In the first half of the century in Spain, most necklines of women's garments were rounded, baring the collarbone to the shoulder. Another popular design was a high collar, which covered the chest and rose up behind the neck, sometimes to absurd heights. The Burgundian court, in particular, was the paragon of style at the time.
In Spain, however, while men's fashions often imitated the attire of the court at Burgundy, in the early part of the century women's clothing remained independent and more natively Castilian. By the mids the imported v-shaped neckline had come into style. However, no description or illustration of the garments in either contemporary texts or historical studies reveal anything but the most modest of v-necks. Access options available:. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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4.03.2017 – THIS DAY IN HISTORY
The outcome was obvious- French fleet was sunk, but this time, the French managed to sink two Portuguese ships as well. That had not happened for a long time, though it was no big loss. Henrique ordered building of two new ones, but the French fleet was pretty much all feeding fishies. Another French fleet at the bottom of the ocean The First Siege In the beginning of September , the Portuguese once again marched from Portugal and attacked the French in Languedoc.
The result was obvious though- French lost again. French losing another battle After that, Portuguese finally started the siege of Languedoc. Slowly, the fort was starting to crumble, but the French In addition to defensive ideas, they also have Vauban fortifications National Idea and to make it even worse, one of their current advisors was fortification engineer.
To make it simple, the French fort in Languedoc was almost impenetrable. Of course, just almost. It would take time, but the Portuguese cannons will get the job done. Here you go, typical French fortress By the end of the year, Portuguese fought with another French army in Perigord. Again, around 20 soldiers and again, the Portuguese were victorious.
Following the army to Paris, yet another completely destroyed French army happened. And now, French had only soldiers and almost next to nothing manpower. To be fair though, by the end of the year, Portuguese manpower was also about 43 soldiers. Still, the year ended in definite Portuguese advantage. The French must feel pretty strong right now Spanish Surrender The Spanish were soundly beaten.
In Europe, all their provinces were either under Portuguese control or under Portuguese siege. Same for the America- small armies that were the best her colonies could manage while Portuguese army of 10 soldiers marched around and killed them one by one. As for colonies- Spain decided to send colonists to second province in Madagascar, Boina and also to the last available province in the African coast, Delagoa Bay.
Both of them were snapped from Spain a bit later by a small colonial force Portugal had stationed in Africa. One could say Portugal controls an entire continent Dear Spanish! It is not wise to start founding new colonies next to armed Portuguese when you are at war with the latter It was in December when Madrid fell. Burgos was still in Spanish hands and under siege, but Henrique decided it was enough. Spanish were beaten and humiliated enough that the peace was now a good option. With that, the number of Spanish provinces in Iberia was down to 4.
Less the Portugal had in the beginning.
Henrique IV Parte 1 (Portuguese)
To make matters even better, with the conquest of Castilla La Vieja, Portugal separated Madrid from the rest of the Spain. Result- Spanish moved their capital to Asturias, meaning Madrid is up for grabs in the next war. Almost Portuguese Iberian Peninsula In addition to two provinces in Spanish mainland, they lost two colonies in Mexico area. New Spain or more like a New Joke now was forced to give two of her colonies to Portuguese Mexico, consolidating Portuguese rule in America even more. Also, let us not forget the Spanish colonies.
That means Portugal got overall 9 provinces from this war. Gains in the new world Trade Must Flow Despite all the fighting going on, Henrique had to concentrate on other matters as well. It was in summer when he advanced Expansion ideas one notch. Result- Portugal has now yet another merchant. Yay for expansion! He was sent to China, to the second trade node there. In addition, Henrique ordered construction of 10 frigates to support his work.
Now, Portugal has offices in both Canton and Hangzhou. At least the Spain is out of the picture. And perfect too, with them moving their capital. In the next war, Spain will be proud owner of 1 province in Iberia On another note, this is the first time i felt the forced march effects on military power. Meaning, i'm burning it faster then it regenerates.
Vaubain, defensive and advisor makes France a fortress. Hmm, really- like they needed a powerboost! Nikolai - There still are a few nations that make walking a bit difficult. France, and i'd also guess Austria with their Polish union , Denmark and Muscovy. Not much else though. Orlov Kruskayev - The sad case of AI never really able to oppose human player. I'm too fluid for them! Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Apr 12, Messages: 1. Wipe spain off iberia, and if you can, tie up the Mediterranean coast so Italy is 1 natural border. If you haven't already, use the English against the French, ally up, call to war.
They'll help decimate the French as a natural rival, or at the least keep them occupied. They like a good war! Last edited: Apr 24, Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Jun 17, Messages: Yeah, please wipe that stain called Spain off Iberia. Good and meaty update too, just like the doctor ordered!
