First, a brief review of recent literature on interregionalism and security governance is offered. Second, a general overview of the three interregional dialogue forums is introduced.
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- Architecture as a Performing Art (Ashgate Studies in Architecture);
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- Human Trafficking and Human Security - CRC Press Book.
Third, the methodology of content analysis used in this article is explained, and the quantitative results of the analysis are presented. Fourth, the assessment each dialogue has made of the regional and global security environments is discussed. Fifth, an initial exploratory analysis of the evolution of the three interregional security agendas is made. Finally, some general conclusions are provided. Since the end of the s, the proliferation of interregional dialogue forums had become an important feature of the international arena, both from an academic and a policy perspective.
The evolution of international politics during the first decade of the twenty first century, however, lowers expectations of the positive, transformative power of interregional dialogues and forums. This bi-regional dialogue recognizes a shared commitment to regional integration as a means to promote regional stability, improve prosperity, and jointly address global issues.
It establishes a long-term vision and the commitment to jointly work on achieving common goals and objectives. Some of these analyses have highlighted how the EU has attempted to increase its presence in the world by supporting regional integration efforts in South East Asia, by increasing its political and economic relations with the region, and by trying to balance the enormous influence of the United States and China in that area of the world.
Although this interregional relationship has evolved into a deeper and multifaceted one, uncertainty about its future has grown in recent years. On the one hand, questions arise regarding the political and economic resources which the EU can offer to support processes of integration in other regions, after years of economic crisis, increasing political polarization and uncertainties about the future path of European integration.
The long-standing relation between the EU and LAC combines different levels of interaction - regional, sub-regional and bilateral -, and comprises a wide range of issue areas. Regarding the specific area of cooperation on security matters, in the last two decades, numerous political, operational and technical exchanges and mechanisms have been created to promote and coordinate it; and different studies have been produced to analyze the formal and informal instruments this cooperation has adopted.
Louise Shelley | Global Initiative
Other studies have questioned the supposed effectiveness of the EU-LAC approaches promoted to fight transnational crime, and specifically drug trafficking Selleslaghs Finally, other works have examined the obstacles for the advance of the bi-regional security agenda, particularly its traditional hard-military aspects Malamud and Seabra In January , during the second Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, the Manila Action Plan was adopted, proposing a path to foster mutual understanding and cooperation on different issue areas, but especially to explore and exploit their shared economic potential.
This forum is the only bi-regional dialogue and cooperation space that goes beyond the concept of the Pacific, including countries from the Atlantic and Caribbean basins. The content analysis practiced in this article follows the methodology proposed by Bryman and Elo et al. Aware of these limitations, this study considers content analysis to be adequate for the proposed mapping exercise and preliminary comparative analysis.
The data was obtained by examining thirty-two documents from all three aforementioned interregional forums, from to , produced in bi-regional agreements or negotiations. There are clearly less documents from the FEALAC dialogue, since the first statement of its bi-annual ministerial meetings including a specific agenda on global challenges dates from Before presenting the results, a brief explanation of the procedure followed to assign the raw information from the documents to the categories is needed.
The first step was to identify the key documents guiding the bi-regional dialogues in the last two decades, such as: bi-regional political declarations, bi-regional action plans, or statements of bi-regional ministerial meetings. Once chronologically ordered, they were numbered. The following step was to identify sections in each document referencing two sets of matters: the assessment of the global security environment, and the issues considered regional or global security challenges or threats.
As indicators of subject matters, we have searched for specific key words, such as security, threats, risks and challenges. After the results were obtained, the next step was to develop a preliminary pilot list of issues considered in the documents as regional and global challenges or threats; this first list included thirty-eight categories organized and simplified in a following step.
Two caveats should be made before introducing the categories. Nonetheless, some categories in this study subsume an extremely large number of items because not all documents break down these dimensions in different activities or phenomena. Those matters include: ethnic conflict, foreign fighters, hybrid threats, massive and uncontrolled migration flows, violence against vulnerable minorities, and transnational gangs, among others for an assessment of these matters see OECD ; UNSC Source: own elaboration. This section examines the assessment made by interregional forums of the international security environment in the last two decades, as well as the roles they assign multilateral cooperation to confront global challenges and threats.
