Some argue that the public must step up as well. Experts suggest a variety of methods for African governments to battle corruption, with a special emphasis on transparency and accountability. Anti-corruption reforms can be divided into three categories:. The Kenyan government is beginning to realize that its reputation for high levels of corruption is discouraging foreign investment. There are mixed views on how much influence outside actors can exert over African governments.
Some analysts believe the United States and other Western governments have the power to force greater transparency, particularly in countries that receive significant levels of foreign aid. But international watchdogs say Western governments and multilateral institutions are often hesitant to use the power they have. For instance, when the World Bank agreed to finance the controversial Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline, it claimed it would ensure the subsequent revenues were used for poverty reduction in both countries.
It suspended lending in , but when the Chadian government threatened to cut off oil production, it resumed lending and then relaxed its restrictions on how the government spent oil revenues.
In , it withdrew from the pipeline project altogether; the project continues to have private-sector funding. The United States has attempted to discourage corruption through aid tied to performance on a series of governance indicators. As African governments continue to court foreign investors, including U. The Kenyan government, for instance, is beginning to realize that its reputation for high levels of corruption is discouraging foreign investment.
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But Chinese academics and some U. Critics suggest that China will continue to make deals with corrupt governments, such as its multibillion dollar agreement with the Democratic Republic of Congo, as long as it obtains access to prized natural resources.
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Some analysts argue that one of the most effective ways to reduce corruption is targeting transactions related to natural resources extraction, a major source of revenue in many African countries from the Democratic Republic of Congo to Nigeria. Signing on to EITI is voluntary. Participating countries agree to publish the payments and revenues they receive from oil and mining companies. Countries do not have to include all companies and payments in their reporting, nor do they have to break down payments by individual company.
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- Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa | Council on Foreign Relations?
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As a Revenue Watch report PDF on EITI notes, the initiative does not provide for the declaration of payments that are not related to production of natural resources, such as taxes on cars and salaries to expatriates. Such payments can be significant.
The Five Worst Leaders In Africa
The Potential U. His governments have failed to wean the economy off diamonds, which may run out within 30 or 40 years nobody knows for sure and are anyway becoming costlier to dig out. His fondness for the armed forces has led him to buy an unnecessary arsenal of fighter jets, tanks and armoured vehicles. He has overseen an excessively rigid visa regime, stemming the inflow of talent.
An assistant minister from the ruling Botswana Democratic Party BDP , which has run the show without a break since independence, fears there will be trouble if corruption persists. Mr Masisi has a year and a half until the next election.
Who is Cyril Ramaphosa? South Africa's new leader faces huge challenges | World news | The Guardian
Last time round, in , opposition parties won more votes than the BDP for the first time, but lost because they were divided. If the two main groups can unite, most likely under Duma Boko, an articulate Harvard-educated human-rights lawyer, they would have the best chance yet of displacing the BDP. If the BDP loses, it is assumed that it would graciously bow out.
That is one democratic legacy for which Botswanans could then thank the Khama family. Join them. Subscribe to The Economist today. Media Audio edition Economist Films Podcasts. New to The Economist?
From prison to the rich list: Who is South Africa's new president Cyril Ramaphosa?
Sign up now Activate your digital subscription Manage your subscription Renew your subscription. He was a pioneering young trade union leader, an anti-apartheid activist, and a Nelson Mandela protege who led talks to end white-minority rule and helped write the new constitution. When Mandela walked out of jail in , Ramaphosa was standing beside him. But after missing out on becoming Mandela's successor as president, Ramaphosa instead became a hugely wealthy businessman through stakes in McDonalds, Coca-Cola, mining and telecommunications, and developing a taste for breeding rare cattle.
In , his image was badly tarnished when police killed 34 striking workers at the Marikana platinum mine, operated by London-listed Lonmin, where he was then a non-executive director. Ramaphosa had called for a crackdown on the strikers, whom he accused of "dastardly criminal" behaviour.
He returned to politics to become Jacob Zuma's vice president in , often drawing criticism for failing to speak out against corruption and government mismanagement. Renowned for his patience and strategic thinking, Ramaphosa narrowly beat off pro-Zuma rivals to take over the leadership of the ANC in and then claim the presidency when Zuma was forced out last year.
Ramaphosa's support base crosses South Africa's racial and class divides, but he still faces strong opposition from factions within the ANC. Born in Johannesburg's Soweto township, Ramaphosa took up activism while studying law in the s, and spent 11 months in solitary confinement in Raised in Soweto -- the heartland of the anti-apartheid struggle -- Maimane only joined the DA in and was fast-tracked through its ranks to take control in His rapid promotion led to accusations that he was being used by the party's senior white activists to cover up a lack of reform within the party.
A gifted orator and smooth campaigner, he has kept the DA in the spotlight, broadened its appeal and held together its warring factions. But he has struggled to land punches on Ramaphosa or to convince many black middle-class voters that the DA is not still a "white" party.