Nikolai , Apr 24, Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Jul 3, Messages: 1. Awesome work truly!!!!!! Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Dec 25, Messages: Too fluid indeed. Like a good military leader that surprises the enemy at every corner. Well, Iberia is almost on your hands. What happens to the colonies after the Colonial overlord is completely taken?
Orlov Kruskayev , Apr 25, Blog Entries: 0 Joined: Jul 29, Messages: 7. Good progress on the home front. The sooner Spain is completely destroyed, the better. Same goes for their colonies, too. Portugal's green should subsume the hideous Spanish yellow! DensleyBlair , Apr 25, Non, non! Invasion to France The peace with Spain meant something more then just gaining land. In addition, it freed up nearly 50 Portuguese soldiers still engaged with fight with Spain.
Now, the armies were combined and they marched to Bearn and put that province under siege. Rest of the 30 were mercenaries, hired from Italy. Instead of letting them loose, Henrique decided to use them for a bit longer- so they were marched to Provence and put that province under siege. Within first few month, Bearn, Languedoc and Provence were under siege. Moving into France Meanwhile, Portuguese were busy instituting a naval blockade.
All the French European holdings were blocked and the French were having a hard live- how can you live without tobacco and coffee from overseas? Small cafes in Paris went bankrupt one by one. As for the French army- 20 strong army attacked the army sieging Languedoc in May Soon, they were facing 60 Portuguese.
You can probably guess a result- and the Portuguese marched to follow them to Paris, killing off smaller armies en route. In the beginning of July, the French army was wiped out. Sometimes, the enemy really needs to know when to quit After the battle, French had one unit, infantry left. Plus about the same amount of manpower. To be fair, they still had their wealth though and their ability to recruit mercenaries and send them to die pointlessly under Portuguese arms still existed.
And they used it. Same for Portuguese though- Henrique strengthened his main force with mercenaries, so that Portuguese would get less damage from fighting the French. Languedoc was the first one to fall- in December , the province finally surrendered. The previous war with the France and current thus war had been about battles, battles and battles and keeping the French out of Portuguese lands.
Now, there were enough battles that French were on their knees and as a result, first province fell to Portuguese. Of course, when i say first province, i mean in European mainland. For in the New World, Portuguese gained total advantage over the French colonial forces.
Both Portuguese Mexico and real Portuguese soldiers pushed their sieges far into French lands and kept the French pitiful attempts of resistance to bay. Making Peace Over the years, the war turned into some kind of routine. Portuguese kept their sieges and the main army was lingering nearby, stationed mostly in Roussillon. As soon as the French showed some bigger army, they marched in, defeated the French and then annihilated them. And like clockwork, the French showed up during spring and during autumn, usually with an army around 20 men. The fact that previous armies were not successful or that the Portuguese army was nearby did not seem to stop them as well.
Instead, like a clockwork, they arrived, got beaten and fled back. Meanwhile, the French fortresses proved tough nuts to crack. French really know how to build their fortresses. Almost impossible to hurt by cannonfire, slaughter to assault. Huge warehouses full of food to sustain the siege. Portuguese, who had been assaulting fortresses all over the world, were helpless. Still, persistence pays off. Both Provence and Bearn were thoroughly surrendered and not even a bird got in or out. That finally worked- when rats became delicacy in both fortresses and dogs became man's best lunch, the time for surrender was nearby.
Bearn was the first to fall, in February The siege had lasted days- nearly two years. That really took time As for Provence, in the end, the Portuguese had 43 soldiers sieging the province, the ports were blockaded by Portuguese fleets and total of cannons were aimed at the fortress. All that did their work- in April , Provence also fell.
That was one tough fortress to crack During the last few years, even the Portuguese populace grew restless. The war was already won, the people said. The wargoal is achieved and the French defeated, but the King must continue the war. It also added to the weariness from war, but Henrique remained adamant. No peace before the French are utterly defeated. With the fall of Provence, the French were just that. One day after the fall of Provence, Portuguese forced the French into peace. Total six provinces in Cosmopolitane Mexico go to either Portugal or Portuguese Mexico- meaning the colonies got more then they originally asked for.
Of course, Nouvelle Flanders is still another powerhouse in the area, but Mexico seems to be doing just all mighty and powerful as well. America after the peace Most importantly though, Portugal gained Bearn, Languedoc and Provence from France, meaning two things. First, they cut off France from the Mediterranean. Second, they created landbridge to Italy.