The analysis is organized in four different periods: the late s, first half of the s, second half of the s, and the s. Documents from this period show a consensus around two arguments: that the complex phenomenon of globalization brought new challenges and accelerated others, and that, in order to tackle these challenges, more multilateral cooperation was needed ASEAN-EU ; EU-LAC b. During this period, the issues identified as threats or challenges included matters that would become permanent components of both interregional dialogues: terrorism, transnational crime - emphasis on drug trafficking-, proliferation of WMD, the negative effects of environmental degradation, and natural disasters see Figures 1 and 2.
It is important to highlight that during this period the EU-LAC agenda introduced the need to fight racism, xenophobia and intolerance EU-LAC b , and this item has been maintained ever since. Nevertheless, these matters have not been specifically mentioned in any of the documents of the other two bi-regional dialogues. In this period, the number of issues considered regional and global challenges in the ASEAN-EU agenda remained quite the same as in the previous period -between five and six different categories ASEAN-EU a, b, -, and the category of natural disasters was introduced Ibid.
In the case of the EU-LAC dialogue, the issues in the bi-regional agenda increased, and their description became more specific. For example, the documents became more precise regarding the different activities related to transnational crime - trafficking in drugs, people and arms, and human smuggling - ; and new issues were introduced, such as corruption, cyberspace challenges, infectious diseases and pandemics EU-LAC In the case of the FEALAC dialogue, their first joint statement including a common agenda on global challenges was presented in In addition to terrorism and transnational crime, their agenda included corruption, human trafficking, infectious diseases and pandemics, natural disasters, and the negative consequences of climate change FEA LAC Besides recognizing the need for broader and deeper cooperation to address regional and global challenges, another argument was shared by these interregional dialogues: that the roots and effects of regional and global challenges were multidimensional, interconnected and growing ASEAN-EU b; EU-LAC ; FEALAC During the second half of the s, the ASEAN-EU agenda showed a very significant increase in the number of issues considered regional and global challenges see Figures 1 and 2.
Their agenda was broadened to include new categories, such as cyberspace challenges, infectious diseases and pandemics, and sea piracy ASEAN-EU a; b; c; Civil society organizations have also promoted NTS issues in their advocacy work, and the concept has become part of the security lexicon in Asia and beyond Caballero-Anthony Civil society groups across the region have also identified with and promoted NTS issues in their advocate work.
Regarding the number of categories included in the EU-LAC security agenda, it decreased from thirteen different issues in to ten in EU-LAC, , , ; meanwhile, the FEALAC agenda experienced a considerable expansion, reaching up to twelve different categories - including human smuggling and money laundering as new issues. Between and , the international context becomes more complex and challenging. In this setting, rule-based approaches to promote security and prosperity for citizens are said to be essential; as well as effective and inclusive global governance mechanisms to cope with the multifaceted and problematic international environment.
The EU-CELAC dialogue also upheld its willingness to strengthen cooperation in order to face global challenges, and emphasizes the need to promote multilateralism, inclusive global governance and respect for international law EU-CELAC ; a; Regarding the evolution of these interregional security agendas, there are different trajectories in the number and type of issues which have been included - and excluded - in the last two decades see Figures 1 and 2.
This does not necessarily mean that governments from ASEAN and the EU are ready to commit substantial resources, during an extended period of time, to deal with this large agenda. The situation in may reflect an impasse between the risk of being trapped in bi-regional cooperation strategies from the past, and setting the conditions for a paradigm change that could open new forms of cooperation to deal more effectively with regional and global challenges Ayuso and Gratius In this agenda included twelve categories, and in , only four; in , the year of the last observation, it included eight categories, as in FEA LAC ; ; ; ; ; ; This could be related to problems in reaching consensus on a broader agenda, in identifying common security concerns, or even difficulties defining the whole purpose of the interregional dialogue.
Alternatively, it could indicate an agreement to focus on specific issues, increase effectiveness and avoid the dispersion of limited political, economic and institutional resources. However, a limited agenda would not necessarily imply effective actions to respond to common challenges. When it comes to items being included in the bi-regional agendas, they converge around seven key regional and global challenges: terrorism, transnational crime, drug trafficking, natural disasters, climate change, human trafficking, and illicit arms production and trafficking see Figure 1.
