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Based on Walter S. Avis , et al. Online resource. World Englishes 31 4 : — Easson , Gordon. Eckert , Penelope. Ellemers , Naomi. Ellis , Alexander J. Emenau , Murray B. Fairclough , Norman. Fillmore , Charles. Francis , W. Fries , Charles C. Fuller , Janet M.

Module 5 1 Language change and variation

Gallinsky , Hans. Garner , Bryan A. Geikie , Rev. Gillham , Bill. Glaser , Elvira. Gold , David L. Gold , Elaine. Graddol , David. Gregg , Robert J. Gries , Stefan T. Gulden [Halford] , Brigitte K.

Variation (linguistics) - Wikipedia

Haglund , C. Hamilton , Donald E. Harnisch , Ruediger. Harris , Barbara P. Harris , Robin S. Toronto: The Champlain Society. Hempl , George. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Hickey , Raymond.

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Hickey , Raymond ed. Cambridge: CUP. Hinrichs , Lars. Hiorta , Tomoharu. Hoffman , Michol F. Hoffmann , Thomas. Holm , Kurt ed. Stuttgart: UTB Taschenbuch. Somerset NJ: Wiley Blackwell. Huddleston , Rodney and Geoffrey Pullum. Germanische Sprachen lesen lernen.

Aachen: Shaker. Ireland , Robert J. Jenkins , Jennifer.

Johnson , Daniel Ezra. Johnson , Ellen. Johnson , Keith. Kachru , Braj ed. Oxford: Pergamon. Kachru , Braj. Kennedy , Janice. Kerswill , Paul. Kerswill , Paul and Ann Williams. Kirwin , William. Kloeke , G. II: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Kostinas , Ulla-Britt. Kretzschmar , William A. Kurath , Hans. Kurath , Hans , et al. Labov , William.

The Written Questionnaire in Social Dialectology

Lambert , Wallace E. Lamelli , Alfred. Leitner , Gerhard. Lighthall , W. Lillian , Donna L. Lim , Lisa. Lindquist , Hans. Luick , Karl. Macaulay , Ronald K. The chapters are arranged in three parts, devoted to three different stages of empirical research: data collection, analysis and evaluation. In addition to detailed step-by-step introductions and illustrative case studies focusing on variation and change in English, each chapter addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology and concludes with suggestions for further reading.

This systematic, state-of-the-art survey is ideal for both novice researchers and professionals interested in extending their methodological repertoires. The book also has a companion website which provides readers with further information, links, resources, demonstrations, exercises and case studies related to each chapter. Collecting Empirical Data: Section 1. Fieldwork and Linguistic Mapping: 1. Collecting ethnographic and sociolinguistic data Daniel Schreier; 2.

Using participant observation and social network analysis Lynn Clark and Graeme Trousdale; 3. Computer mapping of language data William A. Kretzschmar, Jr; Section 2. Eliciting Linguistic Data: 4. Designing and conducting interviews and questionnaires Manfred Krug and Katrin Sell; 5. Obtaining introspective acceptability judgements Thomas Hoffmann; Section 3.

Alternatives to Standard Reference Corpora: 6. Analysing Empirical Data: Section 4. Corpus Analysis: 9. Using 'small' corpora to document ongoing grammatical change Christian Mair; Using tag sequences to retrieve grammatical structures Sebastian Hoffmann; Phonetic and Phonological Analysis: Analysing phonetic and phonological variation on the segmental level Ulrike Gut; Analysing phonetic and phonological variation on the suprasegmental level Ulrike Gut; Combinations of Multiple Types of Data: Main theoretical and methodological issues will be discussed based on examples drawn from variation studies.

Our main focus will be the observation, description, and explanation of morphosyntactic variation and change across time and space in Latin America.

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Readings, discussions, and practical sessions will center on theoretical issues and methods of data collection e. Students will acquire knowledge of what the principal axes of syntactic variation in Latin American Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese are, considering the following points:. The contribution of different tools databases, atlases, questionnaires, corpora, internet, descriptive manuals, etc. Different theoretical approaches to the study of linguistic variation. The weight of language contact to establish the boundaries between them and other linguistic variables.

The effect of non-linguistic factors social, cultural, legal, etc. Timetable LAS.