Yes, there was still Milan between Portuguese main holdings and Italian territories, but you can guess how long it will last- especially when they keep being trusted allies of Spain.
Generation Lost The price of victory was a costly one. Before the war started, Portugal had over in reserve manpower. Now, they had none and were over 40 short. When you add the natural growth of manpower during the war, the Portuguese left well over soldiers dead on the battlefield, or to attrition and diseases. The war demanded one generation of young men In addition, there were dead mercenaries as well, perhaps around 50 Fighting the French is costly.
That is one costly war In addition, for the first time, Portuguese overextension exceeded the limit. For a short while though, for the Spanish provinces were already properly integrated into Portugal. And the cost of integrating French provinces was sky-high. On the bright side though, Portuguese were victorious. They defeated both French and Spanish and gained 9 provinces from Spain and 9 from France in that war. Though the Mediterranean sea was slowly becoming pond of no importance, the Portuguese dominance over it was becoming more certain with every passing day- and throwing a competitor like France out of it was no small feat.
In addition, the Portuguese cemented their ownership of Africa. Owning an entire continent- not bad. Sub-Saharan Africa, almost all Portuguese. Last edited: Apr 26, You know, the French are really annoying. Not just because they are immensly powerful and hard to crack. In addition, of their different army bonuses, they managed to complete defensive and aristocracy ideas. Meaning conquering them is truly a bitch, pardon my French. Still, now it is done! Denmark might make a tempting ally, but i don't want to get involved in wars that have no consequence for ne Nikolai - Well, it takes two more wars and Spain is out!
And it goes on until the end date arrives or Portugal comes too overpowered! Orlov Kruskayev - I actually have no idea. My guess is that they become free- but i'm not completely taking Spain. They still have holdings in Australia and America and some islands and Honshu island in Japan. DensleyBlair - Well, i'm trying my best! And the new colonial system helps a bit too, my colonies are also trying their best! Provence and Languedoc? I sense some Italian Ambition there? When you stop to think, that's a whole lot of soldiers dead I wish there was some system maybe for Victoria II that deals with a portion of soldier lost to "attrition" appear as population in the land they are.
It would be nice. Western Rome is slowly forming. Nikolai , Apr 25, Celestial Empire Recovery Not much happened in the following years. Portugal was still recovering from the war with the French and the overextension also prevented further expansion. Result- Henrique was left with pretty much nothing to do. Some scandals in the court, some political crises, but nothing out of the ordinary. The usual crises. Getting expensive though. Perhaps most importantly- by , Alvaro Nunes Bareto, last of the Portuguese great explorers, had mapped the Pacific Ocean.
Pacific, teeming with small islands, was now waiting for Portuguese colonists Pacific Ocean at her full glory During that time, Portugal also advanced their technology. New type of infantry was introduced- the Caroline infantry. Based on Northern traditions, the Portuguese tactic would now be shoot a devastating volleys on enemies and then, charge. As aggressive tactic as Portuguese traditions allow. In addition, production was advanced. Advancement of technology Portugal also adapted new type of frigate.
Some call it the pinnacle of frigate design. It was heavily armed and with strong hull, but still maintained the agility of the lighter ships.. And boy, there were beautiful! Just the tools Portugal needed to rule the seas New improved frigates It was by that Portugal was recovered enough that Henrique thought it would be a good idea to go to war again.
The target this time was as much away from Europe as possible. The biggest beast of the East- Chinese Empire. Of China The Celestial Empire. Powerhouse in the Asia. One of the biggest nations in the world. They have broken their isolation too occasionally- for example, conquering the Mongol Khanate, vassalizing Manchu and reaching the Indian Ocean. Compared to Portugal- weak. To be fair, the Chinese can give any of their neighbouring nations trouble. When going against the advanced European weapons and tactics, they should not give so much trouble. China at her full glory Also, the Chinese call themselves Ming, though they are ruled by the Zhu dynasty.
Emperor Qin I is capable sort, but the overall bureaucracy brings the Chinese down. Portugal already owns two provinces in China. Or rather, two islands.
Braga day trip and suggested tour and itinerary
Taiwan, settled by Portuguese in and Hainan, taken from Zhou and Portuguese since With them, Portugal has already established themselves firmly in the Canton node are and trade is flowing from there to Malacca. With this war, Henrique plans to expand his influence over Canton and also, open up new trade in Hangzhou Empires Clash It was in February when all was ready. Portugal had 40 men stationed in the Isle of Hainan and when the declaration of war was given, they were transported to Jiangmen, just across a small strait to the mainland China. From there, 20 were sieging Jiangmen and another 20 marched on to Guangzhou, the other target of this war.