It would not be wise, however, to develop high expectations on the premise that the convergence of interregional security agendas could easily translate into common, coordinated and effective actions, since each of these agendas reflects specific regional realities and concerns that may distract resources of all kinds from a common global security agenda Baert et al. At the top, there are terrorism, transnational crime and proliferation of WMD.
In a second bloc, climate change, illicit arms production and trafficking, drug trafficking, human trafficking and natural disasters. In a third, cyberspace challenges, sea piracy and maritime security and safety. At the top: natural disasters, drug trafficking, transnational crime, racism, xenophobia and intolerance, climate change, human trafficking, illicit arms production and trafficking, and terrorism.
In a second bloc: human smuggling, proliferation of WMD, corruption and violence against women. At FEALAC, the most relevant issues can be separated into three blocs: at the top, climate change, natural disasters, and transnational organized crime; followed by terrorism, infectious diseases, corruption and drug trafficking in a second bloc. Although each interregional agenda reflects different regional realities, there has been convergence around seven issues: terrorism, transnational crime, drug trafficking, natural disasters, climate change, human trafficking, and illicit arms production and trafficking.
However, convergence may not reflect a high level of political commitment towards a common global security agenda. In the following lines there is a brief analysis of how certain challenges have evolved in these interregional security agendas. Given the limited space, broader explanations as to why these matters have changed in certain ways cannot be offered. Nevertheless, some initial thoughts are presented on natural disasters and illegal exploitation of natural resources.
East Asia and LAC are regions highly vulnerable to natural disasters; consequently, they have given particular emphasis to these matters in their cooperation efforts. In the ASEAN-EU agenda, the relatively late incorporation of these matters could be related to the specific path followed by EU member states, given their awareness of the impact of natural disasters on them. These matters were introduced in the three interregional agendas after the s, though with different emphasis.
Regarding the assessment these forums have made of the regional and international security environment, they seem to share the view that increasing global interdependencies have created uneven benefits and common, complex challenges.
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Besides considering traditional security threats, these dialogues have progressively warned against the emergence of novel transnational and multidimensional security issues, such as: the impact of climate change, the rise of powerful non-state actors, the expansion of global criminal markets, and the increasing global consequences of health issues. An important discursive change took place during the s, as transnational challenges were said to be threatening not only peoples and states, but also the global multilateral framework.
In regard to the role these interregional dialogues assign multilateral cooperation in confronting regional and global challenges, they share the view that it is only through effective multilateral responses that the international community will be able to cope with them. This is quite relevant in the current moment of the international society, when key state actors are turning their backs on multilateralism, and promoting unilateralism and exacerbated nationalism.
Regarding the evolution of these bi-regional security agendas, it can be noticed that states have increasingly broken down threats and challenges to try to define and confront them more efficiently. In order to acquire more insight on the changing interests, identities, norms and practices which shape interregional security cooperation, further empirical and theoretically-oriented research is needed. Abad, G. Dosch, and O. Jacob, Learn more. Cookies are short reports that are sent and stored on the hard drive of the user's computer through your browser when it connects to a web.
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The purpose of the course is to apply the notion of global governance to six different situations that are linked to peace and security, cooperation and development. How is the global governance of these days different from the community of states emerging after Westphalia in ? The course will then delve into the concept of human security, intended as freedom from fear. In that respect, several aspects will be analysed: the first one is the prohibition of the use of force.
How has this principle developed in international law? The students will explore some of the most recent crises regarding the prohibition of the use of force, including Iraq, Libya and the ongoing Syrian crisis. The second aspect concerns the policing of international crimes.
In that respect, students will analyse the evolution of international criminal law from the Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals to the International Criminal Court ICC , also focusing on jurisprudence, which will provide topics for discussion in class one of them, for example, will be the recent Al-Madhi case, examined by the ICC regarding the destruction of cultural heritage. The difference between international crimes and transnational crimes will be stressed by providing, as a third aspect, a careful analysis of some transnational crimes, such as international terrorism in particular the case of ISIS , money laundering, corruption, human trafficking, illicit trafficking of cultural property, environmental degradation.
The study of global governance cannot exclude international human rights law. The protection of human rights is an essential element of peace and development. In particular, the course will focus on the mechanisms existing at the international level to protect human rights. Some features of WorldCat will not be available.
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