orbit actually striking the planet has been estimated at 2.

Even if creationists were to present some scenario in which many dozens of large asteroids could hit the Earth in less than 6, years, there are still tremendous problems with this idea. The largest asteroid impacts are some of the most catastrophic events the world has ever seen.