Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! In view of the grave consequences of soil degradation on ecosystem functions, food security, biodiversity and human health, this book covers the extent, causes, processes and impacts of global soil degradation, and processes for improvement of degraded soils.
Soil conservation measures, including soil amendments, decompaction, mulching, cover cropping, crop rotation, green manuring, contour farming, strip cropping, alley cropping, surface roughening, windbreaks, terracing, sloping agricultural land technology SALT , dune stabilization, etc. Particular emphasis is given to soil pollution and the methods of physical, chemical and biological remediation of polluted soils.
This book will lead the reader from the basics to a comprehensive understanding of soil degradation, conservation and remediation. Abhilash, Journal of Cleaner Production, April, Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 15 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed.
Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews "The book Continuous no-till cropping systems with cover crops Figure 8 have been found to be particularly effective because of their ability to quickly enhance levels of organic matter near the surface. Langdale et al. Elevated organic matter levels in the top several centimeters of an eroded soil can dramatically increase water infiltration, nutrient cycling and resistance to detachment Franzluebbers The system starts with selective harvesting and pruning of natural vegetation.
Trunks and large branches are used for firewood and timber, while smaller vegetation is spread as mulch. During the first year, farmers broadcast pioneer crops like sorghum and beans, which grow up through the mulch. In subsequent years, maize is the primary crop. The trees and shrubs dispersed throughout fields are aggressively pruned several times a year to produce mulch and prevent excessive shading of crops. The decomposing mulch supplies crops with nutrients, although additional fertilizer is often used New Agriculturalist These layers dissipate the kinetic energy of raindrop impact, improve infiltration and increase water retention Figure The result is improved water availability for crops.
Farmers view the Quesungual System as a method of enhancing crop productivity that also happens to minimize soil erosion Hellin Used with with permission from Steve Fonte. Dallas Timmerman, a grain and livestock farmer in Treherne, Canada, collaborated with Lobb and graduate student Diane Smith to quantify the benefits of landscape restoration.
In the fall of , a two-year project was initiated on four eroded hilltops on the Timmerman farm. Ten centimeters of topsoil were added to half of each hilltop, while the other half was left unamended. In , field pea yields were 64 percent higher on the restored plots. At other project sites near the Timmerman farm, wheat yields and flax yields were percent and 94 percent higher, respectively, on restored hill tops Flookes While the movement of large amounts of soil is inherently energy intensive, precision agriculture technologies offer the potential to optimize the efficiency of topsoil redistribution.
He started by using yield monitor and topographic data to identify areas that performed poorly due to historical topsoil loss. Identifying depositional areas with excess topsoil was the bigger challenge. The next stage of the project engaged graduate students in Agricultural Engineering at Cornell University in an optimization problem.
Working from maps of relative yield and topsoil depth, a team of four students developed software for planning the optimal redistribution of topsoil across an agricultural landscape, taking into account the workload involved in moving topsoil from one place to another Ju Used with permission from Clay Mitchell. Intensive research has evaluated the effects of accelerated water erosion on crop productivity. Loss of nutrients to erosion, while historically significant, is largely reversible using nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.
Soil Erosion Causes and Effects
Loss of hydrologic function is a much more serious challenge but gradual restoration is possible through practices that raise organic matter levels, especially at the soil surface. Farming system strategies that minimize tillage, maximize living cover e. Mechanical redistribution of topsoil from catchment areas to denuded areas, also known as landscape restoration, appears to have promise in some agricultural landscapes, especially when precision agriculture technologies can be used to optimize the efficiency of topsoil transfer.
GIS - an acronym for Geographic Information System, a system designed to store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present geo-referenced data. GPS - an acronym for Global Positioning System, a navigation system using radio communication with a network of 3 or more satellites to determine the location, velocity, and time 24 hours a day anywhere on or above the earth's surface. Mollisols - a soil order in USDA Soil Taxonomy that forms under prairie vegetation and is characterized by a deep dark surface horizon, rich in organic matter.
Ultisols - a soil order in USDA Soil Taxonomy that forms under forest vegetation and is characterized by a high degree of weathering and horizon development, often including very acid sub-soil. Asio, V. A review of soil degradation in the Philippines. Annals of Tropical Research Biggelaar, C. The global impact of soil erosion on productivity I: Absolute and relative erosion-induced yield losses.
Advances in Agronomy The global impact of soil erosion on productivity II: Effect on crop yields and production over time. Brady, N. The Nature and Properties of Soils. Bruce, R.
Prediction, Prevention and Remediation of Soil Degradation by Water Erosion
Characterization of soil-crop yield relations over a range of erosion on a landscape. Geoderma Surface soil degradation and soil productivity restoration and maintenance. Soil Science Society of America Journal Flookes, E. Field Restoration: why organic matter matters , New Ground Franzluebbers, A. Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality. Groffman P. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. Ciba Foundation Symposium Ju, A. Iowa farmer turns to engineering students for hypothetical help reclaiming valuable topsoil.
Cornell Chronicle Online. Keeney, D. The connection between soil conservation and sustainable agriculture. In Advances in Soil and Water Conservation , eds. Ann Arbor, MI: Chelsea, Lal, R.
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Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences Langdale, G. Soil erosion effects on soil productivity of cultivated cropland. Determinants of soil loss tolerance. Special Publication Restoration of eroded soil with conservation tillage.
Soil Technology 5. Larney, F. Early impact of topsoil removal and soil amendments on crop productivity. Agronomy Journal Lindstrom, M. Tillage erosion: Description and process. In Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Montgomery D. Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. New Agriculturalist. Ancient lesson in agroforestry — slash but don't burn. Pimentel, D.
Science Schertz, D. Effect of past soil erosion on crop productivity in Indiana.
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Schrimpf, P. Clay Mitchell: Extreme makeover. Shaxson, T. Optimizing soil moisture for plant production — the significance of soil porosity. Re-thinking the conservation of carbon, water and soil: a different perspective. Agronomie Thompson, A. Trimble, S. Soil Erosion Rates: Myth and Reality.
Wilkinson, B. The impact of humans on continental erosion and sedimentation. Geologic Society of America Bulletin Soil: The Foundation of Agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture. What Are Soils? Food Safety and Food Security. Introduction to the Sorption of Chemical Constituents in Soils. Pests and Pollinators. Soil erosion controls on biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. The Influence of Soils on Human Health. Use and Impact of Bt Maize.
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Aquaculture: Challenges and Promise. Soil Carbon Storage. Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition. Soil Water Dynamics. The Conservation of Cultivated Plants. The Soil Biota. Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. While water erosion continues to be the most serious cause of soil degradation globally, innovative strategies that remediate important soil functions can restore the productivity of eroded soils.
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