So rather than wait until an assignment is done to point out all the ways a student can improve, find ways to give them specific pointers while they work, and only one thing at a time, so students can process and act on it right away. No one particularly likes giving criticism. So the tendency is to either avoid giving feedback altogether or to disguise it as a praise sandwich, where we basically slip one piece of criticism in between two very, very surface level gauzy praises.
People want the truth. So if a student regularly forgets to bring materials to class, rather than simply telling him to change, help him make a specific plan for improvement. Ideally, that plan should have lots of small steps to make it achievable, and the student should take the lead in developing that plan. It happens in groups and across and within organizations. And when we dump that command and control nature of traditional feedback, we make room for something much more collaborative and shared.
So rather than give feedback in a top-down, hierarchical model, open up more pathways for people to get feedback from their peers, even those whose jobs might on the surface have little in common with our own. Although it can result in more conflict, the contributions from different points of view usually produce a higher-quality product in the end. This idea can play out in a lot of educational settings: Instead of just having our department head observe our teaching, why not get feedback from someone who teaches a completely different subject?
When students go to the same peers for feedback on their work, have them seek out the opinion of someone new, or consider getting the input of a group of students from a different class or grade level entirely. Doing so can help us, as Hirsch says, stop seeing ourselves just as who we are, but who we are becoming. Tags: assessment , book reviews , social-emotional learning. You make a great case for good practice here. What do you see as the difference, or how does feedforward include or build on formative feedback?
As a school principal, I find myself tuning in more and more to your site because your focus on relevant topics is terrific. This willingness to spend the time to discuss and brainstorm can move the culture to dramatic improvement. Time is the ever-present obstacle, but the possibility of adjusting how we are spending it makes me think. Great Post. Greg Adams Elementary Principal. This fits in quite well with several approaches that are popular in the UK — Assessment for Learning rather than assessment for grading or DIRT dedicated improvement and reflection time — because they all focus on giving students information to move forward.
DIRT in particular gives students an immediate opportunity to improve their work so in a way it did get marked before it was finished. I also have students go back through their assessed work to find their targets so they start with feedback as well.
I am most interested in the feedforward approach as a way of dealing with colleagues — I can see that this would be really useful to have in mind when managing staff as well as during staff meetings! Jennifer, First off, thank you for your blog and podcast! I have benefitted much as a newer in my second year teacher from the quality content that you consistently produce. While listening to this podcast last night and this morning on the way to work, I thought of my own feedback habits and was challenged. Rather than going over a finished product, I know I should be focusing on the writing in progress.
Again, thank you!
What’s Wrong with the Way We Give Feedback?
Respectfully submitted, Shawn. Hey, Shawn! Hi Jen! Any assignment like a test where the writing is done once and turned in needs to be treated as a first draft, which I think many teachers forget. We use Google Docs which let me easily post comments and paste in rubrics. Feedforward control is distinctly different from open loop control and teleoperator systems. Neither open loop control nor teleoperator systems require the sophistication of a mathematical model of the physical system or plant being controlled.
Moving from Feedback to Feedforward
Control based on operator input without integral processing and interpretation through a mathematical model of the system is a teleoperator system and is not considered feedforward control. MacKay as early as While MacKay's work is in the field of biological control theory, he speaks only of feedforward systems. Feedforward is not typically hyphenated in scholarly publications. The discipline of Feedforward Controls was well defined in many scholarly papers, articles and books by the late s. The benefits of feedforward control are significant and can often justify the extra cost, time and effort required to implement the technology.
Control accuracy can often be improved by as much as an order of magnitude if the mathematical model is of sufficient quality and implementation of the feedforward control law is well thought out. Energy consumption by the feedforward control system and its driver is typically substantially lower than with other controls.
Stability is enhanced such that the controlled device can be built of lower cost, lighter weight, springier materials while still being highly accurate and able to operate at high speeds. Other benefits of feedforward control include reduced wear and tear on equipment, lower maintenance costs, higher reliability and a substantial reduction in hysteresis. Feedforward control is often combined with feedback control to optimize performance. The mathematical model of the plant machine, process or organism used by the feedforward control system may be created and input by a control engineer or it may be learned by the control system.
The discipline of modern feedforward control was itself made possible by the invention of microprocessors. Feedforward control requires integration of the mathematical model into the control algorithm such that it is used to determine the control actions based on what is known about the state of the system being controlled. In the case of control for a lightweight, flexible robotic arm , this could be as simple as compensating between when the robot arm is carrying a payload and when it is not.
The target joint angles are adjusted to place the payload in the desired position based on knowing the deflections in the arm from the mathematical model's interpretation of the disturbance caused by the payload. Systems that plan actions and then pass the plan to a different system for execution do not satisfy the above definition of feedforward control.
Unless the system includes a means to detect a disturbance or receive an input and process that input through the mathematical model to determine the required modification to the control action, it is not true feedforward control. In systems theory , an open system is a feed forward system that does not have any feedback loop to control its output. In contrast, a closed system uses on a feedback loop to control the operation of the system.
Feed Forward – Marshall Goldsmith
In an open system, the output of the system is not fed back into the input to the system for control or operation. In physiology , feed-forward control is exemplified by the normal anticipatory regulation of heartbeat in advance of actual physical exertion by the central autonomic network. Feed-forward control can be likened to learned anticipatory responses to known cues predictive coding. Feedback regulation of the heartbeat provides further adaptiveness to the running eventualities of physical exertion. Feedforward systems are also found in biological control of other variables by many regions of animals brains.
Even in the case of biological feedforward systems, such as in the human brain , knowledge or a mental model of the plant body can be considered to be mathematical as the model is characterized by limits, rhythms, mechanics and patterns. A pure feed-forward system is different from a homeostatic control system, which has the function of keeping the body's internal environment 'steady' or in a 'prolonged steady state of readiness.
The cross regulation of genes can be represented by a graph, where genes are the nodes and one node is linked to another if the former is a transcription factor for the latter. A motif which predominantly appears in all known networks E.
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This motif has been shown to be a feed forward system, detecting non-temporary change of environment. This feed forward control theme is commonly observed in hematopoietic cell lineage development, where irreversible commitments are made. In computing , feed-forward normally refers to a perceptron network in which the outputs from all neurons go to following but not preceding layers , so there are no feedback loops.
The connections are set up during a training phase, which in effect is when the system is a feedback system. In the early s, intercity coaxial transmission systems, including L-carrier , used feed-forward amplifiers to diminish linear distortion. This more complex method allowed wider bandwidth than earlier feedback systems. Optical fiber , however, made such systems obsolete before many were built.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Feedforward. DIRT in particular gives students an immediate opportunity to improve their work so in a way it did get marked before it was finished. I also have students go back through their assessed work to find their targets so they start with feedback as well.
I am most interested in the feedforward approach as a way of dealing with colleagues — I can see that this would be really useful to have in mind when managing staff as well as during staff meetings! Jennifer, First off, thank you for your blog and podcast! I have benefitted much as a newer in my second year teacher from the quality content that you consistently produce.
While listening to this podcast last night and this morning on the way to work, I thought of my own feedback habits and was challenged. Rather than going over a finished product, I know I should be focusing on the writing in progress. Again, thank you! Respectfully submitted, Shawn.
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Hey, Shawn! Hi Jen! Any assignment like a test where the writing is done once and turned in needs to be treated as a first draft, which I think many teachers forget. We use Google Docs which let me easily post comments and paste in rubrics. My students will resubmit revised writing up to 6 times so far. I scaffold my feedback. Next, I might identify what in the paragraph needs to be looked at in-text citations, run-on sentences, etc. I find that students learn more meaningfully with the scaffold feedback rather than having me identify each little problem so that they can just fix it without any searching.
Thanks so much for sharing this process, Chris. I am a big believer in multiple submissions for writing pieces. Good evening! Thank you for posting this; I ran it across it from a Twitter retweet and seeing as this is our district priority right now, I felt that this was a really good thing for me to put into my learning bank. What I see with the list that he has identified up above with traditional feedback and feedforward approach run together almost simultaneously. It was great to listen to and hear and I am glad that I had the opportunity to come across this.
As an Instructional Coach, the FeedForward concept really promotes a growth mindset when working with staff and students. Through this concept, a results based environment would begin to cultivate solutions between a coach and a teacher where all are working together to find solutions and feel validated through the FeedForward process. Thanks for your comment. The two appear to be co-dependent — as a result of their physical strain brought on, in part, by hunger , the judges were prone to fatigue.
I chose this article because it ties in well with my own, learner-centered pedagogy and I wanted to see what you had to say on the topic. I believe that by giving individualized feed forward, learners can work to their highest challenge level. I also really connected to the point on redefining group dynamics. By giving peer feed forward, my students are learning in a collaborative environment in which everyone is committed to the improvement of all. Very cool. Too often, feedback is just telling somehow how they did.
That is a really poor definition. Imagine if we truly applied that to teaching.